From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning Environments

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From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning Environments. Yvan Peter LIFL Universit Lille 1 - France. Course objectives. Give an idea of the specific issues arising from the design & development of mobile learning Provide example works that illustrate these issues. E-Learning. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning EnvironmentsYvan PeterLIFL Universit Lille 1 - France

  • Course objectivesGive an idea of the specific issues arising from the design & development of mobile learning

    Provide example works that illustrate these issues

  • E-LearningOccur through a Virtual Learning Environment or Learning Management SystemManages users (course registration)Provides a structure for coursesGives access to learning resourcesCan be collaborative or notCollaborative features can beSynchronous (chat, IM, videoconference)Asynchronous (mail, forums, blogs)

  • E-LearningWeb based systemProvides access anywhere, anytimeLMS & resources target PC platformKnown screen size, input and output capabilitiesStable connectivity (more or less)

  • E-Learning architectureMulti-tier architecturePresentation layerData layerLogic layer

  • E-Learning architectureExample with Java technologyPresentation layerData layerLogic layerServletsJSPTag librariesEnterprise JavaBeansPersistent storee.g., relational database

  • E-Learning architecture

  • Mobile, pervasive, ubiquitous[Lyytinen & Youngjin, 2002]Level of embeddednessLevel of mobilityPervasive computingTraditional computingUbiquitous computingMobile computingHighLowLowHigh

  • Mobile, pervasive, ubiquitous[Lyytinen & Youngjin, 2002]Level of embeddednessLevel of mobilityPervasive computingTraditional computingUbiquitous computingMobile computingHighLowLowHigh

  • Enabling technologiesSmaller (cheaper) and more powerful devices, embedded technologyAvailable anywhere, anytimeWireless networksEnable connectivity in an infrastructure or ad hoc mannerSensors and location awarenessProvide context information

  • Elements of designManagement & use of contextLearning in & across contextsRelation betweenDevicesTasks / activitiesSocial aspects

  • Context and its use

  • A few words on context

    Used to drive adaptationOf resources, activities, interfacesContext is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves [Dey, 2001]

  • A few words on context

    Used to drive adaptationOf resources, activities, interfacesContext is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves [Dey, 2001]And/or to the learning experienceAnd also between users through the application

  • Classification by context use[Froehberg, 2006]Context aware systems

  • Sample context aware applicationsDigital contextVirus game [Collela, 2000]Simulates spreading of a virusSystem is driven by approaching peopleSavannahLearn to be a lionPredefined areas trigger events & media

  • Sample context aware applicationsPhysical contextAmbient Wood [Harris et al, 2004, Rogers et al, 2005]Environment related access to mediaData collection

  • The case of locationLocation is THE main context of many mobile learning systemsLocation can be computed in various waysExplicit localisationGPS (outdoor)Triangulation : Wifi spots or cellular network antennasCurrent cell in cellular networkImplicit localisationAny id reading : QR code/datamatrix, RFIDBluetooth detection

  • Reference model for mobile social software[de Jong et al, 2008]Context dimensions

  • Device aspect

  • Device AspectThe form factor has an impact on the interaction & activity supportWeightScreen sizeInput/output capabilities

  • Device AspectDevice performance and function will also have their importanceProcessing powerMemoryBattery lifeCommunication media supported (bluetooth, Wifi, 3G)Sensors : GPS, camera

  • Wireless communicationPersonal Area Network (PAN)Local Area Network (LAN)MobilePhone networksBluetoothWifiGSM (low bandwidth)GPRS (medium bandwidth)UMTS (high bandwidth)HSDPA (high bandwidth)~10 meters rangeDevice discovery~100 meters rangeInfrastructure or ad hoc

  • Technical frameworks

  • Types of technologiesType of clientThin clientThrough the devices browserFat clientRequires software deploymentType of communicationClient-serverAd hoc / peer-to-peer

  • Thin clientRequiresA browser on the deviceGood connectivityProblemsPull modeHistorical development of mobile markupLocation is not transmitted by the browserExcept blackberry

  • Thin client : markup & protocolsWAP 1.x & Wireless Markup Language (WML)Imode & CHTMLWAP 2.0 & XHTML Mobile Profile

  • Thin clientKnowing the device (& the user)CC/PP (Composite Capabilities/Preference Profiles)RDF vocabulary to defineDevice hardware & softwareUser preferences

  • Thin clientKnowing the device (& the user)UAProf (User Agent Profile)Definition of the WAP 2.0 protocol extension to support profile transmissionUses CC/PP vocabulary

  • Thin clientDevice Context Delivery (DELI) from HP Labsoftware library to handle CC/PP & UAProfhttp://delicon.sourceforge.netWURLF (Wireless Universal Resource File)Open source project to provideA database of device specifications (XML file)APIs to take advantage of the databasePHP, Java, Perl, Ruby, Pythonhttp://wurfl.sourceforge.net/

  • Fat clientDevelopment depends on the system

    ProblemsNeeds software deploymentHeterogeneity of hardware & software

  • Fat clientDevelopment environment.NetRequires Windows mobile (PDA)JavaNeed a JVM on deviceFlashLiteNeeds a player on device

  • Fat client : Java

  • Flash LiteThe mobile version of Flash player & development environmentProgramming language : ActionScriptWith restricted features compared to PC platform

  • Flash Lite

  • Mobile WidgetsInformation specific interface to be embedded on the user interfaceAt the time very much tied to the vendor environment

  • Frameworks & architectures

  • AMULETS project [Skipol et al, 2008]Innovative learning activitiesCollaborative learningIn contextAuthentic setting (supported by ubiquitous technologies)

  • AMULETS architecture[Skipol et al, 2009]

  • Reference ArchitectureReference Architecture for Context-Aware Learning Support Systems [Schmidt, 2008]6 layers architecture

  • Reference ArchitectureInterface level context awareness[Schmidt, 2008]

  • Reference Architecture: in useApplied in the Learning in Process projectIntegration of working and learning on a process levelLearning management, knowledge management, human capital management and collaboration solutions on a technical level

  • Reference Architecture: in use[Schmidt, 2008]

  • Reference Architecture: in use[Schmidt, 2008]

  • MobilearnNext-generation paradigms and interfaces for technology supported learning in a mobile environment exploring the potential of ambient intelligence

  • Mobilearn architecture

  • Open Mobile ApplicationFramework (OMAF)[Dahn, 2003]

  • Conclusion

  • Maturity is still aheadHeterogeneity of hardware platforms & software environments is a big issueThere is no consensus yet on the definition of the relevant services for mobile learning

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