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<p>Google Scholar search strings.docx</p> <p>Additional File 3: The Search Strategy used for Internet Search Engines</p> <p>6. Google Scholar</p> <p>Date: Searches were conducted between 09/10/2013 - 13/12/2013</p> <p>Resources: Google Scholar</p> <p>Search Strategy: The final search strings for Google Scholar are shown in Table 8.</p> <p>The search strategy for Google Scholar comprised of individually pairing all alternative livelihood synonyms and specific alternative livelihood activities with (biodiversity OR conservation) using the AND Boolean operator. Google Scholar does not use automatic stemming when phrases are enclosed in speech marks (). As a result, both the singular and plural forms of the word are used.</p> <p>During scoping, the first 50 results were searched for documents that referred to alternative livelihoods within the context of the definition used for the review. Terms that did not produce relevant results during the scoping are shown in Table 10, column 3.</p> <p>Of the terms that produced relevant hits further scoping was carried to remove terms that produced results that only referred to an alternative livelihood in a brief or indirect way, such as recommending the use of an alternative livelihood intervention (Table 10 column 2). </p> <p>The final search terms that comprise these search strings are shown in Table 9, column 1.</p> <p>Table 8.Final Search Strings for Google Scholar (English)</p> <p>Alternative livelihood synonyms paired with biodiversity OR conservation</p> <p>1) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative regenerative livelihood OR livelihoods OR alternative occupations OR occupations OR protein OR proteins OR gear OR livelihood alternative OR alternatives)</p> <p>= 4060 results</p> <p>2) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative income OR incomes OR alternative economic opportunity OR opportunities OR income generating activity OR income generating activities OR supplementary income OR incomes)</p> <p>= 17400 results</p> <p>3) (biodiversity OR conservation AND community OR rural development OR development project OR projects OR Integrated conservation and development project OR ICDP OR ICDPs OR eco development project OR projects)</p> <p>= 20500 results</p> <p>4) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "livelihood OR livelihoods project OR projects OR program OR programme OR programs OR programmes OR replacement OR replacements OR opportunity OR opportunities OR scheme OR schemes)</p> <p>= 10500 </p> <p>5) (biodiversity OR conservation AND livelihood OR livelihoods activity OR activities OR enhancement OR enhancements OR intervention OR interventions OR loan OR loans OR option OR options OR support)</p> <p>= 15900 results</p> <p>6) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative livelihood OR livelihoods OR source OR sources OR supplementary OR additional livelihood OR livelihoods OR livelihood based approach OR based approaches)</p> <p>= 20100 results</p> <p>Total results captured = 900 (150 top relevant results for each string)</p> <p>Alternative livelihood activities paired with biodiversity OR conservation</p> <p>7) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "artisanal crafts OR crafts" OR "craft making OR makers" OR handicraft OR handycraft OR handicrafts OR handycrafts OR thatch making OR makers OR collecting OR collection OR collectors)</p> <p>= 27000 results</p> <p>8) (biodiversity OR conservation AND beekeeping OR bee keeping OR caterpillar utilisation OR utilization OR tour guide OR guiding OR guidance)</p> <p>= 17800 results</p> <p>9) (biodiversity OR conservation AND market development OR micro enterprise OR enterprises" OR microenterprise OR microfinance OR concrete block making OR makers OR "engine repair OR repairs")</p> <p>= 25300 results</p> <p>10) (biodiversity OR conservation AND sea cucumber farm OR farms OR farming OR seaweed OR shrimp OR silk OR snail OR mushroom OR wildlife farm OR farms OR farming OR production OR culture OR cultivation OR sericulture) </p> <p>= 25400 results</p> <p>11) (biodiversity OR conservation AND wildlife breeding OR "wildlife based enterprise OR enterprises" OR "safari hunt OR hunting" OR small business development)</p> <p>= 5300 results</p> <p>12) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "grass cutter cultivation OR production OR farming OR farm OR farms" OR crab OR lobster fattening OR fuel efficient stove OR stoves OR bushmeat alternative OR alternatives)</p> <p>= 1030 results</p> <p>13) (biodiversity OR conservation AND ecotourism OR eco tourism OR tourism)</p> <p>= 535000 results</p> <p>14) (biodiversity OR conservation AND mariculture)</p> <p>= 17400 results</p> <p>Total results captured = 800 (100 top relevant results for each string)</p> <p>Table 9. Scoping search terms for Google Scholar</p> <p>1) Final search terms</p> <p>2) Deleted terms (from those with relevant results)</p> <p>3) Terms that did not produce relevant results</p> <p>Topic 1) alternative livelihood synonyms</p> <p>1) additional livelihood</p> <p>2) alternative economic opportunity opportunities</p> <p>3) alternative gear</p> <p>4) alternative income OR incomes </p> <p>5) alternative livelihood livelihoods</p> <p>6) alternative occupation occupations</p> <p>7) alternative protein proteins</p> <p>8) alternative regenerative livelihood OR