Grammar Handout

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What is Grammar?Grammar is the system (arrangement/organization) of a language. It talks about the parts of speech (word categories according to function), syntax (the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences) and morphology (the study of the rules for forming admissible words and the admissible arrangement of sounds in words). It talks about the correct formation of phrases, clauses, and sentences. It talks about the correct usage of a language. Do we need to study grammar to learn a language? Basically, the answer is no. What is your tribes/countrys language? How did you learn to communicate using it? Did you study its grammar first before you learned how to communicate in your tribes/countrys language? Did Americans study grammar first before they learned how to communicate in English? Typically, the answer is no. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words (single units of languages understood by communicators), phrases (group of words standing together as a conceptual unit) and sentences (group of words that convey a complete thought). Nearly all people in the world speak their own, native language without studying its grammar. They did not start learning and using their language with the grammar in mind first. People, especially children, start to speak before they even know the word "grammar". Think of a typical 5-year-old American child. Can he speak in English? Yes. He might not be able to write but he can speak in English. He can convey a complete thought in English. Did he study grammar before learning how to speak in English? No. He learned English because first, people around him use English (i.e. he hears English and he sees [watches] English). Second, people around him use English to communicate with him. And third, he uses English to communicate with them, too. Basically, you need to do the same to learn English and be able to use it fluently. Now, what is grammars role? Why study grammar? If you are serious about learning a foreign language, grammar can help you to learn it more quickly and more efficiently." It's important to think of grammar as something that can help you, like a friend. When you understand the grammar (or system) of a language, you can understand many things yourself, without having to ask a teacher or look in a book. So think of grammar as something good, something positive, and something that you can use to find your way - like a signpost or a map. (1)

Communicating through SentencesAn Introduction to Sentences How do people communicate? Lets begin with the end in mind. We can effectively communicate through conveying complete thoughts; through writing or saying groups of words that are arranged properly (grammatically correct) which we understand fully. These groups of words are called sentences. A sentence has two essential elements:

1. The subject is the doer of the action or the one being talked about in the sentence. 2. The predicate is the information about the subject.

Sample Sentences: Apples are delicious. The student is diligent. The boys ran into the street. God created the world. The telephone rang.

Subject Apples The student The boys God The telephone

Predicate are delicious is diligent ran into the street created the world rang

Nature of Predicate being being action action action

The predicate is a word or a group of words which describe what the subject is (state of being) or what the subject does (state of action). It is composed of at least one verb (word that expresses action or being, to be discussed in detail in The Parts of Speech and in Verbs in Focus). A word or a group of words cannot be a predicate without a verb. A sentence tells a complete message because it has a subject and a predicate. It begins with a CAPITAL LETTER and ends with a punctuation mark a period (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation point (!).1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The tree is tall. (You) clean your room! What is your name?* Paul and Jake helped Amy. The strawberries were made as jams. The man climbed the ladder. A stone fell on the floor. Did a man approach the guard?* Where do you live?* (You) watch out!

*Questions usually have inverted structures, i.e. the predicate (verb) goes before the subjects. In many questions, the subject is in between the main verb and the helping verb (see Verbs in Focus). An English sentence can be composed of at least two words (a subject and a verb-which stand as a oneword predicate) and can still be correct. Lets examine the following sentences. 1.

2. I speak. 3. You jump! 4. He runs.

5. We communicate. 6. They listen.

In the first sentence, the actor (subject) I performs/does the action (verb) speak. It is arranged properly with the subject followed by the verb (S-V Sentence Pattern, to be discussed in a separate chapter Sentences Explored) and is fully understood. Can you identify the subjects and the verbs of the remaining sentences? In the following examples, the subject is in bold type while the predicate is in italics.1. I am intelligent. 2. Roger is a good athlete. 3. Henry Sy became the richest man in the 8. Ella and Bea are cousins. 9. John went home. 10. Bill and Joe fixed the bike. 11. The caller was my best friend. 12. A stray dog entered the kitchen. 13. The girl reads a book. 14. Carlo washed the car. 15. The boys played basketball.

Philippines. 4. Andrew and Ella were in London last month. 5. The book is on the table. 6. The flowers are lovely. 7. Japan is a very rich country.

Usually, predicates start with verbs. The predicates in the first eight examples show being. Those in the remaining seven sentences show action. The subject and the predicate are the essential elements of a sentence. If a group of words lacks a subject, a predicate, or both, then it is not a sentence.

More on Subjects and PredicatesComplete Subjects and Simple Subjects The complete subject is a noun, a pronoun or a group of words which is the doer of the action(s) or the one being talked about in the sentence. It may include modifiers. The simple subject, on the other hand, is the important noun, pronoun or group of words that cannot be taken out of the complete subject. Examples1.

My ever supportive friend provides me very good pieces of advice. Complete Subject My ever supportive friend Simple Subject friend


The new teacher taught English to foreigners. Complete Subject The new teacher Simple Subject teacher


What you told me is interesting. Complete Subject What you told me Simple Subject What you told me

Compound Subject is composed of two or more subjects that have the same verb. The subjects are joined by conjunctions and or or. Examples1. My ever supportive friends and classmates provide me very good pieces of advice.

Complete Compound Subjects My ever supportive friends and classmates Simple Compound Subjects friends, classmates2. The new teacher or the volunteer taught English to foreigners.

Complete Compound Subjects The new teacher or the volunteer Simple Compound Subjects teacher, volunteer3. Anna and her young daughter left the house early.

Complete Compound Subjects Anna and her young daughter Simple Compound Subject Anna, daughter

Other Kinds of Subjects1. Dummy Subject the subject with no concrete reference. Examples: a. It is raining hard outside. b. It is dark inside the room. c. It is not obvious. 2. Hidden Subject the subject before the verb in imperative sentences. Examples:

a.b. (You) stop! c. (You) please forgive me. d. e.

(You) keep up the good work!

(You) give me money.

Complete Predicates and Simple Predicates The complete predicate is the verb or the verb phrase, as well as any modifiers and/or complements that tell what the complete subject is or does. The simple predicate (or simply the verb), on the other hand, is the important verb or verb phrase in the sentence. It cannot be taken out of the complete predicate. Examples1.

The new teacher taught English to foreigners.

Complete Predicate taught English to foreigners (what the subject did) Simple Predicate (verb) taught2.

Karen is the smartest student in our class. Complete Predicate is the smartest student in our class (what the subject is) Simple Predicate (verb) is


My teacher gave us a quiz on grammar and reading comprehension. Complete Predicate gave us a quiz on grammar and reading comprehension Simple Predicate (verb) gave

Compound Predicate is composed of two or more verbs that have the same subject. They are also joined by a conjunction. Examples1. Anna left the house early but arrived late for work.

