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A Technical Bulletin from : Horti. Research Complex, Nagicnerra, West Tripura.
F T-'
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Government of Tripura
A Technical Bulletin from .' Horti. Research Complex, Nagicherra, West Tripura.
F T-'
‘-t- f~.
Government of Tripura
A Technical Bulletin from .' Horti. Research Complex, Nagicherra, West Tripura.
PAPAYA
(ire pflRE) Papaya is one of the popular fruit crop of Tripura, lt is grown in tropical and
subtropical area. It i8 now recognized as highly nutritive, economic and
important medicinal crop.
Papaya fruit is
being consumed as fresh and ripe as well as vegetable in Tripura. Very
few farmers are cultivating
papaya in Tripura due to prone of viral and fungus di§ease§. These diseases can be controlled by following suitable planting
Season, nursery and
orchard management with some technical knowhow & special care. It has long been known & cultivated in home gardens because it is one Of the few fruits which is available throughout the year, gives quick return.
Species and Cultivar§
Papaya belongs to the family Caricaceae. Can.ca papaya is the `only species grown for edible fruits ,Qf the 48 species known in Caricaceae.
Culiiva
1) Washington : It is distinguished by purple rings at the riods & dark
purple petio[s. Fruit is medium to large sized, round to ovate, an individual fruit weight 2.5 kg,
2) Coorg Honey Dew : Adwarf , heavy bearerr the fruits are almost oblong. It is Gynodioecious,
3) Pusa Dwarf : Suitable for areas where the winds are common, lt is Dioecjous.
4) PHsa Majestic : Plants bear fruits of medium size. (1.25 to 1.50 kg).
Fruits have good storage quality. Tolerant to virus & resistant to nematode.
5) Pusa Nanha : A dwarf variety, well suited for kitchen garden or pot cultivation.
PAPAYA (§_at.i..<.=_a. mean)
Papaya is one of the popular fruit crop of Tripura. It is grown in tropical and subtropical area. lt is now recognized as highly nutritive, economic and
My M pp important medicinal crop. Papaya fruit is
being consumed as fresh and ripe as well as vegetable in Tripura. Very few farmers are cultivating papaya in Tripura due to prone of viral and fungus diseases. These diseases can be controlled by following suitable planting season, nursery and
orchard management with some technical knowhow & special care. It has long been known & cultivated in home gardens because it is one of the few fruits which is available throughout the year, gives quick return.
l____.____.__.______aSpecies 8"“ °"'""a's = . Papaya belongs to the family Caricaceae. ' Carica papaya is the only species grown for edible fruits ,of the 48 species known in Caricaceae.
I Cvlfivars -' A Ir; 1 ) Washington : lt is distinguished
by purple rings at the nods & dark purple petiols. Fruit is medium to large sized, round to ovate, an individual fruit weight 2.5 kg.
2) Coorg Honey Dew : A dwarf , heavy bearer, the fruits are almost oblong. It is Gynodioecious.
3) Pusa Dwarf : Suitable for areas where the winds are common. It is Dioecious.
4) Pusa Majestic : Plants bear fruits of medium size. (1.25 to 1.50 kg). Fruits have good storage quality. Tolerant to virus & resistant to nematode.
5) Pusa Nanha : A dwarf variety, well suited for kitchen garden or pot cultivation.
PAPAYA (§_at.i..<.=_a. mean)
Papaya is one of the popular fruit crop of Tripura. It is grown in tropical and subtropical area. lt is now recognized as highly nutritive, economic and
My M pp important medicinal crop. Papaya fruit is
being consumed as fresh and ripe as well as vegetable in Tripura. Very few farmers are cultivating papaya in Tripura due to prone of viral and fungus diseases. These diseases can be controlled by following suitable planting season, nursery and
orchard management with some technical knowhow & special care. It has long been known & cultivated in home gardens because it is one of the few fruits which is available throughout the year, gives quick return.
l____.____.__.______aSpecies 8"“ °"'""a's = . Papaya belongs to the family Caricaceae. ' Carica papaya is the only species grown for edible fruits ,of the 48 species known in Caricaceae.
