From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning Environments

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From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning Environments. Yvan Peter LIFL Universit Lille 1 - France. Course objectives. Give an idea of the specific issues arising from the design & development of mobile learning Provide example works that illustrate these issues. E-Learning. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning EnvironmentsYvan PeterLIFL Universit Lille 1 - FranceCourse objectivesGive an idea of the specific issues arising from the design & development of mobile learningProvide example works that illustrate these issuesE-LearningOccur through a Virtual Learning Environment or Learning Management SystemManages users (course registration)Provides a structure for coursesGives access to learning resourcesCan be collaborative or notCollaborative features can beSynchronous (chat, IM, videoconference)Asynchronous (mail, forums, blogs)E-LearningWeb based systemProvides access anywhere, anytimeLMS & resources target PC platformKnown screen size, input and output capabilitiesStable connectivity (more or less)E-Learning architectureMulti-tier architecturePresentation layerData layerLogic layerE-Learning architectureExample with Java technologyPresentation layerData layerLogic layerServletsJSPTag librariesEnterprise JavaBeansPersistent storee.g., relational databaseE-Learning architectureMobile, pervasive, ubiquitous[Lyytinen & Youngjin, 2002]Level of embeddednessLevel of mobilityPervasive computingTraditional computingUbiquitous computingMobile computingHighLowLowHighMobile, pervasive, ubiquitous[Lyytinen & Youngjin, 2002]Level of embeddednessLevel of mobilityPervasive computingTraditional computingUbiquitous computingMobile computingHighLowLowHighEnabling technologiesSmaller (cheaper) and more powerful devices, embedded technologyAvailable anywhere, anytimeWireless networksEnable connectivity in an infrastructure or ad hoc mannerSensors and location awarenessProvide context informationElements of designManagement & use of contextLearning in & across contextsRelation betweenDevicesTasks / activitiesSocial aspectsContext and its useA few words on contextUsed to drive adaptationOf resources, activities, interfacesContext is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves [Dey, 2001]A few words on contextUsed to drive adaptationOf resources, activities, interfacesContext is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves [Dey, 2001]And/or to the learning experienceAnd also between users through the applicationClassification by context use[Froehberg, 2006]Context aware systemsSample context aware applicationsDigital contextVirus game [Collela, 2000]Simulates spreading of a virusSystem is driven by approaching peopleSavannahLearn to be a lionPredefined areas trigger events & mediaSample context aware applicationsPhysical contextAmbient Wood [Harris et al, 2004, Rogers et al, 2005]Environment related access to mediaData collectionThe case of locationLocation is THE main context of many mobile learning systemsLocation can be computed in various waysExplicit localisationGPS (outdoor)Triangulation : Wifi spots or cellular network antennasCurrent cell in cellular networkImplicit localisationAny id reading : QR code/datamatrix, RFIDBluetooth detectionReference model for mobile social software[de Jong et al, 2008]Context dimensionsDevice aspectDevice AspectThe form factor has an impact on the interaction & activity supportWeightScreen sizeInput/output capabilitiesDevice AspectDevice performance and function will also have their importanceProcessing powerMemoryBattery lifeCommunication media supported (bluetooth, Wifi, 3G)Sensors : GPS, cameraWireless communicationPersonal Area Network (PAN)Local Area Network (LAN)MobilePhone networksBluetoothWifiGSM (low bandwidth)GPRS (medium bandwidth)UMTS (high bandwidth)HSDPA (high bandwidth)~10 meters rangeDevice discovery~100 meters rangeInfrastructure or ad hoc Technical frameworksTypes of technologiesType of clientThin clientThrough the devices browserFat clientRequires software deploymentType of communicationClient-serverAd hoc / peer-to-peerThin clientRequiresA browser on the deviceGood connectivityProblemsPull modeHistorical development of mobile markupLocation is not transmitted by the browserExcept blackberryThin client : markup & protocolsWAP 1.x & Wireless Markup Language (WML)Imode & CHTMLWAP 2.0 & XHTML Mobile ProfileThin clientKnowing the device (& the user)CC/PP (Composite Capabilities/Preference Profiles)RDF vocabulary to defineDevice hardware & softwareUser preferencesThin clientKnowing the device (& the user)UAProf (User Agent Profile)Definition of the WAP 2.0 protocol extension to support profile transmissionUses CC/PP vocabularyThin clientDevice Context Delivery (DELI) from HP Labsoftware library to handle CC/PP & UAProfhttp://delicon.sourceforge.netWURLF (Wireless Universal Resource File)Open source project to provideA database of device specifications (XML file)APIs to take advantage of the databasePHP, Java, Perl, Ruby, Pythonhttp://wurfl.sourceforge.net/Fat clientDevelopment depends on the systemProblemsNeeds software deploymentHeterogeneity of hardware & softwareFat clientDevelopment environment.NetRequires Windows mobile (PDA)JavaNeed a JVM on deviceFlashLiteNeeds a player on deviceFat client : JavaFlash LiteThe mobile version of Flash player & development environmentProgramming language : ActionScriptWith restricted features compared to PC platformFlash LiteMobile WidgetsInformation specific interface to be embedded on the user interfaceAt the time very much tied to the vendor environmentFrameworks & architecturesAMULETS project [Skipol et al, 2008]Innovative learning activitiesCollaborative learningIn contextAuthentic setting (supported by ubiquitous technologies)AMULETS architecture[Skipol et al, 2009]Reference ArchitectureReference Architecture for Context-Aware Learning Support Systems [Schmidt, 2008]6 layers architectureReference ArchitectureInterface level context awareness[Schmidt, 2008]Reference Architecture: in useApplied in the Learning in Process projectIntegration of working and learning on a process levelLearning management, knowledge management, human capital management and collaboration solutions on a technical levelReference Architecture: in use[Schmidt, 2008]Reference Architecture: in use[Schmidt, 2008]MobilearnNext-generation paradigms and interfaces for technology supported learning in a mobile environment exploring the potential of ambient intelligenceMobilearn architectureOpen Mobile ApplicationFramework (OMAF)[Dahn, 2003]ConclusionMaturity is still aheadHeterogeneity of hardware platforms & software environments is a big issueThere is no consensus yet on the definition of the relevant services for mobile learning

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