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  • Extra-curricular exposure: sources, types and impacts Kristina Novosel

    Sveučilište u Zagrebu

    Filozofski fakultet

    Odsjek za anglistiku

    Katedra za metodiku

    EXTRA-CURRICULAR EXPOSURE: SOURCES, TYPES AND IMPACTS

    Diplomski rad

    Student: Kristina Novosel

    Mentor: dr. sc. Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović, red. prof.

    Zagreb, travanj, 2014.

  • Extra-curricular exposure: sources, types and impacts Kristina Novosel

    University of Zagreb

    Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

    Department of English

    TEFL Section

    EXTRA-CURRICULAR EXPOSURE: SOURCES, TYPES AND IMPACTS

    Graduation Thesis

    Student: Kristina Novosel

    Supervisor: Professor Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović, Ph.D.

    Zagreb, April 2014

  • Extra-curricular exposure: sources, types and impacts Kristina Novosel

    Examining Committee:

    Assistent Professor Renata Geld

    Professor Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    Stela Letica Krevelj, Ph.D.

  • Extra-curricular exposure: sources, types and impacts Kristina Novosel

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    Table of contents

    1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 3

    2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .................................................................................. 5

    2.1 Motivation .............................................................................................................................. 5

    2.2 Shadow education ................................................................................................................. 9

    2.3 Globalization ........................................................................................................................ 13

    2.3.1 Englishization ............................................................................................................... 14

    2.4 Informal exposure ............................................................................................................... 16

    2.5 Lifelong learning .................................................................................................................. 18

    2.6 Equality of educational opportunities ............................................................................... 19

    3 THE STUDY .................................................................................................................... 22

    3.1 Aims ...................................................................................................................................... 22

    3.2 Sample .................................................................................................................................. 22

    3.3 Instruments .......................................................................................................................... 23

    3.3.1 Pilot ............................................................................................................................... 23

    3.3.2 Questionnaire ............................................................................................................... 24

    3.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................................. 25

    3.5 Results of the study .............................................................................................................. 25

    3.5.1 The differences between urban and rural contexts .................................................. 26

    3.5.2 Motivation .................................................................................................................... 30

    3.5.3 Informal exposure ....................................................................................................... 33

    3.5.4 Private lessons .............................................................................................................. 34

    3.5.5 Private language schools ............................................................................................. 38

    3.5.6 Comparison of private lessons and private language schools .................................. 44

    3.6 Discussion ............................................................................................................................. 52

    3.7 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 57

    4 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 59

    5 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................... 63

    5.1 Questionnaire ....................................................................................................................... 63

  • Extra-curricular exposure: sources, types and impacts Kristina Novosel

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    Abstract:

    The present thesis discusses sources, types and impacts of extra-curricular exposure,

    focusing primarily on formal ways of learning English outside of a classroom, private lessons

    and private language schools.

    The first part of the thesis provides us with a theoretical background of major research

    areas directly or indirectly connected to the thesis, such as motivation, shadow education,

    globalization and englishization, informal exposure, lifelong learning and equality of

    educational opportunities.

    The second part of the thesis is the description of the study on formal and informal

    exposure to English outside of school.

    Keywords: extra-curricular exposure, private lessons, private language schools, shadow

    education, rural and urban contexts

  • Extra-curricular exposure: sources, types and impacts Kristina Novosel

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    1 INTRODUCTION

    In this diploma paper, we will discuss some of the sources of extracurricular exposure

    to learning English as a foreign language. We will in more detail define some of its types and

    its impact on the learners’ attitudes and opinions about the English language. We will pay

    special attention to the ways of formal learning of English outside of school: namely, private

    lessons and lessons in specialized schools for learning foreign languages, which we will,

    further on in this paper, refer to as private language schools.

    We will start by defining and explaining the main factor that affects foreign language

    learners in general: motivation. Moreover, we will explore the terms of shadow education and

    lifelong learning which are tightly connected to education, and are an important factor in the

    topics researched in our thesis. In connection with the various types of extra-curricular

    exposure, we will first focus on informal exposure. However, we will pay special attention to

    formal extra-curricular exposure, namely private lessons and private language schools. We

    will try to discover the percentage of pupils consuming these formal extra-curricular types of

    learning English, and how the two formal types differ concerning the teachers, the materials

    used, and the frequency and continuity of extra-curricular exposure. Furthermore, we will

    explore the motivation behind taking private lessons or going to language schools. We will

    also investigate the impacts of formal extracurricular exposure on the feeling of improvement,

    as well as on school grades.

    We will, moreover, focus on another important issue examined in the research

    concerning the difference between the urban and the rural environment: that of class

    affiliation. Class affiliation is an important factor not only in alternative ways of language

    learning, but also one of the main factors of success in education in general.

  • Extra-curricular exposure: sources, types and impacts Kristina Novosel

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    The topic of formal ways of extracurricular exposure, especially the field of private

    language schools, is still underresearched, especially if we take into consideration the fact that

    English is becoming a lingua franca, and that the use and knowledge of English is becoming

    essential, for young people as well as for people who have already finished their formal

    education.

    In our research we paid special attention to the abovementioned factors. In this

    diploma paper we will connect these factors to extracurricular ways of language learning and

    present our results.

    In our thesis we would like to prove that class affiliation influences the pupils’ grades

    in English, their attitude towards it, and their inclination to use formal extracurricular ways of

    learning English. Also, we hypothesise that pupils who decide to take private lessons are

    motivated mainly by raising their grade, and that pupils who decide to enrol into a language

    school do it primarily because they want to learn English regardless of their grade. In

    connection to this, we think that the length of attending private lessons will on average be

    shorter than that of attending private language schools. Furt