GHANA COUNTRY REPORT - The purpose of this baseline study was to collect, analyse, and report information

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  • GHANA COUNTRY REPORT

    Ghana POWER Baseline Study

    PREPARED BY:

    INTERNATIONAL SOLUTIONS GROUP

    And

    Michael Ayamga

    PREPARED FOR:

    ActionAid International and ActionAid Ghana

    21 July 2017

  • Contents Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................... 1

    Methodology Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 2 Findings Summary .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Priorities and Recommendations Summary ....................................................................................................... 4

    Reducing Women’s Workload ......................................................................................................................... 4 Increasing Women’s Income............................................................................................................................ 4

    1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 5 2. Methodology ............................................................................................................................ 6

    2.1. Ethical Principles in Conducting the Baseline Study ......................................................................... 6 2.2. Analytical Framework ............................................................................................................................. 7 2.3. Data Collection Tools ........................................................................................................................... 10 2.4. Data Collector Selection ....................................................................................................................... 11 2.5. Data Collection Coordination .............................................................................................................. 11 2.6. Household Survey Sample Selection................................................................................................... 11 2.7. Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index Household Survey ............................................... 12 2.8. Description of Survey Respondents ................................................................................................... 15 2.9. Key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussion Sample Selection ................................ 17 2.10. Data Synthesis, Coding, and Analysis ................................................................................................. 17

    3. Findings .................................................................................................................................. 19 3.1. Overall Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index Score ....................................................... 19

    3.1.1. Individual Empowerment in POWER Communities ............................................................ 19 3.1.2. Disempowerment Index ............................................................................................................. 19 3.1.3. Gender Parity ................................................................................................................................ 20 3.1.4. Overall WEAI Score ................................................................................................................... 21

    3.2. Outcome 1: Women’s Household and Community Empowerment ............................................. 22 3.2.1. Group Membership and Participation ...................................................................................... 22 3.2.2. Reporting Violence ...................................................................................................................... 25 3.2.3. Control over resources ................................................................................................................ 27

    3.3. Outcome 2: Value of Unpaid Care Work .......................................................................................... 42 3.3.1. Women's Unpaid Care Work Burden ....................................................................................... 42 3.3.2. Time Accounting ......................................................................................................................... 43 3.3.3. Household Work Distribution ................................................................................................... 45 3.3.4. Attitudes toward UCW ............................................................................................................... 49

    3.4. Outcome 3: Market Access and Productive Resources ................................................................... 50 3.4.1. Agricultural Assets and Production .......................................................................................... 50 3.4.2. Women's Access to Markets and Income ................................................................................ 56

    3.5. Outcome 4: Changes in Policy and Practice ...................................................................................... 58 3.5.1. Promoting Support and Investment to Reduce Unpaid Care Work ................................... 58 3.5.2. New or revised strategy or policy documents ......................................................................... 59

    4. Priorities for the POWER Program ....................................................................................... 66 4.1. Reduce women's workload ................................................................................................................... 66 4.2. Increasing women’s income ................................................................................................................. 67

    Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 68 Annex 1: Types of Crops Produced and Crop Categories by Sex .................................................. 69 Annex 2: Average Yield for Major Crops ....................................................................................... 72 Annex 3: Use of Fertilizer and Inputs ............................................................................................ 73 Annex 4: WEAI Calculations ......................................................................................................... 75

  • Tables and Figures Table 1 Distribution of Respondent Households ....................................................................................................... 11 Table 2 Domains, indicators, inadequacy cut offs, and weights in the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture

    Index ................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Table 3 Household characteristics and individual characteristics of respondents by sex ..................................... 15 Table 5 POWER Ghana Baseline WEAI Overall and Component Score .............................................................. 22 Table 6 Percentage of Respondents that said each type of association existed in their community ................... 23 Table 7 Percentage of Respondents that actively participate in various groups ..................................................... 24 Table 8 Comfort Level Speaking Publicly..................................................................................................................... 25 Table 9 In the last 3 months, have you spoken in public about anything important to you, your family, or your

    community? ........................................................................................................................................................................ 25 Table 10 In the last 12 months, how often have you been physically threatened or felt physically threatened 26 Table 11 Participation in Economic Activity in last 12 months ................................................................................ 28 Table 12 When Decisions Are Made Regarding Food Crop Farming, Who Is It That Normally Takes

    decisions? ............................................................................................................................................................................ 30 Table 13 To what extent do you feel you can make decisions about activity X? ................................................... 31 Table 14 How much input did you have in making decisions about activity X?.................................................... 32 Table 15 How much input did you have in decisions on the use of income generated from activity X? .......... 33 Table 16 Access to Credit: Would you or anyone in your household be able to take a loan or borrow from

    source if they wanted to? ................................................................................................................................................. 35 Table 17 Has anyone in your household taken any loans or borrowed cash or in-kind from source in the past

    12 months? ......................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Table 18 Wh