Geotextile: Past, Present and Future in Pakistan.Eng. Hafsa Riaz ,Assistant Professor, Department of Fabric Manufacturing, National Textile University, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad 37610,Pakistan,Email:email@example.com
OUTLINEINTRODUCTIONWHAT IS GEOTEXTILE ?IMPLICATED EXAMPLES AS WORLDWIDE AREAS WHERE GEOTEXTILES ARE USED IN PAKISTANFUNCTIONS OF GEOTEXTILESRAW MATERIAL TYPES OF GEOTEXTILEPROPERTIES OF GEOTEXTILES MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY RECOMMENDATIONS
Textiles have been used for thousands of years .Textiles were used in roadway construction in the days of the Pharaohs to stabilize roadways and their edges .Textile are not only clothing for human body, but also for our motherland in order to protect her.Geotextiles has proven to be among the most versatile and cost-effective ground modification materials.
Babylonians constructed Ziggurat in Dur-Kurigatz ( present Agar Quf) 3000years ago used natural fiber for reinforcement The Great Wall of China , completed circa 200 BC, used tamarisk branches with mixture of clay for reinforcement .
GEOTEXTILE According to the definition of ASTM A permeable geosynthetic comprised solely of textiles. Geotextiles are used with foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering-related material as an integral part of human-made project, structure, or system."
WORLD CONSUMPTION OF GEOTEXTILES Source: Geosynthetics David Cook (2003), Freedonia Group (2009)
Source: DRA (2005-2010)CONSUMPTION WISE FORECAST
The world demand for Geo- Textiles is projected at about 4715 million square meters by 2014 mostly from China and other East Asian countries.
Asia and other developing regions of the world are much more likely to see a sustained programme of infrastructure projects over the next decade and beyond.
IMPLICATED EXAMPLES WORLDWIDEPalmJumeirah Island, DubaiBeijing Olympics ArchitectureLevees in New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina
AREAS WHERE GEOTEXTILES ARE USED IN PAKISTANPakistan Motorway M-1 (Islamabad-Peshawar) Geotextiles are laid at 7th - 8th Km portion of road Peshawar Toll Plaza. Karakorum highway. At some places where soil remains under wet conditions or land is too soft.Merani dam BaluchistanSabakzai dam project Baluchistan
AREAS WHERE GEOTEXTILE CAN BE USED IN PAKISTAN For constructing of roads where heavy traffic is more common Geotextiles is an added advantage The use of Geo-Textiles can increase the road life by 10 to 15 years and reduce cost.For lining of canals and dams to prevents water leakage by using Geo-Membrane clay liners. Seepage of water from canals is a major problem and up to 20% water is reported as lost in Pakistan.Floating covers for water reservoirs in Pakistan to prevent evaporation of water.Water transport utilizing Geo-Membranes.Improvement in the use of water in agriculture in Pakistan involving the use of Geo-Membranes.
FUNCTIONS OF GEOTEXTILES SeperationFiltrationDrainage Reinforcements
RAW MATERIAL Natural fibers which are commonly used are jute, flax, coconut matting, cotton and straw. Geotextiles are made from polypropylene, polyester, polyethylene, polyamide (nylon), polyvinylidene chloride, and fiberglass. Polypropylene and polyester are mostly used .
TYPES OF GEOTEXTILE Woven
PROPERTIES OF GEOTEXTILES
The three main properties which are required and specified for geo textile are;
Mechanical propertyFiltration abilityChemical resistance
SPECIFICATIONSType: Woven geo textileLoom type: Narrow loomRaw material: PolypropyleneWeave design: Plain 1/1Weft: Tape yarn of polypropylene is usedWarp: Multi filament polypropylene yarn is used.Warp: 207 TexWeft: 129.78 TexEnds/inch: 17Picks/inch: 13
NARROW LOOM , NTU
SAMPLE OF GEOTEXTILE
RECOMMENDATIONSGeo textile is a new field, which appears with in the short span of time very rapidly in the world. Main obstacle to the growth of geo textiles in Pakistan : is the level of human expertisegrowth of technical textile is the absence of legislative encouragements on part of the government. If government of Pakistan takes interest, we can use our scientific expertise in the field of geo textile, and also save our foreign exchange and also reduce their cost, because that field is a future demand in recent years.Support of government of Pakistan is required to develop the base for the technical textile education.Government level incentives should be announced to encourage the industries for the production of technical textiles and the end users should be encouraged for geo synthetics uses.Human resource development for the specific technical textiles
RECOMMENDATIONSExperimental work should be encouraged for the development of technical textiles.Continuous awareness program should be conducted for all the stake holders. It should be added as a major course among the textile universities course line.Research and advisory centers should be established all over the country. Testing and standardization should be developed at the centers to make the standards developed for the technical textiles
Several positive schemes in 11th five year plan (2007 2012) to support the growth of nonwoven and technical textile industry. National Mission for Technical Textiles launched in 2007a budget of US$ 170 million for the next five year period. Technical textile industry growth target is 12-15 billion dollars by 2012.Indian Government has planned to invest in 20 centers of excellence
What is India doing?
ReferencesA R Horrocks and S C Anad, eds 2000,Handbook of Technical Textiles,Woodhead Publishing Ltd. ASTM (1994), Annual Books of ASTM Standards, American Society Testing andMaterials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Volume 4.08 (1), Soil and Rock. Volume 4.08 (2)David Rigby Associates (2009) Retrived January 20,2009,from www.davidrigby-associates.comEngineering use of geotextiles, 20 July 1995ARMY TM 5-818-8Air force AFJMAN 32-1030 Technical manual . WASHINGTON, DC, 20 July 1995.GS.Hwang,C.K.Lu,M.F.Lin,B.L.Hwu and W.H.Hsing, Text.Res.J .69(1999)pp.565-569.M.Pritchard, 1999,Vegetable fiber geotextiles,Phd dissertation .University of Bolton .UKK.R.Lekha,Geotex,Geomembrane22(2004) pp.399-413Koerner , R. M., 1993Designing with Geosynthetics, Third edition, Prentice Hall.P R Rankilor 28 May-1st June 1977,Designing with Terram, a Technical design manual published by ICI fibers Terramdivision,PR Rankilor, 1990The fundamentals definition and classification of warp knitted DSF geotextiles for civil engineering and geotechnical end usesInternational geotextiles societys 4 th international conference on Geotextiles,Geomembrane and related products, ,pp819-823.R M Koerner and J P Welsh 1980,Construction and Geotechnical Engineering using Synthetic fabrics ,John Wiley & Sons ,New York .Y.Wang,Journal of Ind. Text.30(2001)pp.53-64Van Zanten, R. V. (1986). Geotextiles and Geomembranes in Civil Engineering, A. A. Balkema Publ., Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 685 pgs.
The author acknowledge Malik Asad Awan, Sheharyar Hafeez, Rana Muhammad Touseef Anwar and staff of National Textile University .
Classification of Geosynthetics
The government should start by giving research incentives to textile industries and end users for the production and use of geo textiles, and eventually as the industry progress there is also a possibility of making the use of geo synthetics mandatory. Industrialists in Pakistan might resist the change from conventional products to this innovative market. There is an initial risk involved, but the idea is to create awareness that opportunity cost is still very high. The coating materials mainly used in the geo synthetics we are all imported from outsides from Pakistan. If government of Pakistan takes interest, we can use our scientific expertise in the field of geo textile, and also save our foreign exchange and also reduced their cost, because that field is a future demand in recent years.