Fish SausageFish raw material International fish groupsHaddock Pollock
Atlantic hake Flounder
Rake fish ,etc.
Indian Fish GroupsJew fish
AdvantagesThese fishes yields high mince
Receive additional price from filleting
Raw materialSeasoning materialSugar, Salt, Cloves, Pepper, Chili, Other spices All as per taste and choice
PreservativesMonosodium glutamate and Sodium or Potassium salt of Ascorbic acid @ 2g/kg of fish sausage Furyl furamide (AF2) : (2 (2- Furyl), 3( 5(25NitroNitro- 2 furyl acrylamide ) @ 0.02 g / kg This drug is banned in many countries.
MethodWashing, Eviscerating and Rendering for fish mincing in mechanical bone separator Fish preferably filleted before mincing to increase the quality Some time along with fish other grinded meat from poultry and goat is used Transferring the fish mince for blending into silent cutter or bowl chopper from the free end
Add seasoning material and preservative Continue blending at least 10-20 10minutes till the meat is perfectly chopped and homogenised intimately with the ingredientsUse of AF2 is banned instead College of Fisheries Mangalore has introduced HTST ( High temperature short time) technique.
The entire mixture is transferred to stuffer The grinded homogenised fish meat is stuffed into preferable sausage casing Film C Rhyphan or kurahalan casing film
Stuffed sausage in casing is given treatment on the lines of HTST technique initially at low temperature but late at 80-90C for 1hour 80-90 preferably (100C maintains high elasticity of (100 the product) in the mechanical cooker.
Cooked sausage in casing are cold stored at -20C 20
The shelf life of the product is over six months or more than a year
Provided cold storage and consumed immediately after taken out
Characteristics of Rhyphan film casingHigh weight but strong structure Not affected by chemicals as well as on heating and cooling Does not permit water and stuffing is easy Non combustible , tasteless and odourless.
Its only flow is after some months hot gas is free from the film the product then become fragile
Wider use and acceptability due to easy availability and eco-friendly ecopackaging
Characteristics of Kurahalon film casingTransparent, shrinkable, water proof film Melting point is 168C 168 Stable in fat, oil and organic solvent Extremely hard to break, tear and puncture Shrinkablity of film makes very tight packaging of sausage material
What is Surimi?
Surimi is an intermediate product produced from fish which because of its gel forming ability can be used to develop variety of products of consumer fancies Surimi is myofibrillar protein concentrate, which readily form gel as a result of unfolding and cross linking of actomycin the major muscle protein matrix
Surimi is used as raw material for the preparation of seafood analogies but in Japan where the technology originated. Surimi is mainly used to prepare the traditional Kamaboko products in Japan
MethodBeheading and guttingHead, most of the backbone, viscera like intestine, kidney, perfectly removed while dressing
MincingMincing from the use of meat bone separator having drums of perforations of 3-5mm in diameter. 3Filleting before mincing adds to the quality
WashingTo remove water soluble nitrogenous matter and flavour compounds. Repeated washing also helps in gel forming capacity from muscles. In series of leaching tanks water to mince ratio is 2:1 to 10:1 depending on fish freshness avoid overhydrating. Temperature while washing should not exceed than 5C 5
RefiningRefining in a high speed rotating spiral, surrounded by screen having perforations which leaves behind any kind of impurities. Speed of the refiner controlled not to lead for heat gain to mince
DehydratingWater content of mince is further reduced by device having screw pressured, rotating and expelling gel dewatered mince from the surrounded perforations. Water content of dewatered mince is periodically checked
Gel formation by cookingOccurs by the impartment of heating 8090C even at 40 50C and even 8090 50 at 0C. 0 The temperature therefore can be set as pv choice within heating range of 40-90C or the treatment of 2-3% 40-90 2NaCl to mince
Mixing of CryoprotectantsSugarSugar-2-4%, Sorbitol 4% and Polyphosphate 0.1-8.3% to 0.1prevent denaturation of proteins
FreezingFreezing and gelled fish Surimi mince at -40C in a large contact 40 plate freezer to obtain blocks
PackagingIn polythene and packed in master container of corrugated polythene coated corrugated paper board
Cold stored at 20C in cold Room
Processing YieldRaw material 100% Beheading and gutting 60% Mincing 45% Washing 42% Refining 30% Dehydrating or dehydration 20%
Characteristics of Surimi and Technical dataAn intermediate myofibrillar protein Low in calories and cholesterol Odourless , white and neutral taste
Character valueColour = White grayish Moisture = 72-80% 72pH - 6.8 = 7-2% 7Gelatisation temperature = 40-90 C 40Protein content = 16- 19% 16-
Fat content 0.5% Ash content- 0.5% contentSucrose- 4% SucroseSorbitol = 4% Polyphosphate = 0.3%
Surimi can be blended with wide range of ingredients to enhance the acceptance of popular seafood cuisines or all together new food products with the mixing of flavour of each. Can assumed desired shape due to controlled texture. Premium source of protein having rich amino acids composition for the consumers.