Complete Compound Predicates left the house early but arrived late for work Simple Compound Predicates (verbs) left, arrived2. The new teacher taught English to foreigners and advised them to practice the

language. Complete Compound Predicates taught English to foreigners and advised them to practice the language Simple Compound Predicates (verbs) taught, advised3. Bob went to the mall and ate dinner in a restaurant there.

Complete Compound Predicates went to the mall and ate dinner in a restaurant there Simple Compound Predicates (verbs) went, ate

The sentences below are skeleton sentences. That is, they are stripped down to only subjects, verbs, and connecting words. Using a pencil, go through them, encircling or writing the subjects and underlining the verbs. Then tell the nature of the verbs whether they sate being or action.1. Sarah laughed and joked. - action 2. Julia and Ben argued and fought. 3. The poet, the artist, and the teacher 6. 7. 8. 9.

spoke. 4. After the game ended, we had lunch. 5. Laughter invigorates, and love binds.

Pass your papers. Because it snowed, we stayed home. When the movie ended, we left. The philosopher and his ideas were exciting.

10. As we watched and waited, the river

13. As we listened, the storyteller entranced

flooded.11. If you go, I stay. 12. Janice wrote and revised.

us.14. He cried while she packed. 15. Watch your spelling!

In the following examples, separate the complete subject from the complete predicate using a slash bar ( / ). Encircle the simple subject(s) then underline and tell the nature of the simple predicate(s) whether it sate being or action. 1.2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The teacher / laughed loudly. - action The flowers bloom in spring. The visitors ate dinner in the kitchen. Azkals scored the goal. Ms. Cruz collected the test papers. Our project won the first prize. Pedro is preparing for the exam. Many people died because of the war.

10. I advise you to study hard. 11. The crowd applauded for his brilliant

performance. 12. The ball is red. 13. The paintings are beautifully created. 14. The students name is Anna. 15. The flower smells fragrant. 16. The cake tastes good.

Kinds of Sentences and their FunctionsExamine the following sentences. 1.2. The book is on the table. 3. Do you like coffee or tea? 4. Please give me money. 5. It was an exciting ride!

What do you think of each sentence? You would notice that sentence 1 is making a statement, sentence 2 is asking a question, sentence 3 is giving a command, and sentence 4 is expressing a strong emotion. The four kinds of sentences are: Kind Function Sample Sentences1. Tom practices how to drive a car.

Declarative Sentence

Gives information; states an idea and ends with a period (.)

2. Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. 3. Sue is beautiful. 4. Jerry is watching a very good movie.

Interrogative Sentence

Asks a question and ends with a question mark (?)

1. What is your name? 2. Why are you happy? 3. Are you going to the city?

4. Do you want to eat rice?

1. Wow!

Exclamatory Sentence

Shows strong emotions and ends with an exclamation point (!)

2. Ouch! 3. What a beautiful lady! 4. Thats silly! 1. Call your sister.

Imperative Sentence

Gives a command and ends with a period (.) or an exclamation point (!)

2. Wash the dishes! 3. Lend me your ears. 4. Stop annoying me!

Notice the beginning letters (CAPITALIZED) and the punctuation marks. In each sentence below, identify using a pencil encircle or write the subject(s) and underline the predicates. Next, identify whether it is declarative (DEC), interrogative (INT), exclamatory (EXC) or imperative (IMP). Use the abbreviations DEC, INT, EXC and IMP. Then tell the nature of the verbs whether it sate being or action.1. Stop and listen! Subject: you, IMP, 14. Was the English test difficult? 15. I don't believe it! 16. Never disturb nesting birds. 17. Tuck your pants inside your socks when

action 2. Sleet and ice kept us housebound last weekend. 3. How much do these sweaters cost? 4. Those shelves smell like lemon oil. 5. Do you think my hair is too long? 6. Let me try it! 7. Did you notice the price of that saddle? 8. There is a Thai restaurant around the corner from us. 9. Hold that pose while I adjust the camera lens. 10. What a mess your room is! 11. Raise the flag at sunrise. 12. Tamara worked long hours to finish her painting. 13. Are you going to Richards party?

hiking. 18. Our new neighbors moved in yesterday. 19. Define the word monsoon. 20. I think blue is my favorite color. 21. Move the picnic table to the shade. 22. Apricot jam is a good glaze for baked ham. 23. How clever of you! 24. Be alert to rapidly changing weather conditions. 25. Give me a chance! 26. Were you born in Montana, or did you move here?

27. Could you help me with my homework

tonight? 28. I cant believe it! 29. Please pass the honey. 30. Listen to me! 31. Wear protective clothing. 32. Kiss the Blarney Stone before you leave Ireland. 33. Thats a great idea! 34. Joachim dressed as a chocolate bar for the costume party. 35. Are you interested in going to a movie? 36. Jane wiped her hand across her forehead. 37. Clear expression is an art. 38. Have you ever seen purple cotton candy? 39. This years starting quarterback is a math genius. 40. Whos going to bring the noisemakers? 41. Did the squirrels eat all the tulip bulbs?

42. Choose one and then pass the rest along. 43. Its a touchdown! 44. Please keep this to yourself. 45. I can do it myself! 46. Run away from trouble. 47. Leave the dance before midnight. 48. Have you ever ridden in a hot-air

balloon? 49. Call 911 in an emergency. 50. This really makes me angry! 51. Be particularly careful with this antique clock. 52. We won! 53. Be careful! 54. Rhoda just set a record for the broad jump! 55. The dense grass felt like smooth carpet.

Introduction to PhrasesA phrase is also a group of words, but unlike a sentence, it does not express a complete thought. It lacks either a subject or a predicate. It is not written with a capital letter and it does not end with a punctuation mark. A phrase is just a part of a sentence. It gives further meaning by naming, modifying, or explaining a word or a group of words in a sentence. Examples: the cities the strawberries the man a stone were made helped Amy as jams climbed the ladder fell on the floor

Write S before the number if it is a sentence and P if it is a phrase.1.

The bus driver missed Kays

house. Aunt Selma cooks delicious breakfast. 3. a vegetable farmer2.

The store serves coffee and sandwiches. 5. We are making plans for summer. 6. Do you like fried potatoes? 7. is scooping ice cream 8. I met Jose in 2001.4.

a person who swims fast about these dogs wood that is used for campfires There is a law against spitting on the ground. 13. which dries clothes 14. Her friends are having fun. 15. only two weeks 16. a broken shoulder 17. I taught Nico a trick. 18. one hot summer night 19. I love my parents. 20. Uncle Simeon often travels abroad.9. 10. 11. 12.