livelihoods</p> <p>9) alternative source OR sources</p> <p>10) community development</p> <p>11) conservation and development</p> <p>12) development project OR projects</p> <p>13) eco development projectOR projects</p> <p>14) income generating activityOR activities </p> <p>15) Integrated conservation and Development project OR ICDP OR ICDPs</p> <p>16) livelihood alternative OR alternatives</p> <p>17) livelihood activity OR activities</p> <p>18) livelihood OR livelihoods based approach OR approaches</p> <p>19) livelihood OR livelihoods enhancement OR enhancements</p> <p>20) livelihood OR livelihoods intervention OR interventions</p> <p>21) livelihood OR livelihoods loan OR loans </p> <p>22) "livelihood OR livelihoods opportunity OR opportunities"</p> <p>23) "livelihood OR livelihoods option OR options"</p> <p>24) "livelihood OR livelihoods project OR project" OR "livelihood projects"</p> <p>25) "livelihood OR livelihoods program OR programs OR programme OR programmes</p> <p>26) "livelihood OR livelihoods replacement OR replacements" </p> <p>27) "livelihood OR livelihoods scheme OR schemes" </p> <p>28) livelihood OR livelihoods support</p> <p>29) rural development</p> <p>30) supplementary income OR incomes</p> <p>31) supplementary livelihood ORlivelihoods</p> <p>AIG or AIGs -removed as an acronym, many irrelevant hits</p> <p>alternative activity OR activities - general term </p> <p>alternative employment -</p> <p>Only recommendations</p> <p>alternative enterprise OR enterprises -</p> <p>Only recommendations</p> <p>alternative job OR jobs -Often referring to employment context or just recommendation </p> <p>alternative skill OR skills -Some recommendations or just in the context of current livelihoods.</p> <p>alternative work -Often referring to employment context or just recommendation </p> <p>complementary livelihood OR livelihoods - General term and only referred to for recommendations or in a wider livelihood context</p> <p>conservation and development</p> <p>many too general/theoretical </p> <p>income substitute OR substitutes - many not directly alt. liv. </p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods assessment -</p> <p>General term often sustainable development articles. </p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods choices OR choices -General term and more related to development, or only recommendations.</p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods development -</p> <p>Similar to livelihood choice </p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods diversification</p> <p>Similar to above mainly development based</p> <p>livelihood strategy OR strategies</p> <p>Similar to above</p> <p>alternative foodOR alternative foods</p> <p>Some related to species biology/ecology. None directly related</p> <p>alternative method OR methods - Wide range of subjects, many methodological related</p> <p>alternative opportunity OR opportunities-Broad subject area and none directly related</p> <p>alternative option OR options -</p> <p>Broad subject area and none directly related </p> <p> alternative product OR products</p> <p>- Mainly literature related to coffee, cocoa and agroforestry, including ecology. Non related to alternative livelihood interventions</p> <p>alternative rural wage OR wages - Not relevant</p> <p>alternative strategy OR strategies - A fair bit of literature to do with management.</p> <p>alternative wage OR wages -</p> <p>Non relevant</p> <p>benefit sharing not relevant</p> <p>biodiversity based livelihood OR livelihoods - Not relevant</p> <p>diversification OR diversify OR diversified too general</p> <p>household income too general</p> <p>indigenous alternative not relevant</p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods benefit OR benefits -</p> <p>Topics include PES, REDD and carbon conservation, none directly related </p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods improvement too general many development related</p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods need OR needs -Many articles related to sustainable development /CBNRM combining conservation and development non specific to alt liv.</p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods review - Non relevant</p> <p>livelihood shift OR shifts</p> <p>Non relevant</p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods substitute OR substitutes Non relevant</p> <p>livelihood OR livelihoods switch not relevant</p> <p>poverty alleviation too general</p> <p>poverty reduction too general</p> <p>resource substitute OR substitutes -</p> <p>Many economic/global resource use related</p> <p>resource supplement OR supplements not relevant</p> <p>sustainable alternative OR alternatives -</p> <p>Many sustainable development literature, also ecosystem management. </p> <p>sustainable livelihood OR livelihoods -</p> <p>Sustainable livelihoods literature and sustainable resource use too general</p> <p>threat alleviation too general</p> <p>Topic 2) alternative livelihood activities</p> <p>1) "artisanal craft OR crafts" OR "craft making OR makers" OR craft OR crafts OR handicraft OR handycraft OR handicrafts OR handycrafts</p> <p>2) beekeeping OR bee keeping</p> <p>3) bushmeat alternative OR alternatives</p> <p>4) caterpillar utilisation OR utilization</p> <p>5) concrete block making</p> <p>6) crab fattening</p> <p>7) ecotourism OR eco tourism</p> <p>Relevant subject area, </p> <p>8) "engine repair OR repairs"</p> <p>9) fuel