I Cvlfivars -' A Ir; 1 ) Washington : lt is distinguished
by purple rings at the nods & dark purple petiols. Fruit is medium to large sized, round to ovate, an individual fruit weight 2.5 kg.
2) Coorg Honey Dew : A dwarf , heavy bearer, the fruits are almost oblong. It is Gynodioecious.
3) Pusa Dwarf : Suitable for areas where the winds are common. It is Dioecious.
4) Pusa Majestic : Plants bear fruits of medium size. (1.25 to 1.50 kg). Fruits have good storage quality. Tolerant to virus & resistant to nematode.
5) Pusa Nanha : A dwarf variety, well suited for kitchen garden or pot cultivation.
6) Taiwan : "s is gynodioecious variety with blood red coloured flesh and good taste.
Surya and Honey dew are also notable cultivar of papaya.
A high fertile Soil with good drainage is
most desirable for successful papaya cultivation. The plant grows well in
sandy loam soil having PH between 6,5 to7.
Papaya grows well in sun, warm & humid climate. The plant can be grown to elevation of 1000 in above the sea level but can't withstand frost. Ideal temperature for papaya is between 25 to 30 degree centigrade. Temp. bellow 10 degree centigrade inhibits growth, maturity and ripening of fruits.
Dry climate during flowering often causes sterility, while dry climate during
fruit maturity adds to the sweetness of fruit,
Papaya is generally grown from seeds. Papaya seeds have a tendency to loss their viability very fast within 60-90 days. Being cross pollinated, the
plants raised from seed may have a mixed heritance with wide variability. Freshly extracted seed show low germination due to presence Of sarcotesta which act as inhibitor. The seed are cleaned with saw dust or ash of cattle dung tQ remove the muci!aginous coating and dried in shade,
Papaya seedling raised in polythene bags stands after transplanting better than those raise in seedbeds. Seedling can be raised in perforated polythene bags of 20 cm x 15cm size of 150 to 200 gaiige filled with equal proportion
( 1 :1:1) of top soil, FYM and sand. Germination takes place within 10 to 20 days after sowing depending upon the prevailing temp. Seeds are sown in 1 cm depth. Generally the seedling become ready for transplanting in about 45 to 60 days.
Sept.-Oct. planting is generally done in the region where rainfall is heavy and virus problem is acute in rainy season. During monsoon season ( June-July)
planting of seec}ling can be done in ti!la land.
Pits of 45cm X 45cm X45 cm sizes are to be made at required distance which should be filled with top soil alongwi{h 20 kg of FYM and 1 Kg
neemcake. twoYseedling§ ( Dicecious var.} should be planted in each pit and single seedling planting for Gynodioecious line (Var.) followed by light
irrigation mixed With Captan @2 gin per lit water,
6) Taiwan : This is gynodioecious variety with blood red coloured flesh and good taste.
Surya and Honey dew are also notable cultivar of papaya. I Soil : I I ‘j A high fertile soil with good drainage is most desirable for successful papaya
I cultivation. The plant grows well in I sandy loam soil having PH between 6.5 I to 7.
[Climate : q --------5' ---—----ifI I pp it Papaya grows well in sun, warm & humid climate. The plant can be grown to elevation of 1000 m above the sea level but can't withstand frost. Ideal temperature for papaya is between 25 to 30 degree centigrade. Temp. bellow 10 degree centigrade inhibits growth, maturity and ripening of fruits. Dry climate during flowering often causes sterility, while dry climate during fruit maturity adds to the sweetness of fruit. | Propagation : I Papaya is generally grown from seeds. Papaya seeds have a tendency to loss their viability very fast within 60-90 days. Being cross pollinated, the plants raised from seed may have a mixed heritance with wide variability. Freshly extracted seed show low germination due to presence of sarcotesta which act as inhibitor. The seed are cleaned with saw dust or ash of cattle dung to remove the mucilaginous coating and dried in shade. 5eed|i"9 mfl"[email protected]"I"
Papaya seedling raised in polythene bags stands after transplanting better than those raise in seedbeds. Seedling can be raised in perforated polythene bags of 20 cm x 15cm size of 150 to 200 gauge filled with equal proportion ( 111:1) of top soil, FYM and sand. Germination takes place within 10 to 20 days after sowing depending upon the prevailing temp. Seeds are sown in 1 cm depth. Generally the seedling become ready for transplanting in about 45 to 60 days.