21. 22. 23. 24.

a very bright light Frogs croak. The clown is a funny person. picked up the pieces of broken

glasses An airplane crashed. the chair to your left a girl in a pink gown The Kinder 2 pupils formed straight lines. 29. Come here. 30. as fine silk25. 26. 27. 28.

The Parts of SpeechWord groups/categories that reflect function(s) in a grammatical context.Words are the building blocks of sentences. Without words, there will be no sentences. We construct sentences using words. But we cant construct sentences unless we know what words to use and how they are used. Our knowledge of words and how they are used is called vocabulary. Our use of the English language is dependent on our vocabulary. It dictates the extent of our use of the English language. If we know more English words and how they are used, we can construct more sentences. But if we have limited knowledge of words, our ability to construct sentences will be limited as well. This is why building (or expanding) vocabulary is a very important task in learning English. Words are categorized (grouped) according to their functions. There are eight word categories in English. They are referred to as Parts of Speech. Through knowing these parts of speech, we can maximize the task of building vocabulary. They are,

1.2. 3. 4.

Nouns Pronouns Adjective Verbs

6. 7. 8. 9.


Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections

Learning about the parts of speech is foundational in grammar study just as learning the letters of the alphabet is foundational to being able to read and write. From learning the parts of speech we begin to understand how words are joined together to make meaningful communication. To understand what a part of speech is, you must

understand the idea of putting similar things together into groups or categories. Examine the following table:

COLORS Blue Red Yellow Green Black

FRUITS Banana Apple Mango Grape Lemon

DRINKS Milk Water Soda Beer coffee

LANGUAGES Spanish Arabic Japanese English Korean

Notice how these animals are grouped. Animals Description Examples Birds Warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrate animals of a class distinguished by the possession of feathers, wings, and a beak, typically able to fly. eagles, parrots, owls, doves Fish cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usually having scales and breathing through gills sharks, salmon, tuna, milkfish Mammals Warm-blooded vertebrates having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive and nourished with milk cats, dogs, horses, elephants

These animals are grouped according to how they function (or according to their characteristics - how their body functions). In the same way, words are also grouped according to how they function.

The Parts of Speech DefinedPart of Speech Use, Function or "Job" People Nouns Names of Places Things Animals Pronouns Adjectives Replace nouns Describe or modify nouns or pronouns action being Example WordsTeacher, Sai, David, student, boys town, city, Mindanao, Philippines, mountain, lake pen, book, bag, music, song, kilogram, day, happiness, tree Carabao, dog, horse, fish, bird, cat, cow, goat I, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours, they, them, their, theirs a/an, the, numbers (1, 2, 5, 10, 44),colors (red, blue, green), sizes (big, small), some, good, interesting Sing, walk, talk, sleep, jump, kick, drive, work, exercise Be (am, is, was, are, were), have, like, can, will, shall, must Well, very, and Most words that end in suffix ly: quickly, silently, badly, really of, to, at, after, in, on, between, under, beside, toward



Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections

Modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs Express relationships of nouns or pronouns with other words in a sentence Connect two or more words, phrases, clauses, or sentences Express emotions or sudden feeling

and, but, because, or Oh!, ouch!, hi!

Getting Acquainted with the Parts of SpeechPart of Speech Example Sentences

Nouns Nouns are names of people, places or things (including ideas, animals and events).

Singular Nouns when you are talking about just one person, place or thing

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

Plural Nouns when you are talking about two or more people, places or things

Plural computers chairs dogs toys envelopes insects mountains Men women children Leaves bus glass beach brush box


sandwich baby lady foot mouse knife

Rules of pluralizing nouns will be discussed in a separate chapter (Nouns in Focus).

Words called determiners (such as a, an,

the, this, my, such and the numbers 1, 2, 3) are used to signal nouns.

a river a pen

an armchair an eggplant

the castle this idea

Quick Tip: If you can put the in front of the word and it sounds like a unit(s), the

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

word is a noun. (Although this technique is not recommended for proper nouns see Nouns in Focus)

Identify whether the following words in bold type are names of people, places or things.

Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions.1.

John and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants.2.

Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year.3.

Finish your work before the big game starts on TV.4.

The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town.5.

Ottawa is the capital of Canada, and Fredericton is the capital of this province.6.

Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need.7.

French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario.8.

The streets of some of our cities are noted for their crookedness.9. 10. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first

Prime Minister of India.11. Moonlight flickered on the dried

leaves on the path from Black Lake.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 12. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister

in Regina.13. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay

of Chaleur.14. Robin and his family moved to

Alberta when the mill closed.15. Do most people in Italy read the

newspaper on the weekend?16. English is a language with many

exceptions to the rules of grammar.17. Maple syrup is produced in rural

areas of North America.18. The hockey arena in Beresford is

located near the main street.19. Early settlers to the Gasp came

from France and England.20. The stores on Main Street are

planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits.

Underline all the nouns in the following sentences.

1. A lawyer testified on that case. 2. A renowned designer of glass is Dale

Chihuly.3. Carpet covered the entire space. 4. Environmentalists in our area planted

clams in local ponds and had great success.5. Lawmakers held hearings on the growing

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

deficit.6. Wendy located her housekeeper. 7. Some answers on this test are about

electricity.8. Her violin and easel were missing. 9. Their rabbit that left the yard was returned

by the officer.10. He used this umbrella in Alabama. 11. After the rain, the electrician checked the

box.12. The end of the afternoon arrived quickly. 13. This group is funny. 14. The ostrich and the orangutan are

interesting.15. My doctor and my orthodontist are

neighbors.16. In the evening, Archie likes to go boating. 17. Unfortunately, he had a rash and an

allergy.18. Her height and agility helped her win the

match.19. Linda cared for the infant throughout the

night.20. The garbage carton near the oven had

licorice and noodles in it.


Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people, places, and things) that have already been mentioned. They are used to avoid repeating

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

the nouns again and again.

As Melissa entered the door of the dimly lit Cathedral, Melissa held tightly to Melissas backpack. Suddenly, Melissa thought that Melissa saw a shadow moving. This is scary, whispered Melissa to Melissa.

How many Melissas are there? How do you find the sentences? Are they difficult to understand? Without pronouns, sentences become awkward. With pronouns, we avoid repeating the nouns, thus improving the understandability of sentences.

As Melissa entered the door of the dimly lit Cathedral, she held tightly to her backpack. Suddenly, she thought that she saw a shadow moving. This is scary, whispered Melissa to herself.

Another example: Pauli is a 12-year old girl. She lives in Cotabato City. She is a grade six pupil of Pilot Central Elementary School. Her favorite subject is Math.

