Evidence-based thinking about learning and blogs.uw.edu/.../2012/05/Evidence-based-thinking-about- thinking…

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<ul><li><p>Evidence-based thinking about </p><p>learning and instruction </p><p> University of Washington </p><p>May 3, 2012 </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p> Integrating the design, building, monitoring, and improvement of learning </p><p>environments; individualize learning experiences using our scale; and, </p><p>ultimately, drive greater student career success. </p><p> Former CLO for K12, Inc. structured use of technology, cognitive </p><p>science, on-line and off-line materials for 1,700 teachers, 55k students </p><p> Former Publisher and General Manager for DK Multimedia, Inc. </p><p> Management consultant with McKinsey &amp; Company </p><p> Education: </p><p>- Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT </p><p>- M.D. from Harvard Medical School </p><p>- M.A. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT </p><p>- M.A. in Mathematics from Oxford University </p><p>- B.S. in Electrical Engineering and B.S. with Honors in Mathematics </p><p>from the University of Washington </p><p>Bror Saxberg Chief Learning Officer, Kaplan, Inc. </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p> Kaplan University </p><p> Kaplan Legal Education </p><p> Kaplan Professional </p><p>Education </p><p> Nursing </p><p> Kaplan Continuing </p><p>Education </p><p> KNEXT </p><p> KTPA </p><p> Kaplan Tutoring </p><p> Kaplan Bar Review </p><p> Kaplan Publishing </p><p> Kaplan Higher Ed Europe </p><p> Kaplan Professional Europe </p><p> Kaplan Higher Ed Asia </p><p> Kaplan Professional Asia </p><p> Kaplan Higher Ed Australia </p><p> Kaplan Professional </p><p>Australia </p><p> In Country Pathways China </p><p> Franklyn Scholar </p><p> Carrick Education </p><p> Global Knowledge Solutions </p><p>Kaplan education spans domains and geography </p><p>Kaplan University </p><p>Group </p><p>Kaplan Higher </p><p>Education Campuses </p><p>Kaplan Test Prep </p><p>Kaplan Asia Pacific Kaplan United </p><p>Kingdom Kaplan Intl Colleges </p><p> Global Pathways </p><p>Kaplan International Colleges </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>What Our Students Told Us They Want from a Worlds Best Educator </p><p>Promise </p><p>Pillars </p><p>Definitions </p><p>We strive to make </p><p>education as </p><p>personalized to you </p><p>as possibletailoring </p><p>our courses around </p><p>your individual </p><p>needs. </p><p>We are dedicated </p><p>to getting you the </p><p>results that matter </p><p>in the time that </p><p>matters. </p><p>We move quickly </p><p>with constant </p><p>innovation to </p><p>better meet your </p><p>needs. </p><p>We are here to </p><p>help you achieve </p><p>success at critical </p><p>milestones along </p><p>your educational </p><p>journey. </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>What were trying to do </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>What were trying to do </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>What were trying to do </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>What were trying to do </p></li><li><p>9 </p><p>What were trying to do </p></li><li><p>10 </p><p>Agenda </p><p> What evidence says about learning </p><p> What this means for the design of instruction </p><p> What happens when you do this for real </p><p> [How to get outcomes aligned with real expertise] </p><p> [Teaching &amp; Learning in the 21st Century thoughts] </p></li><li><p>11 </p><p>Agenda </p><p> What evidence says about learning </p><p> What this means for the design of instruction </p><p> What happens when you do this for real </p><p> [How to get outcomes aligned with real expertise] </p><p> [Teaching &amp; Learning in the 21st Century thoughts] </p></li><li><p>12 </p><p>Much research to guide us </p><p>Learning </p><p>Events (hidden - inside </p><p>students minds) </p><p>Student </p><p>Performance (observable -</p><p>indicates </p><p>knowledge) </p><p>Instructional </p><p>Events (in the learning </p><p>environment) </p><p>Knowledge </p><p> Explicit: Information, </p><p>Explanation, Examples, Demos </p><p> Implicit: Practice tasks/activities </p><p>(prompts and response) </p><p> Diagnosis and feedback </p><p> Explicit/Declarative/Conceptual/What </p><p> Implicit/Procedural/How </p><p> Knowledge Components </p><p>(Procedures + Facts, Concepts, </p><p>Principles, Processes) </p><p> Response accuracy/errors </p><p> Response fluency/speed </p><p> Number of trials </p><p> Amount of assistance (hints) </p><p> Reasoning </p><p>Koedinger, K.R., Corbett, A.T., and Perfetti, C. (2010). The Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) Framework: Toward Bridging the Science-Practice Chasm to Enhance Robust Student Learning (Draft manuscript from the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center) </p></li><li><p>13 </p><p>5 types of outcomes determine TYPE of information and </p><p>practice </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>Component Definition Example </p><p>Procedure </p><p>Support</p><p>ive/C</p><p>onceptu</p><p>al Fact </p><p>Concept </p><p>Process </p><p>Principle </p></li><li><p>14 </p><p>5 types of outcomes determine TYPE of information and </p><p>practice </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>Component Definition Example </p><p>Procedure </p><p>Sequence of decision and action </p><p>steps to perform tasks; when </p><p>and how to do things </p><p>Prosecuting a criminal </p><p>Deciding if capital gains </p><p>tax applies </p><p>Support</p><p>ive/C</p><p>onceptu</p><p>al Fact </p><p>Concept </p><p>Process </p><p>Principle </p></li><li><p>15 </p><p>5 types of outcomes determine TYPE of information and </p><p>practice </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>Component Definition Example </p><p>Procedure </p><p>Sequence of decision and action </p><p>steps to perform tasks; when </p><p>and how to do things </p><p>Prosecuting a criminal </p><p>Deciding if capital gains </p><p>tax applies </p><p>Support</p><p>ive/C</p><p>onceptu</p><p>al Fact </p><p>Isolated, unique piece of </p><p>information; one instance </p><p>52 Grosvenor Place </p><p>2+3=5 </p><p>Concept </p><p>Process </p><p>Principle </p></li><li><p>16 </p><p>5 types of outcomes determine TYPE of information and </p><p>practice </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>Component Definition Example </p><p>Procedure </p><p>Sequence of decision and action </p><p>steps to perform tasks; when </p><p>and how to do things </p><p>Prosecuting a criminal </p><p>Deciding if capital gains </p><p>tax applies </p><p>Support</p><p>ive/C</p><p>onceptu</p><p>al Fact </p><p>Isolated, unique piece of </p><p>information; one instance </p><p>52 Grosvenor Place </p><p>2+3=5 </p><p>Concept </p><p>Sets of items that share </p><p>common attributes, common </p><p>name; multiple examples </p><p>Dog </p><p>Money </p><p>Happiness </p><p>Process </p><p>Principle </p></li><li><p>17 </p><p>5 types of outcomes determine TYPE of information and </p><p>practice </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>Component Definition Example </p><p>Procedure </p><p>Sequence of decision and action </p><p>steps to perform tasks; when </p><p>and how to do things </p><p>Prosecuting a criminal </p><p>Deciding if capital gains </p><p>tax applies </p><p>Support</p><p>ive/C</p><p>onceptu</p><p>al Fact </p><p>Isolated, unique piece of </p><p>information; one instance </p><p>52 Grosvenor Place </p><p>2+3=5 </p><p>Concept </p><p>Sets of items that share </p><p>common attributes, common </p><p>name; multiple examples </p><p>Dog </p><p>Money </p><p>Happiness </p><p>Process Flow of events or procedures; </p><p>how things work </p><p>Workflow </p><p>Chemical process </p><p>Principle </p></li><li><p>18 </p><p>5 types of outcomes determine TYPE of information and </p><p>practice </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>Component Definition Example </p><p>Procedure </p><p>Sequence of decision and action </p><p>steps to perform tasks; when </p><p>and how to do things </p><p>Prosecuting a criminal </p><p>Deciding if capital gains </p><p>tax applies </p><p>Support</p><p>ive/C</p><p>onceptu</p><p>al Fact </p><p>Isolated, unique piece of </p><p>information; one instance </p><p>52 Grosvenor Place </p><p>2+3=5 </p><p>Concept </p><p>Sets of items that share </p><p>common attributes, common </p><p>name; multiple examples </p><p>Dog </p><p>Money </p><p>Happiness </p><p>Process Flow of events or procedures; </p><p>how things work </p><p>Workflow </p><p>Chemical process </p><p>Principle </p><p>Guidelines, rules that govern, </p><p>predict, explain events; </p><p>relationships among concepts </p><p>Supply and demand </p><p>80/20 principle </p><p>Novices need structure </p></li><li><p>19 </p><p>3 stages of learning determine instructional elements </p><p>and sequence </p><p>Stage Characteristics Implications for </p><p>Instructional Design </p><p>1. </p><p>2. </p><p>3. </p><p>Anderson, J.R. (1993). Rules of the Mind. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum. Erricsson, A. &amp; Charness,, Expertise: Its Structure and Acquisition. </p><p> Fitts &amp; Posner, (1967), John Anderson (2004, 2007); </p><p>Anders Ericsson (2006, 2007) </p></li><li><p>20 </p><p>3 stages of learning determine instructional elements </p><p>and sequence </p><p>Stage Characteristics Implications for </p><p>Instructional Design </p><p>1. Declarative </p><p>Knowledge about, that, </p><p>what why; </p><p>Can be stated verbally; </p><p>Conceptual network </p><p>Conscious </p><p>Design clear, relevant, and </p><p>accurate information displays, job </p><p>aids, examples, reference material </p><p>for all knowledge components: </p><p>facts, concepts, principles, </p><p>processes, procedures </p><p>2. </p><p>3. </p><p>Anderson, J.R. (1993). Rules of the Mind. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum. Erricsson, A. &amp; Charness,, Expertise: Its Structure and Acquisition. </p><p> Fitts &amp; Posner, (1967), John Anderson (2004, 2007); </p><p>Anders Ericsson (2006, 2007) </p></li><li><p>21 </p><p>3 stages of learning determine instructional elements </p><p>and sequence </p><p>Stage Characteristics Implications for </p><p>Instructional Design </p><p>1. Declarative </p><p>Knowledge about, that, </p><p>what why; </p><p>Can be stated verbally; </p><p>Conceptual network </p><p>Conscious </p><p>Design clear, relevant, and </p><p>accurate information displays, job </p><p>aids, examples, reference material </p><p>for all knowledge components: </p><p>facts, concepts, principles, </p><p>processes, procedures </p><p>2. Procedural </p><p>Knowledge how </p><p>Sequence of if-thens </p><p>Potential to become </p><p>unconscious </p><p>Design practice tasks to elicit </p><p>student performance/ responses; </p><p>monitoring systems to detect </p><p>errors; and feedback/coaching to </p><p>correct errors in performance </p><p>3. </p><p>Anderson, J.R. (1993). Rules of the Mind. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum. Erricsson, A. &amp; Charness,, Expertise: Its Structure and Acquisition. </p><p> Fitts &amp; Posner, (1967), John Anderson (2004, 2007); </p><p>Anders Ericsson (2006, 2007) </p></li><li><p>22 </p><p>3 stages of learning determine instructional elements </p><p>and sequence </p><p>Stage Characteristics Implications for </p><p>Instructional Design </p><p>1. Declarative </p><p>Knowledge about, that, </p><p>what why; </p><p>Can be stated verbally; </p><p>Conceptual network </p><p>Conscious </p><p>Design clear, relevant, and </p><p>accurate information displays, job </p><p>aids, examples, reference material </p><p>for all knowledge components: </p><p>facts, concepts, principles, </p><p>processes, procedures </p><p>2. Procedural </p><p>Knowledge how </p><p>Sequence of if-thens </p><p>Potential to become </p><p>unconscious </p><p>Design practice tasks to elicit </p><p>student performance/ responses; </p><p>monitoring systems to detect </p><p>errors; and feedback/coaching to </p><p>correct errors in performance </p><p>3. Automated </p><p>Fluency </p><p>Expert </p><p>Unconscious </p><p> 10,000 hours </p><p>Design opportunities for repeated </p><p>frequent practice on the job and </p><p>monitoring of speed and accuracy </p><p>Anderson, J.R. (1993). Rules of the Mind. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum. Erricsson, A. &amp; Charness,, Expertise: Its Structure and Acquisition. </p><p> Fitts &amp; Posner, (1967), John Anderson (2004, 2007); </p><p>Anders Ericsson (2006, 2007) </p></li><li><p>23 </p><p>Much research to guide us </p><p>Learning </p><p>Events (hidden - inside </p><p>students minds) </p><p>Student </p><p>Performance (observable -</p><p>indicates </p><p>knowledge) </p><p>Instructional </p><p>Events (in the learning </p><p>environment) </p><p>Knowledge </p><p> Explicit: Information, </p><p>Explanation, Examples, Demos </p><p> Implicit: Practice tasks/activities </p><p>(prompts and response) </p><p> Diagnosis and feedback </p><p> Explicit/Declarative/Conceptual/What </p><p> Implicit/Procedural/How </p><p> Knowledge Components </p><p>(Procedures + Facts, Concepts, </p><p>Principles, Processes) </p><p> Response accuracy/errors </p><p> Response fluency/speed </p><p> Number of trials </p><p> Amount of assistance (hints) </p><p> Reasoning </p><p>Motivation </p><p> Orientation/Inoculation </p><p> Monitoring </p><p> Diagnosis and treatment: </p><p>Persuasion, Modeling, </p><p>Dissonance </p><p> Value beliefs </p><p> Self-efficacy beliefs </p><p> Attribution beliefs </p><p> Mood/Emotion </p><p> Behavior related to </p><p> Starting </p><p> Persisting </p><p> Mental Effort </p><p> Self-reported beliefs </p><p>Koedinger, K.R., Corbett, A.T., and Perfetti, C. (2010). The Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) Framework: Toward Bridging the Science-Practice Chasm to Enhance Robust Student Learning (Draft manuscript from the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center) </p></li><li><p>24 </p><p>4 beliefs influence motivation </p><p>Sources: Bandura; Eccles &amp; Wigfield; Pintrich &amp; Schunk; Clark; Dweck </p><p>Beliefs </p><p> Value </p><p> Self-Efficacy </p><p> Attribution </p><p> Mood </p><p>Motivated Behavior </p><p> Starting </p><p> Persisting </p><p> Mental Effort </p><p>Learning/ Performance </p><p> Practice </p><p> Test </p><p>Self-Efficacy </p><p>Eff</p><p>ort</p><p>High Moderate Low </p><p>Motivation </p><p>Low High </p><p>Performance High </p><p>Low </p><p> Design materials and interaction to foster positive mood, high </p><p>perception of value, moderate confidence, and attribution of </p><p>success and failure to effort </p><p> Design system for monitoring and guidance (group and </p><p>individual) </p></li><li><p>25 </p><p>Much research to guide us </p><p>Learning </p><p>Events (hidden - inside </p><p>students minds) </p><p>Student </p><p>Performance (observable -</p><p>indicates </p><p>knowledge) </p><p>Instructional </p><p>Events (in the learning </p><p>environment) </p><p>Knowledge </p><p> Explicit: Information, </p><p>Explanation, Examples, Demos </p><p> Implicit: Practice tasks/activities </p><p>(prompts and response) </p><p> Diagnosis and feedback </p><p> Explicit/Declarative/Conceptual/What </p><p> Implicit/Procedural/How </p><p> Knowledge Components </p><p>(Procedures + Facts, Concepts, </p><p>Principles, Processes) </p><p> Response accuracy/errors </p><p> Response fluency/speed </p><p> Number of trials </p><p> Amount of assistance (hints) </p><p> Reasoning </p><p>Motivation </p><p> Orientation/Inoculation </p><p> Monitoring </p><p> Diagnosis