efficient stove OR stoves</p> <p>10) "grass cutter cultivation OR production OR farming"</p> <p>11) lobster fattening</p> <p>12) mariculture</p> <p>13) market development</p> <p>14) micro enterprises" OR "micro enterprise" OR micro-finance</p> <p>15) "mushroom farming OR farms OR cultivation OR production"</p> <p>16) "safari hunt OR hunting"</p> <p>17) sea cucumber farm OR farms OR farming</p> <p>18) seaweed farm OR farms OR farming</p> <p>19) shrimp farm OR shrimp farming OR shrimp farms</p> <p>20) "silk farm OR farms OR farming OR production OR culture" OR sericulture</p> <p>21) small business development</p> <p>22) "snail farm OR farms OR farming"</p> <p>23) thatch making OR makers</p> <p>24) "thatch collecting OR collection OR collectors</p> <p>25) tour guide OR guiding OR guidance</p> <p>26) tourism</p> <p>27) wildlife breeding</p> <p>28) "wildlife based enterprise OR enterprises"</p> <p>29) "wildlife farm OR farms OR farming" OR farmers"</p> <p>cane rat OR rats - recommendations or brief list description of an intervention</p> <p>energy substitute OR substitutes OR substitution -not really interventions</p> <p>fish OR fishing OR gear - mainly related to impact only one or two make only recommendations for alternative methods.</p> <p>mat weaving</p> <p>Many related to biodiversity of mat species or just a recommendation.</p> <p>"non timber forest product OR products" OR NTFP OR NTFPs - not really used as an intervention</p> <p>poultry farm OR farming - </p> <p>only recommendations.</p> <p>"shell collecting OR collection" - </p> <p>only recommendations or brief list descriptions.</p> <p>shrimp nursery OR nurseries</p> <p>only recommendations or brief list descriptions</p> <p>snail rearing -recommendations or not directly related </p> <p>agroforestry - too general</p> <p>alternative farming not relevant</p> <p>aquaculture - many to do with ecology/biology of aquaculture including ecological impact</p> <p>aquaponics not relevant</p> <p>bike vending OR vendors -not relevant</p> <p>brick making OR maker not relevant</p> <p>capital investment not relevant</p> <p>carpentry - not relevant</p> <p>carver - not relevant</p> <p>cassava OR gari process OR processing - not relevant</p> <p>cloth making OR makers - not relevant</p> <p>cocoa farm OR farms ORfarming - mainly related to biodiversity / ecology in cocoa farms. </p> <p>coffee farm OR farming too general</p> <p>cook OR cooking - not relevant</p> <p>conservation job OR jobs - not relevant</p> <p>crop diversification - not relevant</p> <p>crop growing OR growers not relevant</p> <p>"crop farmers OR farming OR farm" - not relevant</p> <p>Domestication - Very broad many to do with biology / ecology of agriculture and domestication of crops</p> <p>duck farm OR farming - some to do with ecology of farming</p> <p>dye production OR producers - not relevant</p> <p>eco guide OR guides - not relevant</p> <p>enterprise or enterprises- non directly related </p> <p>entrepreneur - not relevant</p> <p> fish aggregating device (removed FAD as to many irrelevant hits) - many to do with ecology/ technical use of FADs </p> <p>fish farm OR farmers OR farming not relevant many to do with ecological impact</p> <p>fish ponds not relevant</p> <p>flower farm OR farming - not relevant</p> <p>food vend OR vending - not relevant, some related to livelihoods in general </p> <p>forest guard OR guards not relevant</p> <p>"fuel OR fuelwood substituteOR substitution"</p> <p>Many to do with substitution of biomass burning for carbon conservation. </p> <p>game meat not relevant</p> <p>game rearing not relevant</p> <p>guinea pig OR pigs not relevant</p> <p>gum collection OR collecting - not relevant</p> <p>habitat restoration not relevant</p> <p>home OR kitchen OR peri-urban garden OR gardens not relevant</p> <p>horticulture many related to biodiversity </p> <p>macroalgal culture not relevant</p> <p>mangrove OR mangroves harvest OR harvesting many to do with management of mangroves</p> <p>non farm employment - many development related </p> <p> "non wood forest products OR product"OR NWFP OR NWFPs Many economic analyses </p> <p>off farm employment - not relevant</p> <p>"off forest activity OR activities" - not relevant</p> <p> oyster farm OR farms - some to do with ecological impact of oyster farms</p> <p>palm oil many to do with eco impact</p> <p>palm wine- some to do with eco impact/livelihood research </p> <p>pelagic fish OR fishing - not relevant</p> <p>physical investment not relevant</p> <p>piggery not relevant</p> <p>pottery not relevant</p> <p>ranger OR rangers too general </p> <p>rattan collection OR collectors OR collecting not relevant</p> <p>recycle OR recycling not relevant</p> <p>replanting OR replant not relevant</p> <p>rice fish culture not relevant</p> <p>safari hunt OR hunting not relevant</p> <p>sea cucumber harvest OR harvesting - many to do with ecological impact </p> <p>seaweed harvest OR harvesting - many to do with ecological impacts of harvesting</p> <p>tree nursery OR nurseries not relevant</p> <p>soap making OR makers not relevant</p> <p>sport fishing OR fisheries OR fishing OR fishers not relevant</p> <p>tailor OR tailors OR tailoring not relevant</p> <p>trophy hunting OR hunters OR hunts not relevant</p> <p>"vegetable growers OR growing" - not relevant</p> <p>"vegetable farm OR farmers OR farming OR farms" - not relevant</p> <p>weaving OR weavers not relevant</p> <p>wild meat many to do with...</p>