Personal Pronouns are some of the most common pronouns

Singular Personal Pronouns

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

Plural Personal Pronouns

Person First Second Third

Subjective We You They


Cases of Pronouns according to how they are used:

Subjective Pronouns pronouns that act as subjects in the sentence. Objective Pronouns pronouns that either follow the main verb or follow a preposition Possessive Pronouns pronouns that indicate possession, or ownership

In the following exercises, find the subjective, objective and possessive pronouns and study how they are used. Underline the Subjective Pronouns

1. I crossed the piazza and headed towards

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

the church.2. Unfortunately, it was closed. 3. Yesterday, she went shopping. 4. We should get together sometime. 5. He is the grandson of an immigrant from

Italy.6. You have been to their house for dinner. 7. They often have interesting discussions. 8. Last night they drove to San Francisco.

Underline the Objective Pronouns

1. Mary heard him. 2. The detective watched us suspiciously. 3. Stop bothering me! 4. Steven sat down between him and her. 5. Do the students understand it? 6. Barry gave her a present. 7. Harrys cousin lives near them. 8. A strange man is standing next to you and


Underline the Possessive Pronouns

1. The woman hid her feelings well. 2. He was younger than his wife. 3. Mr. and Mrs. Bradford adored their son.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 4. Thomas and Natalie were the best students

in my class.5. Your eyes look very tired. 6. The salesmans car does not show its age. 7. We should just pack up our things and get

out of here.8. My daughter is very good about brushing

her teeth regularly.

Other Pronouns: this, that, these, those, who, which, whose, whom, what, whoever, whichever, each, every, little, much, few, many, others, several, everybody, everyone, everything, anyone, some, someone, something, all, lot, more, any, most, such, myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

Note: Some words sometimes act as pronouns and sometimes remember that pronouns dont describe or modify nouns.

Underline all the pronouns in the following sentences.

1. We were surprised when they did the

laundry themselves.2. This is absolutely unacceptable. 3. Everybody was glad when it was over. 4. Those were the good old days. 5. What did you buy from them?

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 6. Whose is it? 7. That is my favorite candy. 8. It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. 9. Danny bought a gift which appealed to

him.10. Some of the papers are important to me. 11. The person who leaves last should turn the

lights off.12. When she heard herself on tape she was

embarrassed.13. Who bought mangoes from you? 14. Many signed up, but few were chosen. 15. We planted them, but the birds ate

everything.16. Natasha really likes these. 17. These are very difficult times. 18. That is the funniest thing Ive ever seen. 19. To whom did you send the package? 20. Where have you been?

Adjectives An adjective

is a word that refers to a noun or a pronoun It adds descriptions or details to noun or pronoun. It describes, modifies or tells more about nouns or pronouns.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

A modifier is a word that limits, changes, or alters the meaning of another word. Therefore, an adjective limits, changes, or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. Examples:

1. the big boy 2. the good boy 3. the brilliant boy 4. the industrious boy 5. the embarrassed boy 6. the blonde boy 7. the hungry boy 8. the delightful boy 9. the twelve-year-old boy

Other examples:

1. sixty three Dalmatian dogs 2. the white, puffy clouds 3. a happy, carefree child 4. a rich dark chocolate layer cake 5. five huge leafy trees

Adjectives give us a clearer picture of what is meant.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. Your boss tells you Give this piece of paper to the woman. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said the tall woman. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful, as only six of the women are tall. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said, the tall, blond woman with the red dress. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a large group. In other words, these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person.

an adjective tells what kind, as in old

man, new clothes, bad taste, and cold day; an adjective tells how many, as in many

days, few hours, couple of dollars, and two cities; Articles are also adjectives - a, the, and

an. Nouns sometimes act as adjectives as in plastic folder, paper bag , cotton shirt, stone wall an adjective tells which one or which

ones, as in those books, this restaurant, these computers, that building

Note: this, that, these and those are also used as pronouns. These words act as adjectives if they refer to or describe nouns. They are adjectives if they precede (come before) nouns.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. A good trick to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they describe or modify. Example Sentences:

1. Quezon is a large city. 2. He is an honest man. 3. The foolish old crow tried to sing. 4. The hand has five fingers. 5. Few cats like cold water. 6. There are no pictures in this book. 7. I have taught you many things. 8. Here are some ripe mangoes. 9. Most boys like cricket. 10. There are several mistakes in your

exercise.11. Sunday is the first day of the week 12. The little girl ran along the dusty road. 13. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the

rack.14. The hockey arena is located on Water

Street beside the steel mill.15. They used paper plates for the annual

picnic.16. The long summer months are usually hot

and dry.17. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet

corner of the flower garden.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

Underline the all adjectives in the sentences below.

1. The strange robots marched towards the

city.2. It was the last day of school. 3. We tugged at the enormous gate. 4. The billowing smoke alerted us to the fire. 5. The sudden sand storm forced the

surprised bathers to flee the beach.6. She received the exciting news in the

noisy restaurant.7. The blind beggar was sitting at the busy

corner.8. Jeremy did not get the subtle humor of the

play.9. The poor people of the world outnumber

the rich ones.10. Keep your hands off the hot stove! 11. Evenings were a special time for the

family.12. The next week was a busy one in the store. 13. Theres an unusual idea floating around. 14. I turned a corner in the long hall. 15. A dirty fork had fallen to the floor. 16. I wrote a boring letter. 17. Marys younger brother was already there.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 18. The American flag was behind Edwards

desk.19. I could see his face in the red light from

the exit sign.20. We gathered the important facts from

those dusty books.21. They went off to see an old, gloomy,

historic mansion in southern England.22. She had anticipated his sudden arrival. 23. Angela ignored his annoying, persistent

questions.24. I must get rid of my decrepit, banged up

little old car.25. We wouldnt want to cross this wide, busy

street, would we?26. You should heed the advice of wise men

and women.27. Wild animals can be dangerous. 28. The lovely young lady read one of her

favorite novels on her comfortable sofa.29. Why did you buy this outdated computer

in the first place?30. The Dodgers frustrated manager benched

his brash young pitcher.

Verbs A verb gives the subject its action or expresses its state of being. It is the heart of every sentence. A group of words is not a sentence without at least one verb.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

Getting to know ACTION Verbs

Most verbs are action verbs. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. They express actions of the past, the present or the future. They change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. They are often found in the middle of sentences.

Past Present Future

Past Present Future

Anna watered the flowers. (action already don Anna waters the flowers. (now happens

Anna will water the flowers. (did not happen y

Past Present Future

The dog chased its tail. (action already done The dog chases its tail. (now happens

The dog will chase its tail. (did not happen yet

1. The boy kicked the football. (past) 2. My neighbor flew to Chicago. (past) 3. The ants fought the grasshoppers. (past) 4. She washes the dishes. (present)

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

5. The baby sleeps. (present) 6. The sun rises in the east. (present,

recurring condition)7. The clock ticks every second. (present,

recurring condition)8. The pitcher will throw the ball to the

catcher. (future)9. The policeman will blow his whistle.