and treatment: </p><p>Persuasion, Modeling, </p><p>Dissonance </p><p> Value beliefs </p><p> Self-efficacy beliefs </p><p> Attribution beliefs </p><p> Mood/Emotion </p><p> Behavior related to </p><p> Starting </p><p> Persisting </p><p> Mental Effort </p><p> Self-reported beliefs </p><p>Metacognition </p><p> Structure </p><p> Guidance </p><p> Planning, Monitoring </p><p> Selecting, Connecting </p><p> Amount of guidance </p><p>required/requested </p><p>Koedinger, K.R., Corbett, A.T., and Perfetti, C. (2010). The Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) Framework: Toward Bridging the Science-Practice Chasm to Enhance Robust Student Learning (Draft manuscript from the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center) </p></li><li><p>26 </p><p>Agenda </p><p> What evidence says about learning </p><p> What this means for the design of instruction </p><p> What happens when you do this for real </p><p> [How to get outcomes aligned with real expertise] </p><p> [Teaching &amp; Learning in the 21st Century thoughts] </p></li><li><p>27 </p><p>Instructional design: Engineering from learning science </p><p>Overviews Information Examples Practice Assessment Learning </p><p>Outcomes </p><p>Motivational Guidance </p><p>Design </p><p>Deliver </p><p>Learning science strongly suggests an order to design and delivery </p><p>Clark, R.E., &amp; Feldon, D. F. (2008). GEL (Guided Experiential Learning), Adaptable Expertise and Transfer of Training. </p><p>Kirscher, P.A., Sweller, J., &amp; Clark, R. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of </p><p>constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41, 75-86. </p><p>Knowledge Integration </p></li><li><p>28 </p><p>Evidence-based instructional principles </p><p>Accumulation of results from lab studies support: Structure and guidance for novices </p><p> (Kirschner, Sweller, &amp; Clark, 2006) </p><p> Demonstrations and worked examples </p><p> (Paas &amp; van Merrienboer, 1994; Sweller, 2006) </p><p> Practice and corrective feedback </p><p> (Mathan &amp; Koedinger, 2005) </p><p> Prompted self-explanation </p><p> (Aleven &amp; Koedinger, 2002) </p><p> Multimedia use that minimizes extraneous cognitive load </p><p> (Mayer, 2009) </p><p> Targeting beliefs (value, confidence, and attributions) and </p><p>emotions (positive feelings) to influence motivation </p><p> (Clark, 2004; Um et al., 2011) </p></li><li><p>29 </p><p>Task-centered instruction </p><p> Move from simple to increasingly difficult tasks NOT PBL sink or swim </p><p> Teach everything needed for each task </p><p> Fade coaching/support over time </p></li><li><p>30 </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>Component </p><p>Presentation (Prepare) Practice/Assessment (Practice, Perform) </p><p>Info Example Remember Proxy for Remember Use** Proxy for Use ** </p><p>Procedure </p><p>When to use; </p><p>List of action and </p><p>decision steps </p><p>Demonstration of </p><p>when and how to </p><p>perform </p><p>Recall when </p><p>to use; Recall </p><p>action and </p><p>decision steps </p><p>Reorder steps; </p><p>Recall next or missing </p><p>steps </p><p>Decide when to use; </p><p>Perform the steps (actions </p><p>and decisions) </p><p>Critique performance </p><p>or output of actions </p><p>and decisions </p><p>Su</p><p>pp</p><p>ort</p><p>ive</p><p> Kn</p><p>ow</p><p>led</p><p>ge</p><p>Fact * Statement of </p><p>fact Statement of fact Recall fact </p><p>Recognize fact when </p><p>presented with distractors Recall fact in task context </p><p>Concepts </p><p>List of </p><p>defining </p><p>attributes </p><p>Examples; </p><p>Non-examples </p><p>List defining </p><p>attributes </p><p>verbally or in </p><p>writing </p><p>Recognize defining </p><p>attributes when presented </p><p>with distractors </p><p>Classify, identify or </p><p>generate examples and </p><p>non-examples </p><p>Critique someone </p><p>elses identi...</p></li></ul>