Full Body Gait Measures - Mobility ... Full Body Gait Measures Gait measures are detected, analyzed,

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  • Full Body Gait Measures Gait measures are detected, analyzed, and averaged over the extent of the walking duration of the subject. Measures can also be broken down on a stride-by-stride basis when exported to Excel. All measures are assessed for Asymmetry and Variability [5].

    Measures Unit Description

    Lower Limb GaitLower Limb GaitLower Limb Gait

    Stride Velocity m/s Gait speed Normalized %Stature/s Average gait speed normalized for height Stride Length meters Distance between two consecutive heel strikes Normalized %Stature Stride distance normalized for height Gait Cycle Time (GCT) seconds Duration of a complete gait cycle Double Support % of GCT Percentage of a gait cycle that both feet are on the ground Swing % of GCT Percentage of a gait cycle that either foot is off the ground Stance % of GCT Percentage of a gait cycle that either foot is on the ground Knee Range of Motion degrees Range of motion of the knee Leg Range of Motion degrees RoM of shanks; averaged of the left and right sides.

    Upper Limb GaitUpper Limb GaitUpper Limb Gait

    Arm Swing Velocity deg/s Peak (95%) angular velocity of arms. Arm Swing Range of Motion Degrees Range of motion of arms during arm-swing. Trunk Range of Motion Degrees Average range of motion of trunk (sternum) Sagittal RoM Degrees RoM of trunk in sagittal plane. Frontal RoM Degrees RoM of trunk in frontal plane. Horizontal RoM Degrees RoM of trunk in horizontal plane.

    References [1] Arash Salarian, Heike Russmann, Franois J G Vingerhoets, Catherine Dehollain, Yves Blanc, Pierre R

    Burkhard, and Kamiar Aminian, Gait assessment in parkinson’s disease: toward an ambulatory system for long-term monitoring., IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 51 (2004), no. 8, 1434–1443.

    [2] Meir Plotnik, Nir Giladi, and Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Bilateral coordination of walking and freezing of gait in parkinson’s disease., Eur J Neurosci 27 (2008), no. 8, 1999–2006 (eng).

    [3] Meir Plotnik and Jeffrey M Hausdorff, The role of gait rhythmicity and bilateral coordination of stepping in the pathophysiology of freezing of gait in parkinson’s disease., Mov Disord 23 Suppl 2 (2008), S444–S450 (eng).

    [4] Arash Salarian, Fay B Horak, Cris Zampieri, Patricia Carlson-Kuhta, John G Nutt, and Kamiar Aminian, iTUG, a sensitive and reliable measure of mobility., IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 18 (2010), no. 3, 303–310.

    [5] A. Sant’Anna, A. Salarian, and N. Wickstrom, A new measure of movement symmetry in early parkinson’s disease patients using symbolic processing of inertial sensor data, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 58 (2011), no. 7, 2127–2135.

    APDM, Inc. ♦ 2828 SW Corbett Avenue ♦ Portland, OR 97201 Phone: 888-988-APDM (2736) ♦ Fax: 888-371-8370 ♦ http://apdm.com ♦ info@apdm.com

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  • Postural Transition Measures Postural transitions are detected, analyzed, and averaged over the extent of the walking duration of the subject. These measures are segmented by gait cycle when exported to Excel.

    Measures Unit Description

    TurningTurningTurning

    Duration seconds Duration of a 180 degree turn Peak Turn Velocity deg/s Peak (95%) angular velocity of trunk during turning Number of Step number Total number of steps during 180 degree turn Step Time seconds Average step duration during turning Step Time Before Turn seconds The last step duration before entering a turn

    Sit-to-Stand Sit-to-Stand Sit-to-Stand

    Duration seconds Duration from seated position to standing Velocity deg/s Peak (95%) angular velocity of trunk in sagittal plane Range of Motion degrees Range of motion of trunk in sagittal plane

    Turn-to-Sit Turn-to-Sit Turn-to-Sit

    Duration seconds Duration of 180 degree turn and sit transition Velocity deg/s Peak (95%) angular velocity of trunk during transition Range of Motion degrees Range of motion of trunk in sagittal plane during transition

    Anticipatory Postural Adjustment (APA)Anticipatory Postural Adjustment (APA)Anticipatory Postural Adjustment (APA)

    Duration seconds Time of APA onset to heel strike Stepping Leg RoM Degrees Range of motion of the shank during the first step Amplitude accel (g) Peak acceleration of trunk in preparation of step (ML + AP) Latency seconds Time of APA onset (trunk begins to move) to toe off

    References [1] A. Salarian, F. B. Horak, C. Zampieri et al., “ITUG, a sensitive and reliable measure of mobility,”

    IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 303-310, 2010.

    [2] A. Salarian, H. Russmann, F. J. G. Vingerhoets et al., “Gait Assessment in Parkinson's Disease: Toward an Ambulatory System for Long-Term Monitoring,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1434-1443, Aug., 2004.

