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Additional File 3: The Search Strategy used for Internet Search Engines

6. Google Scholar

Date: Searches were conducted between 09/10/2013 - 13/12/2013

Resources: Google Scholar

Search Strategy: The final search strings for Google Scholar are shown in Table 8.

The search strategy for Google Scholar comprised of individually pairing all alternative livelihood synonyms and specific alternative livelihood activities with (biodiversity OR conservation) using the AND Boolean operator. Google Scholar does not use automatic stemming when phrases are enclosed in speech marks (). As a result, both the singular and plural forms of the word are used.

During scoping, the first 50 results were searched for documents that referred to alternative livelihoods within the context of the definition used for the review. Terms that did not produce relevant results during the scoping are shown in Table 10, column 3.

Of the terms that produced relevant hits further scoping was carried to remove terms that produced results that only referred to an alternative livelihood in a brief or indirect way, such as recommending the use of an alternative livelihood intervention (Table 10 column 2).

The final search terms that comprise these search strings are shown in Table 9, column 1.

Table 8.Final Search Strings for Google Scholar (English)

Alternative livelihood synonyms paired with biodiversity OR conservation

1) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative regenerative livelihood OR livelihoods OR alternative occupations OR occupations OR protein OR proteins OR gear OR livelihood alternative OR alternatives)

= 4060 results

2) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative income OR incomes OR alternative economic opportunity OR opportunities OR income generating activity OR income generating activities OR supplementary income OR incomes)

= 17400 results

3) (biodiversity OR conservation AND community OR rural development OR development project OR projects OR Integrated conservation and development project OR ICDP OR ICDPs OR eco development project OR projects)

= 20500 results

4) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "livelihood OR livelihoods project OR projects OR program OR programme OR programs OR programmes OR replacement OR replacements OR opportunity OR opportunities OR scheme OR schemes)

= 10500

5) (biodiversity OR conservation AND livelihood OR livelihoods activity OR activities OR enhancement OR enhancements OR intervention OR interventions OR loan OR loans OR option OR options OR support)

= 15900 results

6) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative livelihood OR livelihoods OR source OR sources OR supplementary OR additional livelihood OR livelihoods OR livelihood based approach OR based approaches)

= 20100 results

Total results captured = 900 (150 top relevant results for each string)

Alternative livelihood activities paired with biodiversity OR conservation

7) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "artisanal crafts OR crafts" OR "craft making OR makers" OR handicraft OR handycraft OR handicrafts OR handycrafts OR thatch making OR makers OR collecting OR collection OR collectors)

= 27000 results

8) (biodiversity OR conservation AND beekeeping OR bee keeping OR caterpillar utilisation OR utilization OR tour guide OR guiding OR guidance)

= 17800 results

9) (biodiversity OR conservation AND market development OR micro enterprise OR enterprises" OR microenterprise OR microfinance OR concrete block making OR makers OR "engine repair OR repairs")

= 25300 results

10) (biodiversity OR conservation AND sea cucumber farm OR farms OR farming OR seaweed OR shrimp OR silk OR snail OR mushroom OR wildlife farm OR farms OR farming OR production OR culture OR cultivation OR sericulture)

= 25400 results

11) (biodiversity OR conservation AND wildlife breeding OR "wildlife based enterprise OR enterprises" OR "safari hunt OR hunting" OR small business development)

= 5300 results

12) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "grass cutter cultivation OR production OR farming OR farm OR farms" OR crab OR lobster fattening OR fuel efficient stove OR stoves OR bushmeat alternative OR alternatives)

= 1030 results

13) (biodiversity OR conservation AND ecotourism OR eco tourism OR tourism)

= 535000 results

14) (biodiversity OR conservation AND mariculture)

= 17400 results

Total results captured = 800 (100 top relevant results for each string)

Table 9. Scoping search terms for Google Scholar

1) Final search terms

2) Deleted terms (from those with relevant results)

3) Terms that did not produce relevant results

Topic 1) alternative livelihood synonyms

1) additional livelihood

2) alternative economic opportunity opportunities

3) alternative gear

4) alternative income OR incomes

5) alternative livelihood livelihoods

6) alternative occupation occupations

7) alternative protein proteins

8) alternative regenerative livelihood OR livelihoods

9) alternative source OR sources

10) community development

11) conservation and development

12) development project OR projects

13) eco development projectOR projects

14) income generating activityOR activities

15) Integrated conservation and Development project OR ICDP OR ICDPs

16) livelihood alternative OR alternatives

17) livelihood activity OR activities

18) livelihood OR livelihoods based approach OR approaches

19) livelihood OR livelihoods enhancement OR enhancements

20) livelihood OR livelihoods intervention OR interventions

21) livelihood OR livelihoods loan OR loans

22) "livelihood OR livelihoods opportunity OR opportunities"

23) "livelihood OR livelihoods option OR options"

24) "livelihood OR livelihoods project OR project" OR "livelihood projects"

25) "livelihood OR livelihoods program OR programs OR programme OR programmes

26) "livelihood OR livelihoods replacement OR replacements"

27) "livelihood OR livelihoods scheme OR schemes"

28) livelihood OR livelihoods support

29) rural development

30) supplementary income OR incomes

31) supplementary livelihood ORlivelihoods

AIG or AIGs -removed as an acronym, many irrelevant hits

alternative activity OR activities - general term

alternative employment -

Only recommendations

alternative enterprise OR enterprises -

Only recommendations

alternative job OR jobs -Often referring to employment context or just recommendation

alternative skill OR skills -Some recommendations or just in the context of current livelihoods.

alternative work -Often referring to employment context or just recommendation

complementary livelihood OR livelihoods - General term and only referred to for recommendations or in a wider livelihood context

conservation and development

many too general/theoretical

income substitute OR substitutes - many not directly alt. liv.

livelihood OR livelihoods assessment -

General term often sustainable development articles.

livelihood OR livelihoods choices OR choices -General term and more related to development, or only recommendations.

livelihood OR livelihoods development -

Similar to livelihood choice

livelihood OR livelihoods diversification

Similar to above mainly development based

livelihood strategy OR strategies

Similar to above

alternative foodOR alternative foods

Some related to species biology/ecology. None directly related

alternative method OR methods - Wide range of subjects, many methodological related

alternative opportunity OR opportunities-Broad subject area and none directly related

alternative option OR options -

Broad subject area and none directly related

alternative product OR products

- Mainly literature related to coffee, cocoa and agroforestry, including ecology. Non related to alternative livelihood interventions

alternative rural wage OR wages - Not relevant

alternative strategy OR strategies - A fair bit of literature to do with management.

alternative wage OR wages -

Non relevant

benefit sharing not relevant

biodiversity based livelihood OR livelihoods - Not relevant

diversification OR diversify OR diversified too general

household income too general

indigenous alternative not relevant

livelihood OR livelihoods benefit OR benefits -

Topics include PES, REDD and carbon conservation, none directly related

livelihood OR livelihoods improvement too general many development related

livelihood OR livelihoods need OR needs -Many articles related to sustainable development /CBNRM combining conservation and development non specific to alt liv.

livelihood OR livelihoods review - Non relevant

livelihood shift OR shifts

Non relevant

livelihood OR livelihoods substitute OR substitutes Non relevant

livelihood OR livelihoods switch not relevant

poverty alleviation too general

poverty reduction too general

resource substitute OR substitutes -

Many economic/global resource use related

resource supplement OR supplements not relevant

sustainable alternative OR alternatives -

Many sustainable development literature, also ecosystem management.