Sept.-Oct. planting is generally done in the region where rainfall is heavy and virus problem is acute in rainy season. During monsoon season ( June-July) planting of seedling can be done in tilla land. I Planting = 1%it Pits of 45cm X 45cm X45 cm sizes are to be made at required distance which should be filled with top soil alongwith 20 kg of FYM and 1 Kg neemcake. Two seedlings ( Dioecious var.) should be planted in each pit and single seedling -planting for Gynodioecious line (var.) followed by light irrigation mixed with Captan @2 gm per lit water.
6) Taiwan : This is gynodioecious variety with blood red coloured flesh and good taste.
Surya and Honey dew are also notable cultivar of papaya. I Soil : I I ‘j A high fertile soil with good drainage is most desirable for successful papaya
I cultivation. The plant grows well in I sandy loam soil having PH between 6.5 I to 7.
[Climate : q --------5' ---—----ifI I pp it Papaya grows well in sun, warm & humid climate. The plant can be grown to elevation of 1000 m above the sea level but can't withstand frost. Ideal temperature for papaya is between 25 to 30 degree centigrade. Temp. bellow 10 degree centigrade inhibits growth, maturity and ripening of fruits. Dry climate during flowering often causes sterility, while dry climate during fruit maturity adds to the sweetness of fruit. | Propagation : I Papaya is generally grown from seeds. Papaya seeds have a tendency to loss their viability very fast within 60-90 days. Being cross pollinated, the plants raised from seed may have a mixed heritance with wide variability. Freshly extracted seed show low germination due to presence of sarcotesta which act as inhibitor. The seed are cleaned with saw dust or ash of cattle dung to remove the mucilaginous coating and dried in shade. 5eed|i"9 mfl"[email protected]"I"
Papaya seedling raised in polythene bags stands after transplanting better than those raise in seedbeds. Seedling can be raised in perforated polythene bags of 20 cm x 15cm size of 150 to 200 gauge filled with equal proportion ( 111:1) of top soil, FYM and sand. Germination takes place within 10 to 20 days after sowing depending upon the prevailing temp. Seeds are sown in 1 cm depth. Generally the seedling become ready for transplanting in about 45 to 60 days.
Sept.-Oct. planting is generally done in the region where rainfall is heavy and virus problem is acute in rainy season. During monsoon season ( June-July) planting of seedling can be done in tilla land. I Planting = 1%it Pits of 45cm X 45cm X45 cm sizes are to be made at required distance which should be filled with top soil alongwith 20 kg of FYM and 1 Kg neemcake. Two seedlings ( Dioecious var.) should be planted in each pit and single seedling -planting for Gynodioecious line (var.) followed by light irrigation mixed with Captan @2 gm per lit water.
The planting density depends on the number of factors like cul{ivars to be
grown, soil type and the rainfall pattern of the locality.
Spacing- 2m X 2m for tall variety = 2500 plants/hac
1.5m x 1.5m for dwarf variety=4400 plants/hac
With proper management and care the papaya plants start flowering 4-7 months after planting. At flowering stage, excess plants are to be removed keeping only one plant in each pit and maintaining a female : male plant
ratio of 10 : 1 in case of dioecious line.
The papaya crop is very heavy feeder. The following doses Of nutrients per fruiting season per plant is required as below-
i) FYM
ii) Neemcake
iii) Urea
SSP MOP
600 gin 1400 8in 700gm
The inorganic fertilizers shoulcl be given in six Split doses ( once in two
months) during vegetative growth and flowering stage, For better growth of fruit 1 or 2 spraying of Zns04 @ 5gm/lit water and Borax @ 1 gin/lit water
during vegetative growth and flowering stage.