(future)10. Ben will write a letter to his uncle.


Some examples of action verbs: drink, look, jump, swim, fall, eat, shout, walk, throw, climb, laugh, run, sit, catch, dance, read, paint, talk, ride, smile, wash, teach, mix, carry, study, etc.

1. Brad is drinking water. 2. Daniel looks at the paintings. 3. The dog jumped over the fence. 4. The boys are swimming in the pool. 5. The leaves fell on the ground. 6. Max ate the apples. 7. The teacher shouted at the hard-headed

students.8. The cat walked across the table. 9. I will throw the stone. 10. Dont climb the ladder.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 11. Why are you laughing? 12. Gina ran to her mother. 13. Sit down properly. 14. Catch the ball! 15. Do you want to dance?

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Take a look at the following questions, each with an action verb. 1. What did you write? 2. Who did you annoy? 3. What did you throw?

These are all perfectly fine questions and easy to answer, e.g. I wrote a letter, I annoyed my neighbor, I threw a ball.

Now compare the first group of questions to the next group, each of which also has an action verb. 4. What did you sleep? 5. Who did you die? 6. What did you laugh?

These questions are all strange and cant really be answered. Thats because the verbs in this second group are verbs that do not act on anything.

Transitive Verbs act upon something. They

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

action verbs that need complements or objects (nouns or pronouns which receive the action). The verbs on the first three questions are examples of transitive verbs. Other examples:

Fred kissed Lulu. Maria reads this. The old lady wrote something.

Fred Maria The lady

Intransitive Verbs These verbs do not have complements which receive the action. They end either in themselves or with adverbs. The verbs on the last three questions are intransitive verbs. Other examples:

The couple danced. Marvin writes constantly. (adverb)

Joys The child

Getting to know BEING (or Linking) Verbs

There are also verbs that tell about a state of being. They tell us that someone or something exists or they link (connect) someone or something to the nature or condition of its existence. They link the subject to other information in the sentence.

Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star was the first song I learned.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

The linking verb iswas. But what does it link? In this case, the subject, Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star is linked to a noun that means the same as the subject. In fact, you can turn the sentence around and keep the same meaning:

The first song I learned was Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star.

The most common verbs that tell about state of being are the BE Verbs am, is, are, was, and were.

am is used with the pronoun I is is used with singular nouns and with pronouns he, she and it are is used with plural nouns and with pronouns we, you and they was is the simple past form of am and is were is the simple past form of are

Although they are used on their own, they can also be used as helping verbs of action verbs.

I am twelve years old. I am in the garden. She is pretty. The teacher is tall.

My friend We Dinosaurs The dog

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

Computers are very expensive. We are in our bedrooms. You are my best friend. Ten years ago, I was only a baby.

The students Anna The boys

Other commonly used verbs:

Does, do, and did; has, have, and had. Did is the past form of does (singular) and do (plural). While had is the past form of has (singular) and have (plural). Like BE verbs, they can stand on their own but they can also act as helping verbs.

1. Do it. 2. She does unbelievable stunts. 3. I did it!

Use have with the pronouns I, we, you and

they, and with plural nouns Use has with the pronouns he, she and it,

and with singular nouns

1. I have two brothers and one sister. 2. Monkeys have long tails. 3. We have art lessons on Mondays. 4. You have a stain on your shirt. 5. An elephant has a long trunk. It also has

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

big ears.6. Sally has a pretty face. She has a curly

hair.7. I had a big toy car when I was small. 8. They had a wonderful holiday in Europe. 9. The boys had a fight in the playground. 10. She had long hair when I saw her a year

ago.11. My best friend has visited us from time to

time.12. Jackie had eaten alone before I invited

him to join us.13. I will have visited my grandchildren a

number of times before they stay with me in the summer.14. Ralph has been exercising all week. 15. I have been very relieved.

Modals are also verbs (helping verbs to be specific): can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would

Quick Notes

Verb phrases may have up to five words

Verb phrases can be interrupted by small word


Sample Sentences:

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 1. I have finished the laundry. 2. Have you written that letter? 3. They had already bought her present. 4. I have never seen anything like that

before.5. Paul can do anything. 6. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in

New York.7. She might have been being chased before

her car smashed into the bridge.8. Most students are usually sitting on the

steps.9. When we go on vacation next week, I will

have been exercising for a month.

Underline all the verbs in each of the following sentences. Then tell their nature whether they sate being or action. If they are action verbs, tell whether they are transitive or intransitive.

1. Time flies. action, intransitive 2. The newly cleaned mirrors glitter and

gleam.3. My house is cold in the winter. 4. The child felt sad. 5. I am the president of our social club. 6. My father delivers packages to department

stores each day.7. Suzanne skated across the rink in Central


Part of Speech

Example Sentences 8. Oscar will help Petra with the project. 9. The companys eight stores closed in

2008.10. Bluefish and bass are abundant in Long

Island Sound.11. September 11, 2001, is a date seared in

most memories.12. A man, arrested for drunk driving,

produced his identification.13. The host greeted us cordially. 14. She should say that again. 15. The kids have been playing here. 16. Jonathan walked over to the car. 17. He washes dishes every evening. 18. My neighbor flew to Chicago. 19. The children wanted some candy. 20. Tomorrow we might go to the museum. 21. I bought a present for my son. 22. Yes, she understands your explanation. 23. Please shuffle the cards now. 24. You omitted several names of tonights

program.25. Mrs. Simmons, our teacher, erased the

board quickly.26. The plant withered last week. 27. Coach Albers inspired us before the big

football game last week.28. He envies the other players.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 29. I told you that earlier. 30. I forgot my jacket in the music room. 31. They easily recalled the unforgettable

incident.32. Her parents decided that long ago. 33. The dog jumped over the fence. 34. His car smashed into a bridge. 35. We watched a movie last night.

If adjectives modify nouns or pronouns, adverbs, on the other hand, modify verbs, adjectives or their fellow adverbs. Adverbs limit, change or alter them.


Adverbs generally indicate information about location, time, degree, and manner. They provide extra information about the action in a sentence, about adjectives and about other adverbs.

Jennifer smiled broadly at the audience. (modifies verb) The first-place medal went to a very worthy contestant. (modifies adjective) The conversation ended rather abruptly. (modifies adverb)

Most adverbs (not all) end in suffix ly as in slowly, softly, and loudly. However, some

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

adjectives also end in ly, for example lovely, friendly. Just remember that adjectives refer to and describe nouns.

