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Gender, Religion & Caste By Mr. Siddharth Chandrasekar

Gender,Religion & Caste

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  • 1. Gender, Religion & Caste
    By Mr. SiddharthChandrasekar

2. What Disadvantages Do Women Face?
Literacy Rate - 54% for women.76% for men showing disparity
Smaller proportion of girls go for higher studies
Preferential treatment meted out to boy`s education rather than for girls
Proportion of women among highly paid and valued job is small
Equal wages Act provides equal wages but discrimination continues in sports, cinema, factories and fields
Preference to have sons and abortion of girl child
Sex selective abortions have led to decline in child sex ratio
Various types of harassment, exploitation and violence
Urban areas too have become unsafe for women
3. Solution To This Problem
To make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in elected bodies
Reservation of 1/3 seats in local bodies
10 lakh elected representatives in rural and urban local bodies
Demand for 1/3 seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies
4. Give A Few Instances That InvolveRelationship Between Religion & Politics.
Gandhiji believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion
Human rights groups demanding the Government to take special steps to protect religious minorities
Women`s movements want Government to change family laws to make it equitable
5. Communalism
To placeones community above everything including the nation
When does it begin?
When religion is seen as the basis of the nation
When does it become acute?
When religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms
When one religion and its followersare pitted against the other
6. Communalism
What factors promote communalism?
Beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions.
When demands of one religiousgroup are formed in opposition to another.
When state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest.
What is Communal Politics?
It is based on the idea that religion is
the principal basis of social community.
7. Communalism
What Do Communalists Think?
Followers of one religion must belong to one community.
Their fundamental interests are same.
People who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community.
8. Communalism
What forms can Communalism take in Politics?
It involves religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one`s religion over other religions.
Communal mind leads to a quest for Political dominance of ones own religious communities.
If it is a Majority community Majoritarian Dominance.
If it is a Minority community It forms a separate Political Unit.
Political mobilisation using symbols, religious leader`s emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in political arena.
Communal violence.
9. Secular State
There is no official religion for India. Constitution does not offerspecial status to any religion.
Constitution provides to all freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.
Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
State will intervene in matters of religion to ensure equality within religious communities. It bans un-touchability.
10. Caste & Politics
Hereditary occupational division sanctioned by rituals.
Members of the same caste group formed similar occupation, married within the caste and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
11. Efforts Taken to Check Casteism
Political leaders and social reformers like JOTHIBHA PHULE,GANDHIJI,AMBEDKAR and EVR PERIYAR have done a lot to check casteism.
Socio economic changes have brought in a check.
Large scale urbanisation.
Literacy and education.
Occupational mobility.
Weakening of the position of landlords.
Constitution prohibited caste based discrimination.
12. Caste & Politics
Why is there a disproportionately large
presence of Upper Caste among Urban Middle
Class ?
Groups that did not have access to education were prohibited from acquiring it have lagged behind.
13. Caste can take various forms in Politics
During the choice of candidates before an election , care is taken that the composition of electorate and nomination of candidates from different castes to muster support to win elections.
During formation of Governments, political parties take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
To make appeals to caste sentiment to muster support.
Universal adult franchise - one person one vote.
14. Elections are all about Caste & nothing else
No parliamentary constituency has a clear majority of one single caste. Every candidate /party must win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections.
No party wins the votes of all voters of a caste /community.
Many political parties may put up candidates from same caste.
Ruling party /sitting MPlosing election could not have happened if all castes and communities were frozen in political preferences.
15. What forms does Caste take when it is Politicised?
Caste group becomes big by including neighbouring castes.
Party enters into a coalition with other castes.
Rise of backward caste and forward caste group.
16. Effects of Exclusive Attention to Caste
Is negative.
Politics based on caste identity alone is not healthy.
Diverts attention from poverty ,development and corruption.
Leads to tension, conflict and even
17. Popular Struggle & Movements
18. Nepal
Won democracy in 1990.
Formal power was with the King.
Real power with elected representatives.
2001 Massacre of Royal Family, Gyanendra took charge.
2005 Dissolution of Parliament.
2006 - Popular control over Govt. headed by the King.
7 Party alliance called for a 4 day strike. Maoists & other organisations joined.
21st April, King conceded to all demands leading to :
Restoration of Parliament.
Seizure of power from the Ruler.
To make Koirala Prime Minister.
Maoists & SPA came to an agreement about a new constituent assembly to be elected.
19. Bolivia
Fight against Privatisation of Water
World Bank pressurised Government to give up control of Municipal Water supply.
Sale of rights to a MNC for the City of Cochabamba.
Company raised the price of water 4 times.
4 day general strike by Labour and Human Rights and Community leaders.
Government agreed to negotiate.
Power of the people forced MNC to flee & made Government to concede to all demands.
Water supply was restored to municipality at old rates.
20. Similarities
21. Differences
22. Two way roles of these organisations are
Direct participation in competitive politics
Creation of parties contesting elections and forming Governments
23. Formation of Organisations
Those organisations that undertake activities to promote their interest are called INTEREST GROUPS or PRESSUREGROUPS.
Influence Government policies
Do not aim at directly controlling or sharing political power.
Formed when people with common occupation, interests, aspirations or opinions come together to achieve a common objective.
24. Pressure Groups
Movements : Narmada BachaoAndolan Womens Movement
Influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition
They are loose organisations
Make informal decisions and are flexible
They depend on spontaneous mass participation
25. Interest Groups
Are united organisations
Do not care much for mass participation
Promote the interest of a particular section or group of society
Example : Trade Unions, Business Associations & Professional Bodies
Sectional Groups

  • Represent a section of society

26. Example : Workers, Employees, Business Groups, Industrialists, Followers of Religion & Caste Groups 27. Aims : Betterment of their members & not society in general