Protective irrigation ls required in the first year of planting, ln the second year when the plants are laden with friiits, irrigation at 10 days interval in winter
and at 5 days interval in summer is needed till harvesting of fruits.
J. Weed ¢o»fro/. Eljminate weeds as they compete for nutrients, light and water and can harbor pest and also vector of diseases.
2. Bwdi memawhg -Auxiliary shoots or buds have to be cut off as they
absorb nutrients.
3. Sfredding of /eaves -Older leaves should be eliminated, they can act as hest for pest and diseases,
4, Fmi'! remowhg. When 2-3 fruits grow in the same pedicel, it i§ recommended to keep only one fruit. Care should be taken while removing the extra fruits in the pedieel*
5. §appch -Staking should be provided when the bearing is more and heavy.
6, F#u/-i growth and harvesfi'ng -The fruits take 130 -165 days to reach maturity depending on cultivar arid prevailing temp. during the
course of fruit development. The fruit should be harvested indMdually by hand picking.
The planting density depends on the number of factors like cultivars to be grown, soil type and the rainfall pattern of the locality. Spacing- 2m X 2m for tall variety = 2500 plants/hac
1.5m x 1.5m for dwarf variety=4400 plants/hac I Removal of unwanted plants : F‘3 With proper management and care the papaya plants start flowering 4-7 months after planting. At flowering stage, excess plants are to be removed keeping only one plant in each pit and maintaining a female : male plant ratio of 10 : 1 in case of dioecious line.
| Manuring : I I The papaya crop is very heavy feeder. The following doses of nutrients per fruiting season per plant is required as below-
i) FYM - 10 kg ii) Neem cake - 1 kg iii) Urea - 600 gm
SSP ~ 1400 gm MOP - 700gm
The inorganic fertilizers should be given in six split doses ( once in two months) during vegetative growth and flowering stage. For better growth of fruit 1 or 2 spraying of ZnSO4 @ 5gm/lit water and Borax @ 1 gm/lit water during vegetative growth and flowering stage. llrrioativn = Protective irrigation is required in the first year of planting. In the second year when the plants are laden with fruits, irrigation at 10 days interval in winter and at 5 days interval in summer is needed till harvesting of fruits.
1 . Weed control - Eliminate weeds as they compete for nutrients, light and water and can harbor pest and also vector of diseases.
2. Bud removing - Auxiliary shoots or buds have to be cutoff as they absorb nutrients.
3. Shedding of leaves - Older leaves should be eliminated, they can act as host for pest and diseases.
4. Fruit removing - When 2-3 fruits grow in the same pedicel, it is recommended to keep only one fruit. Care should be taken while removing the extra fruits in the pedicel.
5. Support - Staking should be provided when the bearing is more and heavy.
6. Fruit growth and harvesting - The fruits take 130 -165 days to reach maturity depending on cultivar and prevailing temp. during the course of fruit development. The fruit should be han/ested individually by hand picking.
The planting density depends on the number of factors like cultivars to be grown, soil type and the rainfall pattern of the locality. Spacing- 2m X 2m for tall variety = 2500 plants/hac
1.5m x 1.5m for dwarf variety=4400 plants/hac I Removal of unwanted plants : F‘3 With proper management and care the papaya plants start flowering 4-7 months after planting. At flowering stage, excess plants are to be removed keeping only one plant in each pit and maintaining a female : male plant ratio of 10 : 1 in case of dioecious line.
| Manuring : I I The papaya crop is very heavy feeder. The following doses of nutrients per fruiting season per plant is required as below-
i) FYM - 10 kg ii) Neem cake - 1 kg iii) Urea - 600 gm
SSP ~ 1400 gm MOP - 700gm
The inorganic fertilizers should be given in six split doses ( once in two months) during vegetative growth and flowering stage. For better growth of fruit 1 or 2 spraying of ZnSO4 @ 5gm/lit water and Borax @ 1 gm/lit water during vegetative growth and flowering stage. llrrioativn = Protective irrigation is required in the first year of planting. In the second year when the plants are laden with fruits, irrigation at 10 days interval in winter and at 5 days interval in summer is needed till harvesting of fruits.
