Geomechanical Assessment of Seismicity from Hydraulic ... Geomechanical Assessment of Seismicity from

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  • Geomechanical Assessment of Seismicity from Hydraulic Fracturing

    Shawn Maxwell Induced Seismicity Workshop May 2015

  • Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    NRCan Reported Earthquakes NEBC/NWAB

  • CAPP Guidelines/Industry Protocols

    Assess Hazard

    Communicate/ Prepare

    Monitor

    Respond (Mitigate)

    Avoid Faults

    • Geomechanical conditions • Past seismicity • Local experiences • Risk (public/infrastructure)

    • Alter well design • Alter staging

    • Mitigation plan • Authorize reaction

    BCOGC&AER >M 4 M 2-4

  • Repsol Case Study

    Maxwell, Zhang, Damjanac, Mas Ivars, Pérez Pérez and Stockhausen: EAGE 2015

    Shear (m)

    Mw=-0.1

  • AER: Duvernay Shale

    NRCAN website

    AER Subsurface order 2015-007: Mandatory monitoring to at least ML 2

    “must implement its induced seismicity plan in a manner that eliminates or reduces further seismic events caused by or resulting from hydraulic fracturing operations.”

  • Changing Injection Parameters

    7

    4

    2

    0

    -2

    M a

    gn it

    u d

    e

    4

    2

    0

    -2

    M a

    gn it

    u d

    e

    Orange symbols: Montney induced seismicity Courtesy Dan Walker BCOGC

  • Microseismic Geomechanics Pore Pressure Fracture Opening

    Fracture Shearing Synthetic Microseismic

  • Horn River Basin

    fault

    well

    clusters

    Case 1 Case 2 Case 3

    (Snelling et al, 2010)

  • Induced Seismicity Application: Fault Activation

    10

    10

  • Relative Seismic Hazard

  • Microseismic Fault Activation Example

    Time (min)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120

    S e is

    m ic

    M o

    m e n

    t (N

    m )

    0

    1e+7

    2e+7

    3e+7

    4e+7

    5e+7

    6e+7

    P re

    s s u

    re (

    p s i)

    -6000

    -4000

    -2000

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    R a te

    ( b

    p m

    )

    -10

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    Triggered Tectonic Energy Release

    Induced Hydraulic Fracture Energy ReleaseSPE116596

  • Energy Release Rate Trends

    Time (min)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120

    S e is

    m ic

    M o

    m e n

    t (N

    m )

    0

    1e+7

    2e+7

    3e+7

    4e+7

    5e+7

    6e+7

    P re

    s s u

    re (

    p s i)

    -6000

    -4000

    -2000

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    R a te

    ( b

    p m

    )

    -10

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    Time (min)

    0 50 100 150 200 250

    P re

    ss ur

    e (M

    P a)

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    R at

    e (m

    3 /m in

    )

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    S ei

    sm ic

    M om

    en t (

    N m

    )

    0

    2e+8

    4e+8

    6e+8

    8e+8

    1e+9

  • Can We Manage Aseismic Fault Creep?

    Time (min)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120

    E ff

    ic ie

    n c y

    1e-10

    1e-9

    1e-8

    1e-7

    1e-6

    Microseismic

    Aseismic Hydraulic Energy (J)

    1e+7 1e+8 1e+9 1e+10 1e+11 1e+12 1e+13 1e+14 1e+15

    S ei

    sm ic

    E ne

    rg y

    (J )

    1e+0

    1e+1

    1e+2

    1e+3

    1e+4

    1e+5

    1e+6

    1e+7

    1e+8

    1e+9

    1e+10

    1e+11

    1e+12

    Original NEBC HRB (stage) HRB (pad) PH (stage) PH (well)

    1%100%

    .01%

    .0001%

    .000001%

    Maximum

    Blackpool

    ?

    Can we push to many small events (manage b-value)?

    Can we manage aseismic ‘creep’?

  • Controlled vs Unintentional Slip?

    Board et al., 1982

    Tadokoro et al., 2000

    Rangely Colorado

    Rayleigh et al., 1976

  • Magnitude Calibration

    Sonley and Atkinson, 2005

    BCOGC & AER

    >M 4 M 2-4

  • Key Questions

    17

    Definition of ‘best practices’

    How can we better characterize (conditions & hazard)?

    Reliability of traffic light systems?

    Cumulative effect of repeated fracturing?

    What is the effectiveness of various mitigation options?

    Does $50 bbl oil reduce hazard??