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ABSTRACTS AND REPORT. 371
Nevertheless, on account of the large number of fcetuses contained in the gravid horn, the author ventures to believe that, in the present case, surgical intervention would have been difficult and of doubtful value, and that from the economic point of view the owner's decision was the best.
The author, in concluding this short case, indicates the points on which he relied in diagnosing the existence of torsion in one of the uterine horns :-
(I) The position occupied by the uterine horn (lying obliquely from above downwards and forwards) and the semi-torsion of its walls. (Had it been empty it would have lain horizontally and have been contracted.)
(2) The possibility of detecting, by manipulation through the gravid horn and by pressing down the wall immediately in front of the point of torsion, a firm resistant body, which could only be a fcetus.
(3) The very well·marked sensation of weight noted on lifting the horn above the occlusion, a sensation only explicable on the basis of its still containing some of the young. (Cuny, Jour. de MM. vet., October 1908, P·577-)
GENERALISED CARCINOMA IN A HORSE.
THE subject was a bay-brown horse, fourteen years old, that had been in the hospital a number of times during the years 1898 and 1906. Up to the commencement of last March there had been no signs of constitutional disease, but about that time it was noticed that he was losing his appetite and was getting sluggish at his work. On 18th March he was admitted to the infirmary suffering from enteritis. It was not until 2nd April that symptoms appeared which enabled one even to suspect the nature of the disease which eventually caused his death. Frequent examination of the chest indicated dulness in the anterior and middle portions, which was more pronounced on the right side. On auscultating the flank one could hear a slight sound which recalled that heard in pleUrISY with effusion. The animal showed signs of pain, particularly while lying down. Eight hours before death the breathing became accelerated and difficult, but the appetite remained good to the last.
On the 13th April an exploratory puncture was made on the right side of the chest with a fine trochar, and about 6 litres of s.ero-sanguinolent liquid were drawn off. This caused the author to suspect the presence of tumours in the chest.
Death took place on 20th April, and a post-mortem was made immediately. Post-mortem.-On opening the abdominal cavity a quantity of red-tinged
serous fluid escaped. Removal of the intestines was rtndered difficult by the presence of an enormous tumour. This growth had a bosselated surface, was fairly firm, blackish in colour at places, and in close connection with various parts of the alimentary canal. It was situated on the roof of the abdominal cavity, on a level with the pillars of the diaphragm, and surrounded the diaphragmatic flexure of the colon, the jejunum, and the left sac of the stomach. Its lower part was free. On removal its weight was found to be 31"5 kilogrammes. On cutting into it a milky white liquid, somewhat like thin pus, escaped; this was blood-tinged at places. The cut surface was soft and of a yellowish or pinkish white colour. Numerous secondary growths, about the size of a hen's egg, were found in the thickness of the mesentery.
Other lesions were: Congestion of the great omentum, inflammation of the
37 2 ABSTRACTS AND REPORT.
mucous membrane of the small intestine, congestion of the kidneys with slight nephritis, spleen packed with small tumours about the size of a pea, liver normal.
There was a small amount of blood-tinged serous fluid in the pleural sacs; pleura congested but lungs and trachea normal. At the base of the heart there was an irregular mass of tumours, the weight of which was estimated to be 9 or 10 kilogrammes. Some of the glands at the entrance to the chest showed tumours about the size of a hen's egg, from which a milky juice escaped on section; others were healthy. The heart was hypertrophied. The other organs (nasal cavities, larynx, etc.) were normal.
Structun of the GrozlIths.-The neoplasms were enclosed in fairly thick capsules of connective tissue, the outer surface showing prominences that varied in size from a nut to an apple. When cut open they were seen to contain a considerable amount of fluid. The cut surface was yellowish-white in colour and had a lobulated appearance, with h~morrhagic streaks in places. The lobules were clearly marked off by strands of connective tissue derived from the capsule. Microscopical examination showed a considerable amount of connective-tissue matrix surrounding groups of cells of various shapes and sizes. The peripheral groups were narrow, as if compressed by the growth of the tumour. The matrix was rich in blood vessels. There was a considerable amount of "cancer juice" saturating the groups of cells. In some places the cells were disposed in a stratified manner around the periphery of the groups.
The origin of the primary tumour is doubtful; possibly it arose from the epithelial cells of the intestine, considering the number of connections it had with that organ.
Generalisation appeared to have taken place via the lymphatic system, as is usual with epithelial tumours. (Gay and Roquet, Bulletin et Memoires, Soci!:te der Sciences Vf:tf:rillaires de Lyon, NO.5, p. 363, 1908.)
HUMAN AND BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS}
KOCH'S paper (see p. 303) was followed 'by a number of communications from Smith, Boston; Woodhead, Cambridge; Arloing" Lyons; Fibiger, Copenhagen; Raw, Liverpool; Ravenel, Madison, Wis., in which endeav urs were made to shake Koch's standpoint. A real discussion did not take place in this session. To make a discussion successful a special session was held two days later, on the proposal of Koch, before an invited audience, about fifty gentlemen having attended. Biggs, New York, was in the chair. Koch introduced the proceedings with the following remarks :-
"A great difference of views seems to prevail with regard to the question of human and bovine tuberculosis, and I am glad that we have an occasion to enter into the subject in detail. I trust we may be able to prepare an understanding in the matter, although I do not believe that perfect agreement of the various views will be obtainable, as each author, having taking much time to build up his opinion, will be inclined to cling to it until his life's end. What mostly impedes an understanding is the difference of languages and the necessity to translate the remarks of the various orators into several languages, so that a possibility of incorrect interpretation can arise. I would, therefore, urgently beg the various gentlemen to make their remarks as concise as possible, and to keep strictly to the subject without any superfluous additions.
"I would specially propose two points for discussion, the first referring to the remarks of Mr Fibil'er, who contends that bovine tuberculosis is very
1 Report of a discURsion at the International Congress, 'VaRhington, Septemher 1908.