1 . Weed control - Eliminate weeds as they compete for nutrients, light and water and can harbor pest and also vector of diseases.
2. Bud removing - Auxiliary shoots or buds have to be cutoff as they absorb nutrients.
3. Shedding of leaves - Older leaves should be eliminated, they can act as host for pest and diseases.
4. Fruit removing - When 2-3 fruits grow in the same pedicel, it is recommended to keep only one fruit. Care should be taken while removing the extra fruits in the pedicel.
5. Support - Staking should be provided when the bearing is more and heavy.
6. Fruit growth and harvesting - The fruits take 130 -165 days to reach maturity depending on cultivar and prevailing temp. during the course of fruit development. The fruit should be han/ested individually by hand picking.
The profitable productive life of papaya is 3 years, provided the crop is well managed. Thereaifer the trees become too tall and uneconomical. The fruit yield of papaya varies widely according to variety, soil, climate and
management Of the orchard. Cm an average each plant of improved varieties bear 20 -40 fruits weighing 40-75 kg in one fruiting season. On an average
yield of 60-75 tons per hectare may be expected in a season from an orchard Of papaya.
; Pest and
1. Damping off -causal organ'ism-Pythium aphanidermatum and Ptryfophrf]ora pa/mj`vora.. Causes rotting of Seedling in the nursery,
Control - Before sowing the seeds should be treated with fungal culture of Triehoderma viride (34gm/kg seed} or Captan (3gm/kg seed) to
protect the newly emerging seedlings,
Drenching the seedling with Ridomil MZ or Carzate @ 1ml/lit water
or Bavistin @2gm/lit water gives good protection.
2. Collar rot and stem rot `.
Causal ®rgan`ism Pythium aphanjdermatum, Phytophthora
parasitica.
Water loggjng and bad drainages are the major €ontribiiting factors for this disease. The leaves from top side one found drooping yellowing and then they fall off. Rotting of plants and tree trunks ultimately fall down.
Control -Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan @ 2gm/kg of seed. Application Of l.richQderma viride (15gm/plant} mixed with FYM should be
applied around the root zone at the time of planting. Drenching the soil with Ridomil MZ or Carbendazim @ 1gm/lit water or bordeaux mixture (1%) or
Blitox (3gm/litre) gives good protection at 10-15 days interval .
3, A#iferacnose .' Causal organism~ Co//eto!richum spp. It affects the leaves, flowers and fruits as a result they fall off prematurely, lt can be managed by spraying Carbendazjm @ 1gm/lit water or Difolton @ 2gm/lit water.
4. Papaya mosai.a /Rr+ig apo£ ¥irlfsj .. Top leaves begin to have a
yellow mosaic in the leaf blade and green oily streaks appear on the stem and petioles of yoiinger leaves. This ring spot appears on flowers and fruits.
Control - When raising the seedlings cover the nursery with nylon mesh of suitable size. Keep the plot free of weeds which may harbor the vectors. Vectors can be checked by spraying of Rogor @2ml/lit water or metasystox( 2ml/litre) at 10- 15 days interval [email protected]]y
during summer and rainy
Productive lire and fruit new = The profitable productive life of papaya is 3 years, provided the crop
is well managed. Thereafter the trees become too tall and uneconomical. The fruit yield of papaya varies widely according to variety, soil, climate and management of the orchard. On an average each plant of improved varieties bear 20 -40 fruits weighing 40-75 kg in one fruiting season. On an average yield of 60-75 tons per hectare may be expected in a season from an orchard of papaya. Pest and diseases : q I
1 ‘ ‘
1. Damping off - causal organism-Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytophthora palmivora._ Causes rotting of seedling in the nursery.
Control - Before sowing the seeds should be treated with fungal culture of Trichoderma viride (3-4gmlkg seed) or Captan (3gm/kg seed) to protect the newly emerging seedlings.
Drenching the seedling with Ridomil MZ or Carzate @ lmlllit water or Bavistin @2gm/lit water gives good protection.