Sample adverbs that dont end in ly are away, now, fast, good, well. But be careful about identifying adverbs that dont end in ly because some of them also function as adjectives. Analyze carefully how they are used. Always remember that adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and their fellow adverbs. They dont describe nouns. (More discussion on Adverbs in Focus)


The sentence He is driving tells you only that a person is doing an action. If an adverb is added, you will find out how he is driving, where he is driving or when he is driving.

How is he driving? Where is he driving? When is he driving?


In the following sentence, the noun sunset is described as beautiful. What part of speech is the word beautiful.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

The campers saw a beautiful sunset.

Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. If you want to tell how beautiful it was, you can add something in front of the adjective.

The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. The campers saw an incredibly beautiful sunset. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset.

When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was, or to what extent it was beautiful, that word is called an adverb. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful.

Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives: Extremely, somewhat, a little, completely, really, tremendously, particularly, especially, perfectly, usually


Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs.

The dog ate quickly.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. By adding another adverb, we can find out how quickly the dog ate, as follows:

How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly.

Other examples of adverbs: quite, very, almost, always, often, surely, not, never

In each sentence below, underline the adverb and tell whether it modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

1. She returned the book and quietly left. 2. Im leaving for Europe tomorrow. 3. That horse is an unusually calm animal. 4. The train came to a stop suddenly. 5. That remark was too shocking. 6. Why dont you call her sometimes? 7. We were told to handle the merchandise

carefully.8. The doctor informed his patient that his

prognosis was very good.9. The Morgans are not leaving today. 10. Unexpectedly, the principal ordered

everyone into the auditorium.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 11. Patricia slept peacefully. 12. Our teachers are very happy with the

results.13. Larrys unusually good cooking skills

came in handy last weekend.14. He ran swiftly away from the tackler. 15. She danced so gracefully in the

competition.16. They sang beautifully during the entire

winter concert.17. My aunt was extremely hungry after we

completed the three-hour hike.18. We had met somewhat earlier than you

think.19. Are they going away? 20. His rather clever remarks were not

appreciated.21. These stories seem strangely familiar to

me.22. They will hardly try to win. 23. Francine earns high grades quite often. 24. Do not walk alone in the forest. 25. We met only recently. 26. Yesterday, Bob read the material carefully. 27. They were dressed too casually for the

banquet.28. Where is the grocery store now? 29. Why was his work finished so quickly? 30. His ideas were quite useful in completing

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

the project more efficiently.31. He arrived there later with an extremely

important message.32. I have never seen such expensive jewelry. 33. The circus was really exciting. 34. Simon is not a very good driver. 35. Krista almost never goes to the arena.

Getting Acquainted with Prepositions

Prepositions are words that show a connection between other words. Most prepositions are little words like at, in and on. Prepositional phrases are groups of words, such as out of and on top of.


Some prepositions show where something happens. They are called prepositions of place.

Sally was sitting under a tree. Theres a wooden floor underneath the carpet. Some geese flew over their house. John and Sarah were hiding inside the wardrobe.

Some prepositions show when something happens. They are called prepositions of time.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

School starts at nine oclock. I brush my teeth in the morning and at night. Were going to the zoo on Saturday. I visited my grandparents during the summer. No, you cant watch a video. Its past your bedtime already.

You must finish

Ill do my homew Mom, can you

Some prepositions show where something is going. They are called prepositions of direction.

The boys chased after each other. The football rolled down the hill. A man was walking his dog along the riverbank. The freeway goes right through the city.

We were travelli A girl went past

This road leads a

They watched th

Many prepositions are used in other ways. Here are some of them.


I bought a bag of rice and a quart of milk. Would you like a glass of orange juice? Kathleen is a member of the chess club.

I need three piec

Most of the child

There are severa


Part of Speech

Example Sentences

I made this bookmark for Mom. Is there room for me on this seat? Id like a new computer for Christmas.

Were going dow

Whats this bag f

This word is too


He pounds nails in with a hammer. Mix the flour with water. She painted the picture with her new paints. Would you like to come with us to the arcade?

I can do difficult Who is the man

Michael came ho

Cross the busy s

The most commonly used prepositions are: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, at, before, below, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, for, from, in, inside, into, of, off, on, out, outside, over, past, since, through, toward, under, up, with, without, within

Underline the prepositions in each sentence below.

1. A new bank opened in town. 2. Dont position all the furniture against the

walls.3. One bottle inside the carton was smashed. 4. Please place the key between the doors. 5. I opened the car door and left my coffee

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

cup on top.6. Please tell me more about Larry. 7. Im teaching a class in the adult school. 8. We heard children laugh at the park. 9. The new program on TV has a huge

audience.10. The logs in the fireplace burned brightly. 11. They searched for shells and pebbles along

the beach at the end of the day..12. Krista searched among the rubble for

pictures of her mother and father.13. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier

in this store!14. I think all the odd socks in the world end

up under my son's bed.15. Be careful walking near the tree with the

hornets' nest!16. Down the hill and around the corner came

the three lost children.17. The cat with the sore ear comes to the

door every day at noon.18. The houses beside the store on top of the

hill were built in 1960 by my son.19. Have the women in your group chosen a

theme for the conference?20. The prize for the best costume was given

to the clown with the funny hat.

Conjunctions Conjunctions are words used to link words,

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

phrases or clauses. Phrases are groups of words standing together as a conceptual unit. Clauses, on the other hand, are mini-sentences stuck into real sentences. Clauses also have subjects and verbs (predicates). Some commonly used conjunctions are and, but and or.

Use and to link words that are similar.

1. We buy fruit and vegetables at the grocery

store.2. The president visited towns and cities

across the country.3. The house is warm and comfortable. 4. The weather was cold and windy. 5. There were several cars and trucks in the

street.6. Apples and oranges are good for you. 7. It was a life and death situation. 8. Hari and Rama are brothers.

Use but to link words that are different and do not normally go together.

1. He works quickly but neatly. 2. The teacher is firm but fair with the

children.3. The musicians are young but very


Part of Speech

Example Sentences 4. The weather was sunny but cold. 5. Karate is tiring but fun. 6. We want a vacation that's interesting but

relaxing.7. Some animals are big but gentle.

Use or to talk about choices.

1. You can have a soda or lemonade. 2. Would you like pasta or rice? 3. Who is cooking the dinner, Mom or Dad? 4. Does the sauce taste sweet or sour? 5. Do we turn right or left? 6. Is your sister older or younger than you? 7. Should the children bring bikes or


Link phrases using conjunctions and, but and or.

