Från ”tyst vår” till ”hållbar utveckling”uu.diva- 576004/  · bihandledare

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  • Frn tyst vr till hllbar utveckling

  • Frn tyst vr till hllbar utveckling

    En kritisk diskursanalys av miljfrgans

    utveckling 19621987

    Eduardo Medina

    With summary in English and Spanish Con resumen en ingls y en espaol

  • Dissertation presented at Uppsala University to be publicly examined in Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, Friday, February 8, 2013 at 13:15 for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The examination will be conducted in Swedish. Abstract Medina, E. 2013. Frn tyst vr till hllbar utveckling: En kritisk diskursanalys av milj-frgans utveckling 19621987. (From Silent Spring to Sustainable Development: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Development of the Environmental Issue 19621987). Sociologiska institutionen. 392 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 978-91-506-2329-1. This dissertation studies the development of the environmental issue from a discursive per-spective. Through an analysis of views on nature and the environment in several NGOs and main political organs, the dissertation tries to explain how a certain view became hegemonic. The analysis pertains to the period between the publication of Silent Spring in 1962 and the introduction of the concept sustainable development by the UN in 1987. From a realistic starting point and with critical discourse analysis (CDA) as its method, the dissertation aims to identify causal powers and mechanisms that have generated and institutionalized the envi-ronmental discourse. An analytical model is developed and applied on three levels; a socio-linguistic, institutional, and macrosocial level; which also reflect the methodological progres-sion of the study from description to explanation.

    The result shows that the discursive practice was hegemonized by a Western view promot-ing economic growth. This discourse gradually gained ground at the expense of an anti-systemic discourse which posited structural societal changes as the answer to environmental problems. Mechanisms such as the exclusion of some views and actors from common discur-sive practices were crucial for the process of homogenizing the discourse and developing consensus. Through incorporating that part of the environmental movement which did not fight the dominant economic and political system, the UN turned it into support for its own project, which is part of the process of hegemony. At the same time the environmental objec-tives of the hegemonic discourse were established in the institutional spheres.

    The institutionalization of the environmental issue changed the focus from social critique to a question of development and technology, something which helped displace the original critical and partially anti-systemic character of environmental discourse. Through turning the critical and negative account of the situation into a more harmonious and hopeful vision, for instance in terms of sustainable development, a foundation was laid for the later development of ecological modernization. When the hegemonic discourse invested the concept of sustaina-ble development with emphases on progress and economic growth, it encapsulated the envi-ronmental issue within the framework of the prevailing social system. Keywords: Environment, discourse, environmental discourse, critical discourse analysis, ideology, hegemony, institutionalization, sustainable development, ecological modernization, critical realism, world-system Eduardo Medina, Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, Box 624, SE-751 26 Uppsala, Sweden. Eduardo Medina 2013 ISBN 978-91-506-2329-1 urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-187603 (http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-187603) Printed by Elanders Sverige AB, 2012

  • Innehll

    Akronymer ...................................................................................................... 8

    Frord............................................................................................................ 10

    1. Inledning ................................................................................................... 13 1.1 Miljn blir diskurs .............................................................................. 14 1.2 Milj som konsensusfrga .................................................................. 15 1.3 Avhandlingens syfte och disposition .................................................. 19 1.4 Det mngfaldiga empiriska materialet ............................................... 22

    1.4.1 Tillmpning av begreppet diskurs och periodisering .................. 28 1.5 En verblick av de aktrer som skapade dessa texter ........................ 30

    1.5.1 Rachel Carson ............................................................................. 30 1.5.2 Vrldsnaturfonden ...................................................................... 31 1.5.3 Kubas regering ............................................................................ 32 1.5.4 Jordens Vnner ........................................................................... 33 1.5.5 Oi Committee International ........................................................ 33 1.5.6 Greenpeace ................................................................................. 34 1.5.7 Romklubben ................................................................................ 35 1.5.8 Ward och Dubos ......................................................................... 36 1.5.9 Frenta Nationerna ..................................................................... 36

    1.6 Forskningsperspektiv p natur och milj ........................................... 38 1.6.1 Socialkonstruktionismens genomslag ......................................... 39 1.6.2 Ytterligare diskursstudier om natur och milj ............................ 42 1.6.3 Studier av miljfrgan i Sverige ................................................. 45 1.6.4 Studier om miljrrelsen och environmentalismen .................... 49

    2. En realistisk diskursanalytisk ansats ......................................................... 52 2.1 En realistisk syn p diskurs ................................................................ 52

    2.1.1 Diskurserna som formade ........................................................... 54 2.1.2 Diskurserna som formande ......................................................... 57 2.1.3 Vst och utvecklingslnderna som interrelaterade diskurser ...... 61

    2.2 Diskurs i sociokulturellt sammanhang ............................................... 65 2.2.1 Diskurs och ideologi ................................................................... 66 2.2.2 Diskurs och hegemoni ................................................................ 69

    2.3 Den realistiska diskursanalytiska ansatsen ......................................... 72

  • 2.4 Mot en diskursanalytisk modell ......................................................... 75 2.4.1 Dimensionen text ........................................................................ 77 2.4.2 Dimensionen diskursiv praktik ................................................... 80 2.4.3 Dimensionen social praktik ........................................................ 85

    2.5 Reflexioner kring svrigheter med den aktuella analysen .................. 97

    3. Natur och milj i texterna: en beskrivning .............................................. 102 3.1 Vokabulr ......................................................................................... 103

    3.1.1 Aktrerna .................................................................................. 103 3.1.2 Sammanfattande anmrkningar ................................................ 129

    3.2 Grammatik ........................................................................................ 130 3.2.1 Aktrerna .................................................................................. 130 3.2.2 Sammanfattande anmrkningar ................................................ 143

    3.3 Kohesion........................................................................................... 144 3.3.1 Aktrerna .................................................................................. 144 3.3.2 Sammanfattande anmrkningar ................................................ 157

    3.4 Struktur ............................................................................................. 158 3.4.1 Aktrerna .................................................................................. 158 3.4.2 Sammanfattande anmrkningar ................................................ 170

    3.5 Beskrivning av diskurserna och aktrernas sociala relationer.......... 171 3.5.1 Utmrkande drag i aktrernas diskurser ................................... 173 3.5.2 Aktrernas positionering och sociala relationer ....................... 174 3.5.3 Tv tydliga diskurser ................................................................ 177

    4. Texternas framvxt i en institutionell kontext ........................................ 181 4.1 Intertextualitet .................................................................................. 181

    4.1.1 Aktrerna .................................................................................. 181 4.1.2 Sammanfattande anmrkningar ................................................ 193

    4.2 Interdiskursivitet ............................................................................... 194 4.2.1 Aktrerna .................................................................................. 195 4.2.2 Sammanfattande anmrkningar ................................................ 207

    4.3 Koherens........................................................................................... 209 4.3.1 Aktrerna .................................................................................. 210 4.3.2 Sammanfattande anmrkningar ...............