Quality Maintenance and assuring Surimi processingQuality maintenance through process control and product evaluation according to standard HACCP or EU system In India HACCP system since Surimi is exported to Japan where HACCP system is followed
Quality EvaluationColour : Show white and measured using whiteness meter Water content : Measured at different stages at the required level by using inpared moisture meter
Gel strength : Mixing of Surimi with 2-3% NaCl , 2filled in PVC tube of 30mm in diameter and 20 cm in length, heated at 90C for 30 minutes, 90 cooled at 20C 20 Gel strength of sample 25 mm piece of sample product using Rheometer or Texture meter.
Texture and gel strength using Folding test : Slice of 5mm thickness cut from the cooked sample and folded in quadrants
AA No crack after folding twice A- No crack after 1st folding but cracks or 2nd folding B- Crack occur gradually or 1st folding C- Crack occurs immediately on 1st folding D- Break by finger press even before folding
Sensory TestExtremely firm 10 Very firm 8 Moderately firm 6 Slightly soft- 4 softVery soft 2 Extremely soft 1
Scoring is done by counting number, black skin, bone residues in a 9 -10 cm field which is prepared by 10 gs in 1mm thickness. Particles of 2mm length are counted as 1 and particles under 2mm length are counted 1/3rd.
Fish flakes and WafersFish flakes and wafers are partially deodourised thin flakes of cooked fish meat homogenised with starch and salt
On frying the wafers swell two three times of its initial size and become and crisp and delicious.
The product utilize the carbohydrate as the main base, with salt, other ingredients of spices and fish mince Popular product and commercially important in south India
IngredientsMinced cooked fish Starch such as corn flour, tapioca and even mashed potato Common salt Spicy material
Quantity2 kg 1 kg 5% As per taste For frying as per Requirement 3-5 liters 3-
MethodologyHomogenize the fish meat in one liter of water for 30 minutes in blender or mixed grinder Add corn flour or Tapioca or any starch , salt and spicy material with rest of this water and blend the entire material for 1 hour till it acquire thick semi fluid stage. (To avoid over burning instead of boiling, the material is cooked in steel chamber for 2-3 minutes) 2-
Spread the homogenized mass in flat aluminium tray of 3-4 mm. Cool to room temperature. 3After the material become in the form of film, cut it into desired shapes Again fully dry the material in sun, or preferably using electric drier or in oven at 45 50c till the 50 moisture content reduce below 10%.
Product of as per shape may be of finger wafer If the other rounded shape in the form of papad is given a liquid homogenized is spread in small quantity on polythene sheet and dry it in bright sun The dried product is packed in polythene bags and stored in cool and dry place. The shelf life of flaked product is of 2 years.
Chemical characteristicsMoisture Protein (dry) Ash Fat Carbohydrate 55-6% 10-12% 1055-7% 1-2% 173-79% 73-