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Slide 1GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Supply and transportation of O2 and other nutrients to the body for muscular contraction
Removal of waste: CO2 and lactic acid
Stabilisation of body temperature – at rest and during exercise
Protection from disease
UNIT 1 - Information
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
The HEART is a CARDIAC MUSCLE
The heart acts as a PUMP in a DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
UNIT 1 - Information
R
L
Capillaries in the body
Capillaries in the lungs
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Transports oxygenated blood around the body (including working muscles) and transports deoxygenated blood back to the heart. (Click here)
Transports deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs where carbon dioxide (CO2) is exchanged for Oxygen (O2), before it returns to the heart. (Click here)
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L
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
The RIGH HAND SIDE of the heart pumps DEOXYGENATED BLOOD returning from the body:
Deoxygenated blood flows through the VENA CAVA RIGHT ATRIUM RIGHT VENTRICLE PULMONARY ARTERY to the LUNGS for oxygenation
UNIT 1 - Information
Pulmonary artery
Vena cava
Right atrium
Tricuspid valve
Right ventricle
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
UNIT 1 - Information
The LEFT HAND SIDE of the heart pumps OXYGENATED BLOOD returning from the lungs:
Oxygenated blood through the PULMONARY VEIN LEFT ATRIUM LEFT VENTRICLE AORTA to body.
Show path of oxygenated blood
Oxygenated blood to the body
Aorta
Pulmonary vein
Right atrium
Bicuspid valve
Right ventricle
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
‘The number of times the heart beats in one minute.’
At rest it beats between 50 and 80 times per minute. When more blood is required by the muscles during exercise, the heart rate can increase to over 200 beats per minute, pumping around 45 litres around the body.
Heart rate varies according to age, fitness and health.
UNIT 1 - Information
STROKE VOLUME (SV)
‘The amount of blood forced out of the heart (left ventricle) per beat.’
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO)
‘The amount of blood pumped out of the heart (left ventricle) in one minute.’
Cardiac output varies depending on the intensity of the exercise and the fitness levels of the person.
UNIT 1 - Information
CO = HR × SV
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Blood is made up of 4 elements:
UNIT 1 - Information
Red Blood Cells
Most important function is to transport O2 (oxygen) to muscle cells to allow energy release and movement.
White Blood Cells
Their chief function is to protect the body against disease.
Platelets
Plasma
Makes up 55% of the total blood volume, 92% of which is water. It contains dissolved food and takes away waste – CO2. Proteins and amino acids are transported to cells in the body and used for growth and repair.
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
BLOOD VESSELS
Blood is transported from the heart around the body and back to the heart in blood vessels.
There are 3 types of blood vessels.
UNIT 1 - Information
These branch off into ARTERIOLES – smaller, but more numerous
When it reaches the muscles, blood passes into CAPILLARIES – even smaller, but more numerous.
At the capillaries, the blood gives up its oxygen and takes in carbon dioxide
The blood starts its journey BACK to the heart in small, narrow veins called VENULES
The blood then passes into larger VEINS before returning to the heart
Oxygen diffuses from blood into tissues through thin capillary walls. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the tissues into the blood
Artery
Vein
Venules
Arterioles
Capillaries
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
BLOOD PRESSURE
The force of blood against the artery walls.
With exercise, the heart has to work to supply more O2 to muscles. As a result, the force of blood leaving the heart increases and blood pressure increases.
Blood pressure is easily measured by taking the pressure at an artery in the arm.
SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is the pressure of blood flow on the arteries when the LEFT VENTRICLE CONTRACTS.
DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is the pressure of blood flow on the arteries when the LEFT VENTRICLE RELAXES.
UNIT 1 - Information
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
BLOOD PRESSURE
The average blood pressure reading for a young adult is 120/80.
Factors which can affect blood pressure:
AGE, SEX, EXERCISE INTENSITY, STRESS, CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, FITNESS
Ways in which blood pressure can be reduced:
REGULAR EXERCISE, SENSIBLE DIET, AVOID STRESS, MEDICATION
The blood flow and blood distribution change according to the demand of exercising. The working parts of the body need to be supplied with the necessary amounts of O2
The re-distribution of blood is called the VASCULAR SHUNT
UNIT 1 - Information
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
BLOOD PRESSURE
Blood flow to the muscles and the skin will increase during exercise. Blood flow to the kidneys and digestive system will decrease during exercise.
The heat produced by the body increases as the INTENSITY and DURATION of exercise increases.
To control high body temperature, blood is diverted to the capillaries just below the skin – this causes the skin to redden and heat from the blood is then RADIATED from the skin. This widening of the capillaries is called VASODILATION.