    [3] M. Mancini, C. Zampieri, P. Carlson-Kuhta, L. Chiari, F.B. Horak. “Anticipatory postural adjustments prior to step initiation are hypometric in untreated Parkinson’s disease: An accelerometer-based approach,” European Journal of the Neurology 16(9):1028-34, Epub Apr 16, 2009.

    [4] A. Salarian, C. Zampieri, F. B. Horak, P. Carlson-Kuhta, J. G. Nutt, and K. Aminian, “Analyzing 180° turns using an inertial system reveals early signs of progression of parkinson’s disease,” EMBC 2009. Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pp. 224-227, 2009.

    APDM, Inc. ♦ 2828 SW Corbett Avenue ♦ Portland, OR 97201 Phone: 888-988-APDM (2736) ♦ Fax: 888-371-8370 ♦ http://apdm.com ♦ info@apdm.com

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  • Postural Sway Measures All postural sway measures are assessed using the Opal™ movement monitor placed on a subject’s lumbar. All measures are reported in both medio-lateral (ML) and antero-posterior (AP) directions.

    37 additional measures of balance can be exported to Excel separated into three categories: Jerkiness, Time-Domain, and Frequency-Domain. All details are in Mancini M. et al. [1].

    Measures Unit Description

    Sway Area % of Normal Total sway area over the duration of the test Sway Range % of Normal Range of postural sway in both ML and AP directions. Sway Velocity % of Normal Average trunk velocity Jerk % of Normal Smoothness of trunk sway Visual Dependence % of Normal Postural sway eyes open vs eyes closed Proprioceptive Dependence % of Normal Postural sway hard surface vs foam surface

    References [1] Mancini M, Salarian A, Carlson-Kuhta P, Zampieri C, King L, Chiari L, Horak FB, “ISway: a sensitive,

    valid and reliable measure of postural control,” J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2012 August.

    [2] Mancini, M., Horak, F.B., Carlson-Kuhta, P., Chiari, L. “Accelerometers provide a sensitive measure of postural abnormalities in untreated Parkinson’s disease.” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 2011 Aug;17(7): 557-62.

    [3] Mancini M, Carlson-Kuhta P, Zampieri C, Nutt JG, Chiari L, Horak FB. “Postural sway as a marker of progression in Parkinson's disease: a pilot longitudinal study.” Gait Posture. 2012 Jul;36(3): 471-6.

    APDM, Inc. ♦ 2828 SW Corbett Avenue ♦ Portland, OR 97201 Phone: 888-988-APDM (2736) ♦ Fax: 888-371-8370 ♦ http://apdm.com ♦ info@apdm.com

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  • Sensor Configuration Measures

    Postural Sway Only Postural Sway, Lower Limb Gait, Turning, APA

    Postural Sway, Lower Limb Gait, Upper Limb Gait,

    Turning, APA, Sit and Stand

    Measures 1 Opal System 3 Opal System 6 Opal System

    BalanceBalanceBalanceBalance

    Sway Area

    Sway Range

    Sway Velocity

    Jerk

    Sway Range

    Lower Limb Gait MeasuresLower Limb Gait MeasuresLower Limb Gait MeasuresLower Limb Gait Measures

    Stride Velocity

    Stride Length

    Gait Cycle Time

    Double Support

    Swing

    Stance

    Knee Range of Motion

    Leg Range of Motion

    APDM, Inc. ♦ 2828 SW Corbett Avenue ♦ Portland, OR 97201 Phone: 888-988-APDM (2736) ♦ Fax: 888-371-8370 ♦ http://apdm.com ♦ info@apdm.com

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  • Lower Limb Gait MeasuresLower Limb Gait MeasuresLower Limb Gait MeasuresLower Limb Gait Measures

    Arm Swing Velocity

    Arm Swing Range of Motion

    Trunk Range of Motion

    TurningTurningTurningTurning

    Duration

    Peak Turn Velocity

    Number of Step

    Step Time

    Step Time Before Turn

    Sit-to-Stand MeasuresSit-to-Stand MeasuresSit-to-Stand MeasuresSit-to-Stand Measures

    Duration

    Velocity

    Range of Motion

    Turn-to-Sit MeasuresTurn-to-Sit MeasuresTurn-to-Sit MeasuresTurn-to-Sit Measures

    Duration

    Velocity

    Range of Motion

    Anticipatory Postural Adjustment (APA)Anticipatory Postural Adjustment (APA)Anticipatory Postural Adjustment (APA)Anticipatory Postural Adjustment (APA)

    Duration

    Stepping Leg RoM

    Amplitude

    Latency

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  • Mobility Lab Protocol Measures Measures iSway iCTSIB iWALK iTUG iSAW

    BalanceBalanceBalanceBalanceBalanceBalance

    Sway Area

    Sway Range

    Sway