GROUNDED THEORY Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e Grounded Theory 1

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  • GROUNDED THEORYCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory:Definition and BackgroundCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The purpose of grounded theory is to develop a theory for an action or process that is grounded in the viewpoints of the participantsSystematic grounded theory originated in 1967 with Glanzer and Strauss as a contrast to the a priori theoretical orientations in sociology

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory:Definition and BackgroundCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Charmaz (2006) has advocated for a constructivist approach Clark (2006) argues that social situations should be the unit of analysis for grounded theory

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Types of Grounded Theory Studies: The Systematic ApproachCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The approach is systematic and is used to develop a theory that explains a process, action, or interaction.The participants are chosen by theoretical sampling to help the researchers form the best theoriesThe data is collected mainly through 20-30 interviews during multiple visits to the field to saturate categories (happenings, events, documents)

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Types of Grounded Theory Studies: The Systematic ApproachCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The data analysis can alternate with data collectionThe data analysis consists of open coding, axial coding and selective coding with a visual model developed during the axial coding phaseThe theory that is developed is articulated at the end of the study in a narrative statement, visual model or a series of hypotheses or propositions

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Types of Grounded Theory Studies: The Constructivist ApproachCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The approach exists within the interpretive tradition with flexible guidelinesThe focus of the theory is based on the researchers interpretationThe focus in the approach is on learning about the experiences within hidden networks, situations, relationships, and making visible hidden hierarchies of powerThe emphasis in the approach is placed on views, values, beliefs, feelings, and ideologies of individuals

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Types of Grounded Theory Studies: The Constructivist ApproachCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The coding emphasizes the use of active codes such as gerund-based phrases (e.g., recasting life) (Charmaz, 2006) The role of the researcher is not minimized in the processThe researcher brings personal values, experiences to the process as well as making decisions regarding priorities and questions to be asked of the dataThe conclusions are suggestive, incomplete, and inconclusive

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory Research Procedures:Strauss & Corbin (1990, 1998)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Determine if grounded theory is best suited for the research problemFocus research questions on understanding how individuals experience the process and identify the steps in the process

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory Research Procedures:Strauss & Corbin (1990, 1998)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Conduct interviews with 20-30 participantsQuestions focus on the steps in the processAdditional questions focus on what was central to the process, the causes of the phenomenon, the strategies employed during the process, and the effects or consequences that occurredData collection occurs until there is saturation

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory Research Procedures:Strauss & Corbin (1990,1998)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Data collection proceeds in stagesOpen coding researcher forms categories of information about the phenomenon by segmenting the information into dimensionalized categoriesAxial coding categories are assembled into a visual model in which the researcher identifies a central phenomenon (category that describes what the process is), causes, strategies, contexts, intervening conditions, and consequences (outcomes)Selective coding a story line that connects the categories

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory Research Procedures:Strauss & Corbin (1990,1998)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The researcher develops a visual model that portrays the social, historical, and economic conditions that influence the central phenomenonThe theory that results is a substantive-level theory that addresses a specific problem or people

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory Example: Morrow & Smith (1995)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Overview of the studyThe study focused on the survival and coping strategies of 11 women that experienced childhood sexual abuseThe study included an extensive passage on data coding of information and memoingThe authors developed a visual model of the process that was focused around the central category of threatening or dangerous feelings along with helplessness, powerlessness, and lack of control

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory Example:Morrow & Smith (1995) (cont.)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Overview of the methodologyThe authors collected data from personal interviews, focus groups and participant observationThe authors coded the data and formed categories of data (open coding)The data were reassembled into a visual model which consisted of a central phenomenon (central category), causes, contexts, intervening conditions, strategies, and consequences (outcomes)

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory Example:Morrow & Smith (1995) (cont.)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Features of grounded theoryThe authors mentioned that their purpose was to generate a theory using a construct-oriented approachThe grounded theory procedure was discussed and used the framework of systematic grounded theoryThe study included a visual model of the theoryThe language of the article was scientific and objective while at the same time it addressed a sensitive topic with emotion

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Words to Use in Encoding a Grounded Theory Purpose Statement Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Grounded theoryGenerateDevelop propositionsProcessSubstantive theory

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • The Purpose Statement:A Grounded Theory ExampleCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The primary purpose of this article is to present a grounded theory of academicchange that is based upon research guided by two major research questions: What are the major sourcesof academic change? What are the major processes through which academic change occurs? For purposes of this paper, grounded theory is defined as theory generated from data systematically obtained and analyzed through the constant comparative method. (Conrad, 1978, p. 101)grounded theoryElements of Grounded Theory Develop a theoryDescribe a processTheory is based on the data from participantsprocessestheory generatedfrom data

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory: Overall Rhetorical Structure Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Present the theory that developsOften written in a scientific way (e.g., questions, literature review, methodology, findings, discussion) Include open, axial, and theoretical codingDiscuss how the theory relates to existing knowledge

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory: Broad Writing Parameters (Strauss & Corbin, 1990)Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Develop a clear analytic storyWrite on a conceptual level with limited descriptionSpecify the relationship among categories

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Grounded Theory: Embedded Rhetorical StructureCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *Specify variations and relevant conditions, consequences and intervening conditions that impact the theoryVariations in types of data analysis presented: description, categories, linking categories, level of theoryVariations in stating the relationships: discursive statements, formal propositions or hypotheses, a model, storylineVariations in the model or logic diagram: linear, circular

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Challenges of Grounded Theory ResearchCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The researcher needs to set aside theoretical ideas or notions so that the substantive theory can emergeThe researcher may have difficulty in determining when categories are saturated or when theory is sufficiently detailed

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Challenges of Grounded Theory ResearchCreswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eGrounded Theory *The researcher has little flexibility when using the Strauss and Corbin approach; there is little flexibility because the theory that is developed consists of prescribed categoriesThe researcher will find that the Charmaz (2006) approach has more flexibility

    Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e

  • Reporting StructuresIntroduction (problem, questions)Research procedures (grounded theory, data collection, analysis, outcomes)Open codingAxial codingSelective coding and theoretical propositions and modelsDiscussion of theory and contrasts with extant literature(Adapted from Strauss & Corbin, 1990)