2. Collar rot and stem rot : Causal organism Pyfhlum aphanidermatum, Phytophfhora
parasitica. Water logging and bad drainages are the major contributing factors
for this disease. The leaves from top side one found drooping yellowing and then they fall off. Rotting of plants and tree trunks ultimately fall down.
Control - Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan @ 2gmlkg of seed. Application of Trichoderma viride (15gmlplant) mixed with FYM should be applied around the root zone at the time of planting. Drenching the soil with Ridomil MZ or Carbendazim @ 1gm/lit water or bordeaux mixture (1%) or Blitox (3gm/litre) gives good protection at 10~15 days interval .
3. Anthracnose : Causal organism- Colletotrichum spp. It affects the leaves, flowers and fruits as a result they fall off prematurely. It can be managed by spraying Carbendazim @ 1gmllit water or Difolton @ 2gm/lit water.
4. Papaya mosaic (Ring spot virus) : Top leaves begin to have a yellow mosaic in the leaf blade and green oily streaks appear on the stem and petioles of younger leaves. This ring spot appears on flowers and fruits.
Control - When raising the seedlings cover the nursery with nylon mesh of suitable size. Keep the plot free of weeds which may harbor the vectors. Vectors can be checked by spraying of Rogor @2ml/lit water or metasystox( 2ml/litre) at 10- 15 days interval specially during summer and rainy
Productive lire and fruit new = The profitable productive life of papaya is 3 years, provided the crop
is well managed. Thereafter the trees become too tall and uneconomical. The fruit yield of papaya varies widely according to variety, soil, climate and management of the orchard. On an average each plant of improved varieties bear 20 -40 fruits weighing 40-75 kg in one fruiting season. On an average yield of 60-75 tons per hectare may be expected in a season from an orchard of papaya. Pest and diseases : q I
1 ‘ ‘
1. Damping off - causal organism-Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytophthora palmivora._ Causes rotting of seedling in the nursery.
Control - Before sowing the seeds should be treated with fungal culture of Trichoderma viride (3-4gmlkg seed) or Captan (3gm/kg seed) to protect the newly emerging seedlings.
Drenching the seedling with Ridomil MZ or Carzate @ lmlllit water or Bavistin @2gm/lit water gives good protection.
2. Collar rot and stem rot : Causal organism Pyfhlum aphanidermatum, Phytophfhora
parasitica. Water logging and bad drainages are the major contributing factors
for this disease. The leaves from top side one found drooping yellowing and then they fall off. Rotting of plants and tree trunks ultimately fall down.
Control - Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan @ 2gmlkg of seed. Application of Trichoderma viride (15gmlplant) mixed with FYM should be applied around the root zone at the time of planting. Drenching the soil with Ridomil MZ or Carbendazim @ 1gm/lit water or bordeaux mixture (1%) or Blitox (3gm/litre) gives good protection at 10~15 days interval .
3. Anthracnose : Causal organism- Colletotrichum spp. It affects the leaves, flowers and fruits as a result they fall off prematurely. It can be managed by spraying Carbendazim @ 1gmllit water or Difolton @ 2gm/lit water.
4. Papaya mosaic (Ring spot virus) : Top leaves begin to have a yellow mosaic in the leaf blade and green oily streaks appear on the stem and petioles of younger leaves. This ring spot appears on flowers and fruits.
Control - When raising the seedlings cover the nursery with nylon mesh of suitable size. Keep the plot free of weeds which may harbor the vectors. Vectors can be checked by spraying of Rogor @2ml/lit water or metasystox( 2ml/litre) at 10- 15 days interval specially during summer and rainy
season,
5, L®## c##/ of papaya ,. The disease i§ transmitted by the vector white fly (Bemisia tabaci), Curling ,crinkling ancl deformation Of the leaves is
the symptom. apart from curling the leaves exhibit vein clearing and thickening of the veins, The affected plants show a stunted growth.
Control . Spray of metasy§tox (2 ml/litre) or Nuvacron (0.5 mlMtre)
or Confidor (1.5 m! /litre) or Triazophos (1 r5 ml/litre) to prevent the vector.