1. We like going shopping and visiting

museums.2. I tell my parents and my best friend all my

secrets.3. Some of my toys are dirty and a bit

broken.4. The car is very old but still very reliable.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 5. The weather was very sunny but rather

cold.6. Im older than Anna but younger than

Jack.7. Is it quicker to go by train or by car? 8. You could call it a thin book or a thick

magazine.9. She couldnt decide whether to stay in bed

or get up and take a shower.

Other Conjunctions: after, although, as, because, before, eitheror, even though, if, neithernor , since, than, though, unless, until, whether, while

Underline the Conjunctions.1. I asked her to wait for me, but she went

home on the bus.2. The chili was not only spicy hot, but also

steaming hot.3. Will you watch television tonight or go to

the mall?4. Either Anna and I will go, or Lynn and

Joan will take our place.5. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. 6. She neither washes windows nor cleans

ovens.7. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. 8. Since I first met Sheila and her, she has

always been very polite.

Part of Speech

Example Sentences 9. I wont be able to go even though I have

the money.10. After the whale beached itself, some local

citizens rescued it.11. I know where they have hidden the

treasure, but I dont have a map.12. Since the maple trees were damaged in the

storm, they will be cut down.13. Mark knows more than I do about that

case.14. It isnt certain whether they will come or

not.15. Before they read the instructions, they

couldnt fix it themselves.16. After the lecture, the students asked if they

could stay.17. Although he is stronger, he couldnt turn

it.18. Because you were late, you missed it. 19. Thieves broke in while we were away. 20. The roads were slippery because the snow

was followed by rain.21. Although it was quite sunny, the wind was

cool.22. If you are short, you cant reach that

cupboard.23. Unless the Leafs win this game, they are

out of the playoffs.24. After he won the gold medal, he turned

pro.25. You just answered my questions before I

Part of Speech

Example Sentences

asked them.


Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. It can be an actual word or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma. Unlike all the other parts of speech, the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence. Following are some examples of interjections:

Wow! Oh, no! Fantastic! No!

Lets Apply What YOU Learned!Encircle the subjects and underline the verbs. Next, identify which part of speech each word belongs to. Then identify what kind each sentence is according to its function. Use the following abbreviations:

N-Noun, Pn-Pronoun, Adj-Adjective, V-Verb, Adv-Adverb, Pp-Preposition, C-Conjunction, IInterjection

Dec-Declarative, Int-Interrogative, Exc-Exclamatory, Imp-ImperativeExample: The horse jumped quickly. Dec Adj N V Adv1.

2. 3. 4.

New York is my favorite city. My aunt went to visit her mother. Jim bought a new shirt for the Broadway show.


After a long day at work, it felt good to relax with some friends.

21. 22. 23. 24.

David has practiced karate for fifteen years! Teddy will go to the picnic after the recital. He went to the zoo to see the chimpanzees. I will buy enough flowers to finish the decorations.

5. 6. 7.

George lost his shoe on the subway. The Sears Tower is 110 stories tall! This necklace was given to Alicia by her grandmother.

25. 26. 27.

Steven likes to fix old cars in his free time. I have worked as a teacher for seven years. I will buy my wedding dress after the fitting.


The store sells many items, but it specializes in fine jewelry.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Many flowers have started to bloom. To whom were you speaking? None of the dinner was eaten. The man gives blood four times a year. The windshield was cleaned by the repairman. 28. 29. 30. 31.

She bought the camera for her sister. Matthew went to the store. The duck swims in the pond every morning. The mail carrier has delivered our mail for many years.

14. 15.

The cake was eaten by the bakers daughter. Did Henrietta go to the movies on Saturday?


The brown, shaggy dog lives three doors away.

33. 34. 35.

The science book is difficult to understand. The tiring practice lasted four hours. He lives in the new development on the west side of town.


To prepare for the road trip, Bob packed his bags.


She had never seen the ocean until she won a trip to New Jersey. 36.

The white tailed deer raced through the densely wooded area.


Stanley drives to the store every week to buy his groceries. 37. 38. 39.

Marshal rested his tired head on the pillow. The singer ran into the crowd. Beneath the willow tree, Nicole sat enjoying the scenery.


When we finally pick her up, Sarah will have practiced basketball for three hours.


The boy hid under the bed while playing hide and seek.


Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer.


At the National Dog Show, the contestants jump through the hoops.


Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is.


The team played well in the championship even though the victory was not theirs.


From the top of a small hill, we saw the Northumberland Strait.


Soon after the rainstorm, the flowers began to bloom.


The ocean was calm, and the clouds were beautiful.


He has never taken a standardized test before he came to this class.

59. 60.

Then, the little boats began to appear. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster.


She enthusiastically encouraged her students to attend the retreat. 61.

Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea.


The cat has lazily lain by the window all day. 62.

Local markets are full of mussels, clams, scallops, and lobster.

47. 48.

The dog chased the cat under the porch. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. 63.

In small villages, canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan.

49. 50. 51.

My daughter sold her computer to a friend. Robert drove his car to Saint John. So much snow covered the roads that even truck drivers pulled into motels.


When their boats are full, the fishermen return to their harbors for the night.


If the weather is good, their catch is usually large.


The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg.

66. 67. 68.

Storms make life on the water dangerous. Many of them came, but few stayed long. Give everybody something to eat before they leave.


The Titanic sank in a few hours; many husbands and wives were separated.


Penguins live near the South Pole, but these birds arent bothered by the cold.

69. 70.

What did you bring with you? Did they teach themselves how to speak German?


After she cut herself, she went for a tetanus shot.

93. 94. 95. 96. 97.

She often rode the bus home at night. His parents thought about him every day. The Christmas tree looked beautiful. The lions slept in the sun for hours. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park.

72. 73. 74.

All of those are expensive. Who likes chocolate? The stones on the beach were green, but these are pink.

75. 76. 77.

None of us was frightened by that. He gave her several bottles of this. Who told us that no one would be at the mall?

98. 99.

John ate his lunch slowly. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich.

100. 101.

After work, we decided on a movie. Since his accident, he has been driving

78. 79. 80. 81.

This belongs to her. She never gave them any of it. Phillip called to tell them about that. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas?

more carefully. 102. 103. You will never guess the answer. Are you reading that magazine, or have you

finished it? 104. 105. 106. 107. Lucy will send you her new address. Finally, the dealer agreed to our price. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. We learned about the effects of the storm

82. 83.

We always welcome suggestions. Mine was destroyed by the flood, but the insurance covered it.

84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92.

Give me some! They told about the hardships we survived. Many told about the kindness of strangers. The pitcher threw the ball. The robin perched on a lower branch. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. He dreamed about his recent accident. Melissa always walks to work in the morning.

from Norma. 108. Many branches had been broken by the

wind. 109. Heavy icy was still bringing down many

power lines. 110. Only a few people could stay in their

houses without electricity. 111. After three days, food became scarce.


