Foot Marches

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Foot Marches military

Text of Foot Marches

  • Foot MarchesFM 21-18

    SSG Millington

  • IntroductionMany examples of successful marches exist throughout out the history of warfare. An outstanding example during WW II was the grueling foot march during the Sicilian campaign from 20 to 21 July 1943, which was made by the 3rd Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division.

  • Introduction ContinueThe battalion was directed to move on foot across mountainous terrain from Aragona to San Stefano to participate in a coordinated attack against enemy forces in San Stefano. The battalion made this record braking 54 miles cross-country march in a record braking 33 hours.

  • Task Taught or SupportedComplete a 3 km road march.Complete a 5 km road march.Complete a 8 km road march.Complete a 10 km road march.Complete a 10 km road march.

  • Individual Task 1of 3Report enemy informationSend radio messageEngage targets with an M16A2 rifleEmploy hand grenadesPractice preventive medicineMove under direct fireMove over, through or around obstacles

  • Individual Task 2of 3React to indirect fire while dismountedReact to flaresSelect temporary fighting positionsCamouflage yourself and individual equipmentPractice noise and light disciplinePut on, wear, remove, and store your M40A2 protective mask with hood.

  • Individual Task 3of 3Recognize and react to chemical or biological hazardReact to nuclear hazardEvaluate a casualty

  • DutySoldier report enemy forces.Soldier properly engages targets with an M16A2 rifle.Solder protects self using his M40A2 protective mask.Solder reacts to nuclear hazard.

  • Personal CourageSolder moves under direct fire.Soldier moves over, through and around obstacles.Soldier reacts to indirect fire.Soldier reacts to flares.

  • IntegritySolder properly assumes a temporary fighting position.Soldier practice noise, light and litter discipline.Solder practice personal hygiene and field conditions.Solder practices human waste disposal in field conditions.

  • Equipment for a Company 1of 2Bayonet, M16A2 Rifle240 Mask Protective M40A2240 Rifle M16A2240 Machine gun M604 Radio PRC 77 OR 1196Firing Adapters240 / 4Magazine, 30 Rounds1200

  • Equipment for a Company 2of 2Tool combination, M605Battery Dry BA5590/U16

  • Ammunition Requirements 1 of 3CTG, 5.56 mm blank, M200FM1 20RM4 10RM5 50CTG, 7.62 mm blank M60FM1 500RM4 200RM5 300

  • Ammunition Requirements 2 of 3Grenade Hand Smoke HCFM14RM42RM52Grenade Hand, CS M7FM14RM41RM51

  • Ammunition Requirements 3 of 3Simulator ProjectileFM16Ground Burst, M115A2RM42RM54Simulator Booby TrapFM15 Flash, M117RM4 2RM5 3

  • Safety RequirementsElectrical StormsSnake BitesHeat CasualtiesCold Weather InjuriesMedical Support

  • Types of Foot MarchesDay MarchLimited visibilityForced MarchShuttle March

  • March DisciplineNoise DisciplineFormationCommanders will designate the side of the roads troops will march on.Rate of MarchDistance between individuals.Day 2-5 Meters / Night 1-3 MetersDistance between elementsDay 100 Meters between Company / Platoons 50 metersLimited visibility will decrease by 50%

  • Security MeasuresPassive MeasuresIncludes the use of concealed routes and assemble areas and movements on protected routes, night marches, increased intervals between elements and dispersion when under attack using noise and light disciplineActive MeasuresIncludes the use of organic and attached weapons in accordance with the units air defense plan during marches scanning sectors of observations.

  • Field SanitationField Water SupplyDisposal of Human WastePoison PlantsInsect Control

  • Water DisciplineAll soldiers must hydrate before each march to aid sustainment during the movement.Drink only treated water from approved sources.Drink water often. Great quantity of water should be drank before, during and after.Drink water slowly to prevent cramps or nausea.Avoid spilling water and use it sparingly for bathing .

  • Personnel HygienePersonnel cleanliness.Protection against the elements.Protection against disease caring insectsAvoidance of the sources of disease .Special protective measures.

  • Foot Care1 of 2Foot hygiene and sanitation are extremely important sense feet are enclosed in heavy rigid footwear during most working hours and are constantly in action. Foot care involves:Good hygiene measure such as bathing frequently and using foot powder.Wearing properly fitted footwear to allow for ventilation.

