Father of Modern Architecture= Louis SullivanForm follows functionSteel skeletonLight-filled, well-ventilatedIndustrial meets ornamentationRegularity of window placementEmphasis on verticality- pilasters extend upward
Guaranty Building, Buffalo, NY, 1895
The mother art is architecture. Without an architecture of our own we have no soul of our own civilization.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Organic ArchitectureORGANIC = Frank Lloyd Wright philosophy of architecture as early as 1908. It was an extension of the teachings of his mentor Louis Sullivan whose slogan form follows function became the mantra of modern architecture.
Wright changed this phrase to form and function are one, using nature as the best example of this integration.
Frank Lloyd WrightORGANIC ARCHITECTUREIntegral to Site - houses designed to rise up out of the site as it belonged.Integral to environment - built appropriately to climate.Integral to Individual - Each building built to accommodate the lifestyle of the inhabitants way of life and needs.Integral to Materials - details of the building were the material themselves
ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE= respect for properties of materialsyou dont twist steel into a flowerand a respect for the harmonious relationship between the form/design and the function of the building.Wright rejected the idea of making a bank look like a Greek temple.
ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE= attempt to integrate the spaces into a coherent whole: a marriage between the site and the structure and a union between the context and the structure.
Kaufmann HouseHouse of Falling Water, 1939
PRAIRIE STYLEFrank Lloyd WrightPrairie houses were characterized by low, horizontal lines that were meant to blend with the flat landscape around them. Typically, these structures were built around a central chimney, consisted of broad open spaces instead of strictly defined rooms, and blurred distinction between interior space and surrounding terrain.
Robie House, Chicago, 1909
INTERNATIONAL STYLE Le Corbusier FranceLudwig Mies van Rohe GermanyWalter GropiusGermany
INTERNATIONAL STYLE ARCHITECTUREMirrors early 20th century development visual artsGrew out of Bauhaus movementMerging of Aesthetics with functionalityLouis Sullivan, Walter GropiusMass produced materials, economical, functional, efficient society, urban center
Walter Gropius/ Bauhaus, Fagus Shoe Factory, Germany 1913
International StyleIdentifying characteristicsConcrete, Glass, Steel = International Style Holy TrinitySkeleton and skin Exposing its structure Rejected non-essential decoration & historical referenceRibbon windows Corner windowsBands of glassBalance, regularity, symmetry, rectilinear Right anglesFlat roof, without ledges
Mies van der Rohe & Phillip Johnson, Seagram Building, New York, 1958German, rejects Pre WWII historical referencesLess is More New York BuildingsLake Shore Drive Apts.United Nations Bldg.Successful relationship of parts of each and the wholeSkeletal, bronze and amber windows, set back from street, on stilts, weightless/sturdy
INTERNATIONAL STYLE HOMESLe Corbusier Philip Johnson home,Villa Savoye, Glass HouseFrance, 1929 Connecticut, 1949
Post Modern ArchitectureBreaks with Modernist restrictivenessEmbraces eclecticism, sometimes whimsicalIts expansive and inclusiveSelf consciousRejects the simplicity of International StyleSometimes references Classical past in fun ways
Philip JohnsonAT&T Building, NY1980
Michael GravesPortland BuildingPortland, OR1980
Rogers & Piano, Pompidou Center, Paris, 1977
DeconstructivismSeeks to disorient observerShatters expectationsDissonance, asymmetry, irregularityParts more important that wholeChaoticDisassociates from functionSpeaks to absence of stability
Gunter BehnischHysolar BuildingStuttgart, Germany, 1987
Frank GehryGuggenheim MuseumBilbao, Spain, 1997Vlado Miluni (w F. Gehry)Dancing House(Fred and Ginger)Prague, 1995