Volunteers arrived with emergency

129. 130. 131.

You cannot drive there! The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. Yesterday, the strikers blocked the driveway

supplies. 113. People from nearby communities brought

many loads of firewood. 114. 115. 116. 117. Soon, life was returning to normal. They are calling it the storm of the century. The little girl ran along the dusty road. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the

effectively 132. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely

expensive gift. 133. 134. Kate is a truly courageous woman. They finished their work surprisingly

rack. 118. The dark brown painted dripped on the new

quickly. 135. The weather turned really hot at the beach

white carpet. 119. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet

during this last week. 136. 137. 138. 139. Computers are relatively new devices. Many businesses use them daily. Today, very fast computers are needed. They produce statistics quickly and

corner of that flower garden. 120. The old curtains were torn and faded, and

they flapped in the light breeze. 121. After a few hours, they arrived at the train

accurately. 140. 141. 142. 143. Generally, they are quite easy to use. Many people have never used a computer. The baby has been very cranky lately. Finally, she wrote the very last sentence

station, nine miles from Minto. 122. The hockey arena is located on Water Street

beside the steel mill. 123. They used paper plates for the annual

picnic. 124. 125. These apples are juicy and red. The long summer months are usually hot

correctly. 144. She smiled brightly and said that she was

really sorry. 145. 146. 147. Politely, he asked for a second helping. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. Paula walked through the park and then

and dry. 126. 127. 128. They arrived early for class. Can you come soon? She placed the crystal vase carefully on the

turned towards home.



She hid the presents behind the desk and

164. 165.

In 1992, most of the money disappeared. The mine owners from Germany sold all of

under the stairs. 149. The colour of her dress was really

it to them. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. Wow, did you see that jet! Oh no! He lost the puck. Ouch! That hurts. No! Dont touch the brake. Yuck, I hate boiled cabbage. Apples and oranges are good for you. It was a life and death situation. Look under the table and in the closet. I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply, but I

flattering. 150. The books on airplanes were placed beside

those on trains. 151. 152. 153. The chairs on the porch were painted white. Guests with tickets entered first. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a

syrup. 154. 155. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. The man with the long scarf just robbed the

store in the mall. 156. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the

couldnt get a ride. 175. We bought the tickets, so we went to the

antiques to Gene. 157. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by

concert. 176. After we saw a deer, we drove to

Johns brother. 158. Since the crash, many of the survivors have

Doaktown. 177. Before he gets sicker, he should go to the

received cash settlements. 159. In his new movie, Brad Pitt drives a car

doctor. 178. We sent you a full and complete refund

from Toronto to Los Angeles. 160. 161. The time of day doesnt matter. The supervisor questioned the quality of her

when you asked for it. 179. 180. We ran home because it was raining. Until the snow melts, we will have to stay

work. 162. A few of our friends from school arrived for

home. 181. Although she missed the bus, she and Lily

supper at Julies. 163. None of the items on that page are

still arrived on time. 182. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he


never wore it.


Betty or Fran will bring the books which


The tall, majestic Rocky Mountains are a

you wanted. 184. The waiter who served our lunch was really

truly beautiful sight. 194. 195. Their house was built in 1990. No, you should take your new camera on

nice. 185. I saw the nests that the robins built both on

your trip. 196. 197. 198. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. Most of the students listened politely. She was giving a short but interesting

the porch and in the tree. 186. 187. 188. Until we see it, we wont believe it. Let us leave so we will be on time. When they had finished, they gave it to the

lecture. 199. We bought a very small quantity of food

teacher. 189. Roller blades and skateboards are very

yesterday. 200. The wind was cold, but the sun was really

popular. 190. CDs are great because they have good

warm. 201. This book costs sixteen dollars.

quality sound. 191. 192. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when

we arrived.

English Power-Up for Beginners PRE-TESTName: __________________________________________ Facilitator: _______________________________________ Grade/Year Level: ____________ Age: _____________

Encircle the subjects and underline the verbs. Next, identify which part of speech each word belongs to. Then identify what kind each sentence is according to its function. Use the following abbreviations: N-Noun, PnPronoun,

Adj-Adjective, V-Verb, Adv-Adverb, Pp-Preposition, C-Conjunction, I-Interjection Dec-Declarative, Int-Interrogative, Exc-Exclamatory, Imp-ImperativeExample: The horse jumped quickly. Dec Adj N V Adv1. Dogs make good pets for young children.(7) 2. The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester. (10) 3. Your ancestors lived beside the sea; mine lived near Moncton. (10) 4. Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) 5. Those big, chunky pots sell for nine dollars, so you can buy several of them.(15) 6. I do not think about their problems now because I dont have time. (14) 7. Casually, the thieves surveyed the neighborhood until they spotted the right house.(12) 8. Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not. (11) 9. Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring. (6) 10. Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately. (9) 11. The students in this program are very hard workers. (9) 12. She believes in his ability. (5) 13. The frail, old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors home. (12) 14. He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. (9) 15. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. (11)

There are a total of 150 words in this review. _________________________ Pupils Students Signature ________________________ Facilitators Signature

English Power-Up for Beginners POST-TESTName: __________________________________________ Facilitator: _______________________________________ Grade/Year Level: ____________ Age: _____________

Encircle the subjects and underline the verbs. Next, identify which part of speech each word belongs to. Then identify what kind each sentence is according to its function. Use the following abbreviations: N-Noun, PnPronoun,

Adj-Adjective, V-Verb, Adv-Adverb, Pp-Preposition, C-Conjunction, I-Interjection Dec-Declarative, Int-Interrogative, Exc-Exclamatory, Imp-ImperativeExample: The horse jumped quickly. Dec Adj N V Adv1. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. (15) 2. Usually, the chairs were placed near the windows, but today they are in a circle. (14) 3. I had been studying for three hours, and I still dont know it. (14) 4. Very quickly, they finished their work. (6) 5. They had been writing their essays before they went there .(10) 6. After they had mowed the lawn, they bought lunch .(9) 7. Because they have cashed their cheques, they have some money. (10) 8. Although the storm was very intense, the damage was minor. (10) 9. Since the accident, the victims have recovered quite well. (9) 10. Because of her problems, Sue often seeks my advice. (8) 11. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) 12. The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. (13) 13. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. (12) 14. Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) 15. Ouch, that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. (11) 16. Miles brother is extremely intelligent even if he cant pass those provincial exams. (13) 17. Hey Eric, did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) 18. Finally, his clever tricks have failed. (6) 19. The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. (8)

There are 200 words in this exercise. _________________________ Pupils Students Signature ________________________ Facilitators Signature