To control low body temperature, the capillaries VASO CONSTRICT – become narrower, therefore reducing heat loss by radiation. Muscles begin to ‘shiver’ – small contractions which provide ‘heat’.
UNIT 1 - Information
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
BLOOD PRESSURE
Another way of combating overheating is by SWEATING. Sweat is formed in sweat glands under the skin. Sweating is caused by the EVAPORATION of sweat from the skin’s surface.
UNIT 1 - Information
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Group Discussion
‘As a result of regular Aerobic Training, the heart gets bigger (HYPERTROPHY). How does this effect :
Stroke volume,
(Blood Pathway)
Mapping exercise
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
(2mins/15mins)
Group Discussion
‘How would heart rate differ between a short period of anaerobic work and a longer period of aerobic work?’
Discussion
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Use the following 2 diagrams to relate heart rate to physical activity:
1) The graph below shows the heart rate of two sixteen year old athletes when training at the same intensity. Explain why athlete B is the fittest athlete.
UNIT 1 – Practical Application
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
2) The graph below shows the heart rate of an eighteen year old badminton player during a game.
Give two pieces of evidence to suggest that this player is a fit competitor.
UNIT 1 – Practical Application
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
During the game the player’s heart rate reaches 220 beats per minute (BPM). Calculate the player’s maximum heart rate (MHR) during the game.
What evidence is there to suggest that this player worked both aerobically and anaerobically during the game?
UNIT 1 – Practical Application
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
UNIT 1 - Activity
Match the parts of the heart and connecting blood vessels to their function. [Click here to see diagram]
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary vein
Left atrium
Bicuspid valve
Left ventricle
Receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein
A two-flapped valve separating the left atrium from the left ventricle
The biggest chamber of the heart, which pumps oxygenated blood around the body
Main artery which takes oxygenated blood from heart to the rest of the body
The main vein which brings deoxygenated blood back to heart from lower body
The main vein which brings deoxygenated blood back to heart from upper body
The chamber where deoxygenated blood enters the heart
The three-flapped valve separating the right atrium from the right ventricle
The chamber which pumps deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Aorta
Pulmonary vein
Left atrium
Bicuspid valve
Left ventricle
Pulmonary artery
Vena cava
Right atrium
Tricuspid valve
Right ventricle
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Explain the relationship between cardiac output (Q) and exercise intensity.
Explain how the heart’s structure is adapted to its function.
What is blood pressure?
What is systolic pressure?
What is diastolic pressure?
What is the normal blood pressure reading for a young person?
Give five factors that can affect blood pressure.
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Why can narrowing or blocking of blood vessels be dangerous?
Give five ways blood pressure can be reduced.
Define the following terms:
Give two differences between cardiac and skeletal muscle.
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
UNIT 1 - Activity
Complete the following description of the blood’s journey from the heart around the body and back to the heart by dragging the correct word from the list below:
Blood is transported from the heart around the __________ and back to the heart in ______________________. There are ___________ types of blood vessel. These branch off into ________________. These are smaller but are more numerous. When it gets to the muscles, blood passes into the ___________. These are even smaller, but there are millions of them. At the capillaries, the blood gives up its _______________ and takes in _______________. The blood starts its journey back to the heart in small veins called ________________. The blood then passes into larger _______________ before returning to the heart.
body
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
UNIT 1 - Activity
Explain four ways in which blood helps the body during exercise.
Complete the table to show how the constituents (parts) of blood help us when doing sport.
The path that the blood takes can be described as a double loop. What is each loop called?
CONSTITUENT
Red blood cells
Plasma
Carrying fuel, in the from of food, to the working muscles and takes away waste such as CO2
White blood cells
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
UNIT 1 - Activity
How would a 1500m runner benefit from higher levels of red blood cells?
Complete the following table:
Types of blood vessel
1.
Carry oxygenated blood at high pressure from heart to the body. These are the thickest blood vessels. They swell as the blood is forced through then recoil back to normal. You can feel your pulse in them.
2. Capillaries
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
UNIT 1 - Activity
X on the graph shows how a sports person’s heart rate responds to a 10 minute run at 12kmph and how it recovers.
Y shows the heart rate response to the same run after a period of regular endurance training.
Explain the reasons for the changed heart rate pattern.
BPM
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
How does regular aerobic training affect stroke volume?
How does this affect a person’s heart rate and cardiac output when running at a medium pace for 5 minutes?
Information/Discussion
GCSE Physical Education
The Function of the Cardiovascular System in Facilitating and Improving Movement
MAIN MENU
SECTION B
Double circuit