6. Leaf blight (Gorynespora Ga58iioofa} .I The d.isease fiirst appear as small discoloured lesions which are irregularly scattered on the leaves.
Control . Disease can be controlled by Spraying of Dithane M-45 starting from the appearance of the symptoms.
1. Aphid§ : Actas vectorspests of papaya ringspotvirus and mosaic. Spray the systemic insecticides as written in disease control.
2, Red spider Mites : Spider mites affects the fruits by way of causing scarring which reduce the market value of fruit. Control : Spraying of
phosphamidon (0.5 ml /litre) or Dicofol (2ml/litre water) reduce the spider mites population.
3. Root knot nematode fffle/®j*deg##S Sp.j.' The symptoms are the
yellowing and then shedding of leaves, premature fruit drop, root galling and finally death of the plant in severe cases of infestation.
Control :
I) Application of2 ton/ha of neem cake before planting reduce the incidence.
11) Application ofcarbofuran 3g @ 20 kg /ha in the field control
the nematodes.
PL;a/i-snecy by .. Horti. Research Com|.lax, Nagicherra, West Tripura and Printed by Sungrapnics, Agartala, Ph. : 2328469
SGHSOTI.
5. Leaf curl of papaya : The disease is transmitted by the vector white fly (Bemisia tabaci). Curling ,crinkling and deformation of the leaves is the symptom. apart from curling the leaves exhibit vein clearing and thickening of the veins. The affected plants show a stunted growth.
Control - Spray of metasystox (2 ml/litre) or Nuvacron (0.5 ml/litre) or Confidor (1.5 ml /litre) or Triazophos (1.5 ml/litre) to prevent the vector.
6. Leaf blight (Corynespora cassiicola) : The disease first appear as small discoloured lesions which are irregularly scattered on the leaves.
Control - Disease can be controlled by spraying of Dithane M-45 starting from the appearance of the symptoms. Major ' I IPests .
1. Aphids : Act as vectors pests of papaya ring spot virus and mosaic. Spray the systemic insecticides as written in disease control.
2. Red spider Mites : Spider mites affects the fruits by way of causing scarring which reduce the market value of fruit. Control : Spraying of phosphamidon (0.5 ml llitre) or Dicofol (2ml/litre water) reduce the spider mites population.
3. Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne Sp.) : The symptoms are the yellowing and then shedding of leaves, premature fruit drop, root galling and finally death of the plant in severe cases of infestation. Control : I) Application of 2 tonlha of neem cake before planting reduce
the incidence. ll) Application of carbofuran 3g @ 20 kg /ha in the field control
the nematodes.
SGHSOTI.
5. Leaf curl of papaya : The disease is transmitted by the vector white fly (Bemisia tabaci). Curling ,crinkling and deformation of the leaves is the symptom. apart from curling the leaves exhibit vein clearing and thickening of the veins. The affected plants show a stunted growth.
Control - Spray of metasystox (2 ml/litre) or Nuvacron (0.5 ml/litre) or Confidor (1.5 ml /litre) or Triazophos (1.5 ml/litre) to prevent the vector.
6. Leaf blight (Corynespora cassiicola) : The disease first appear as small discoloured lesions which are irregularly scattered on the leaves.
Control - Disease can be controlled by spraying of Dithane M-45 starting from the appearance of the symptoms. Major ' I IPests .
1. Aphids : Act as vectors pests of papaya ring spot virus and mosaic. Spray the systemic insecticides as written in disease control.
2. Red spider Mites : Spider mites affects the fruits by way of causing scarring which reduce the market value of fruit. Control : Spraying of phosphamidon (0.5 ml llitre) or Dicofol (2ml/litre water) reduce the spider mites population.
3. Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne Sp.) : The symptoms are the yellowing and then shedding of leaves, premature fruit drop, root galling and finally death of the plant in severe cases of infestation. Control : I) Application of 2 tonlha of neem cake before planting reduce
the incidence. ll) Application of carbofuran 3g @ 20 kg /ha in the field control
the nematodes.