Guidelines for Inclusive Teaching and Learning ... 2 GUIDELINES FOR INCLUSIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING

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    GUIDELINES FOR INCLUSIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING

    2010

    EDUCATION WHITE PAPER 6 SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION

    BUILDING AN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND TRAINING SYSTEM

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    GUIDELINES FOR INCLUSIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING

    2010

    Directorate Inclusive Education Department of Basic Education

    Private Bag X895 Pretoria 0001

    (012) 354 4094 Fax (012) 323 7749

    www.education..gov.za www.thutong.org.za/Learningspaces/InclusiveEducation.aspx

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................8

    SECTION ONE ..................................................................................................................... 12

    BARRIERS TO LEARNING AND THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT ...................... 12

    1. Introduction to barriers to learning and development ........................................................ 12 1.1 Disability as a barrier............................................................................................................. 12

    1.1.1 Understanding disability as a barrier to learning and development......................................................12 1.1.2 Policy implications and guidelines for addressing disability as a barrier.............................................13 1.1.3. Language and communication ..............................................................................................................13 1.1.4 Lack of parental recognition and involvement .....................................................................................14 1.1.5 Socioeconomic barriers.......................................................................................................................15 1.1.6 Negative attitudes..................................................................................................................................17

    1.2 The National Curriculum Statement (NCS)........................................................................... 18

    SECTION 2 .......................................................................................................................... 20

    DIFFERENTIATION OF LEARNING PROGRAMMES, WORK SCHEDULES AND LESSON PLANS TO ACCOMMODATE ALL LEARNERS IN AN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SYSTEM ............... 20

    2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 20 2.2 Learner needs and learner profile of a school..................................................................... 20 2.3 Implications for differentiating learning programmes, work schedules and lesson plans

    at special schools, special schools as resource centres, and/or full-service schools . 22 2.3.1 Differentiation and the learner..............................................................................................................22 2.3.2 Differentiation and design of learning programmes.............................................................................22 2.3.3 Differentiation and planning of work schedules ...................................................................................23 2.3.4 Differentiation and lesson planning......................................................................................................24

    2.4 Features of the National Curriculum Statement and differentiation .................................. 25 2.4.1 Designing down ....................................................................................................................................25 2.4.2 The number of learning programmes...................................................................................................25 2.4.3 The weighting of learning programmes................................................................................................26 2.4.4 The duration of learning programmes..................................................................................................26 2.4.5 The formulation of individual support programmes..............................................................................26 2.4.6 Measures for portability ........................................................................................................................27 2.4.7 Decision-making criteria around progression and certification............................................................27

    SECTION 3 .......................................................................................................................... 29

    DIFFERENTIATION AND LEARNING AREAS IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION BAND ............ 29

    3.1 Learning Area: Mathematics ................................................................................................. 29 3.1.1 Learning outcomes and assessment standards ...................................................................................29 3.1.2 Barriers and strategies for differentiation ..............................................................................................30

    3.2 Learning Area: Social Sciences............................................................................................ 35 3.2.1 Learning outcomes and assessment standards ...................................................................................35 3.2.3 Recommendations.................................................................................................................................35

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    3.2.4 Barriers and Strategies for Differentiation.............................................................................................35 3.3 Learning area: Economic and Management Sciences ....................................................... 37

    3.3.1 Learning outcomes and assessment standards ...................................................................................37 3.3.2 Recommendations.................................................................................................................................37 3.3.3 Strategies for differentiation ..................................................................................................................37

    3.4 Learning Area: Natural Sciences .......................................................................................... 38 3.4.1 Learning outcomes and assessment standards ...................................................................................38 3.4.2 Recommendations.................................................................................................................................38

    3.5 Learning Area: Technology................................................................................................... 40 3.5.1 Learning outcomes and assessment standards ...................................................................................40 3.5.2 Recommendations.................................................................................................................................40

    3.6 Learning Area: Arts And Culture .......................................................................................... 42 3.7 Learning Area: Life Orientation............................................................................................. 46 3.8 Learning Area: Languages .................................................................................................... 49

    3.8.1 Learning outcomes and assessment standards ..................................................................................49 3.8.2 Recommendation .................................................................................................................................50

    SECTION 4 .......................................................................................................................... 57

    TEACHING METHODOLOGIES AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION ............................................. 57

    4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 57 4.2 Framework for teaching methodologies .............................................................................. 57 4.3 Multilevel teaching ................................................................................................................ 58

    4.3.1 What is multilevel teaching?.................................................................................................................58 4.3.2 The three-step process in developing a lesson to accommodate diversity.........................................59

    Example .............................................................................................................................. 61

    4.4 Cooperative learning as a teaching strategy ....................................................................... 61 4.4.1 What is cooperative learning?...............................................................................................................61 4.4.2 Grouping ................................................................................................................................................62 4.5.2 Characteristics of effective cooperative learning activities ...................................................................63

    SECTION 5 .......................................................................................................................... 66

    INCLUS