  • Foot Care 2 of 2Wearing clean, dry, unmended, and properly fitted socks (preferably cushion soled) with seams and knots outside.Trimming toenails every 2-3 weeks. Toenails should be cut short and square ( straight across)

  • Common Foot TroubleBlisters and abrasions.Treatment of blisters should be done by qualified persons. If one is not available, procedures outlined in FM 21-18 should be followed.Feet perspiration Athletes foot.Frostbite

  • Special CarePrior to the march.Take preventive measures such asTrimming toenailswearing proper socksalternating bootsDuring haltsDuring the halt lie down with the feet elevate. If time permits massage the feet apply foot powder, change socks, and medicate and protect blisters.

  • Special Care ContinueAfter the marchWhen the march is over, repeat care of feet, wash and dry socks, and dry boots. Medicate blisters, abrasions, corns, and calluses. Inspect painful feet for sprains and improperly fitted boots and socks.

  • HaltsDuring a march halts are inverse routinely to rest personnel and adjust equipment. They are regulated by SOP or by the movement order.15 minute halt after first 45 minutes of marching after that 10 minutes for every 60 minutes is required.Soldiers should remove or loosen their gear or lie down with their feet elevated for optimum relaxation if situation permits. Security must be first considered.

  • Halts ContinueDuring schedule halts local security to include at least one OP for each platoon is immediately established. OP`s should not be established outside the range of small arms and should be retrievable so that the unit is ready to move at a moment notice. When unscheduled halts and actions occur, the first priority is to establish security and to have each unit form a hasty perimeter.

  • Attack During a HaltDuring the halt, local security has to be established by the unit, if the security element / observation post (OP) is fired upon, they return fire.

    The main body will take cover in their assigned sectors.

  • Artillery AttackIf the unit is attacked by indirect fire during the foot march, the unit in contact continues to move quickly through the barrage.

    If the unit is attacked by indirect fire during the foot march, the unit not in contact attempts to bypass the impact area.

  • AmbushIn the kill zone increase speed, fight through, and report the ambush.Based on the commanders orders, conduct a hasty attack or establish a blocking position.Units not in the kill zone on order will either conduct a hasty attack or aid in extracting the ambush unit through assault by fire or direct assault on the ambush position.

  • NBC ATTACKThe first action on suspected chemical attack is to mask and give warning.

    If possible (based on the mission and situation) the unit should by pass the known or suspected contaminated area.

  • Cross or go Through NBC AreaUse MOPP Level 4Avoid moving through or under brush.Stay on hard surface roads.Cover as much as equipment as possibleAvoid low areas.Avoid vehicle tracking to reduce secondary contaminationDecrease speed.Increase vehicle intervals.

  • If You Must Cross An NBC AreaWear regular wet weather gear with a scarf or handkerchief over nose and mouth.Avoid disturbing road dust.If possible dampen hardtop and dirt roads to prevent contaminated dust.Ensure that the IM-174 Radiacmeter is use by the unit march.

  • Booby TrapsIf trap is spotted, halt the column.

    Bypass or go over the trap as directed by the squad leader or platoon leader.

  • Night MovementsMove around thick underbrush, dense woods, and ravines.Note: Move as quickly as circumstances allows, but avoid running if possible.Keep all lights concealed.Watch and feel for trip wires.Distance between soldiers depends on blackness of the night.

  • Avoid Danger AreasOpen areasRoads and trailsNative villagesEnemy positionsMine fieldsStreams

  • Ground FlaresAground flare set off nearby usually means the enemy has seen out or suspects your presence. If caught in the light of a ground flare, move quickly out of the light.Keep moving until you are well away from the area.

  • Aerial FlaresMay be fired from mortars, artillery, or hand held projectors.If you set off a flare, or hear one fired, get down while it is rising and conceal yourself before it burst.If in the light freeze in place until it burns out.If in open area crouch low or hit the ground.

  • Commanders DutiesBefore the march- issues warning orderDuring the march- Marches at the head until the SP the moves to a point for best supervision.During Halts- Supervise establishments of security, foot inspections, water discipline, sanitation, safety,and adjustment of loads.After the March- Before the completion moves to the head and moves the company into the AA.

  • Executive Officer DutiesAssist the commanderTakes command if commander not present.Supervises the pace setter.Post and supervises company traffic guards and guides.

  • Platoon LeaderBefore: Informs the Platoon Inspects Uniforms EquipmentDuring: Prescribe distance, compliance of march discipline, c