Evidence Based Medicine DARWIN AMIR Bgn Penyakit Saraf RS DR. M. Djamil / Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas PADANG.

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Evidence Based Medicine DARWIN AMIR Bgn Penyakit Saraf RS DR. M. Djamil / Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas PADANG Slide 2 Evidence Based Medicine A new paradigm for the health care system A new paradigm for the health care system Using the current evidence in the medical literature to provide the best care to patients Using the current evidence in the medical literature to provide the best care to patients Will give you the historical basis and philosophical underpinning of EBM Will give you the historical basis and philosophical underpinning of EBM Slide 3 Medicine in the pre historic had no concept of probability (the ancients and the Greek) the Gods decided all life, therefore that probability did not enter into issues of daily life Medicine in the pre historic had no concept of probability (the ancients and the Greek) the Gods decided all life, therefore that probability did not enter into issues of daily life Slide 4 After Luca Piccauli (1494) defined basic principles of algebra and multiplication tables introduced the first statistic problem and Girolamo Gardano (1545) introduced the first attempt to use mathematics to describe statistic and probability. After Luca Piccauli (1494) defined basic principles of algebra and multiplication tables introduced the first statistic problem and Girolamo Gardano (1545) introduced the first attempt to use mathematics to describe statistic and probability. Slide 5 Galileo expanded on this by calculating Galileo expanded on this by calculating probabilities using two dice probabilities using two dice Thomas Gataker expounded on the meaning Thomas Gataker expounded on the meaning of probability by noting that it was natural of probability by noting that it was natural laws. laws. Huygens (1657), Leibniz (1662) and Huygens (1657), Leibniz (1662) and Englishman John Graunt (1660) wrote on Englishman John Graunt (1660) wrote on norms of statistic including the relation of norms of statistic including the relation of personal choice and judgement to statistical personal choice and judgement to statistical probability. probability. Slide 6 John Graunt categorized the cause of death of the London populate using statistical sampling and predict the human lifespan. John Graunt categorized the cause of death of the London populate using statistical sampling and predict the human lifespan. Graunt statistic can be compared to recent data from the US in 1993 Graunt statistic can be compared to recent data from the US in 1993 Slide 7 Table : Probability of survival, 1660 and 1993 Percentage survival to each age Age16601993 0100%100% 2625%98% 4610%95% 761%70% Slide 8 Medical practice Clinician helps patients by Clinician helps patients by - Diagnosing what is wrong with them - Diagnosing what is wrong with them - Administering treatment that does more - Administering treatment that does more good than harm good than harm - Giving them an indication of what the - Giving them an indication of what the future is likely to hold (prognosis) future is likely to hold (prognosis) Slide 9 Evidence Based Practice in Primary Care The growing demand for public accountability in health care and the increased availability of information to users -------- > The growing demand for public accountability in health care and the increased availability of information to users -------- > EBP will be central theme in general practice and the organization of care for many years to come EBP will be central theme in general practice and the organization of care for many years to come Slide 10 The need for an EB approach to decision-making in general practice The core of GP is the relationship between the doctor and patient. The core of GP is the relationship between the doctor and patient. Central aspects of this relationship is the process of decision making (range from simple clinical types of decision to decision at a level about how service should be organized Central aspects of this relationship is the process of decision making (range from simple clinical types of decision to decision at a level about how service should be organized Slide 11 The decisions ought to involve a negotiated in the context of a partnership between the health care professional and the patient and takes account of factors such as patient need, preferences, priorities, available resources and evidence of the effects of providing different forms of care The decisions ought to involve a negotiated in the context of a partnership between the health care professional and the patient and takes account of factors such as patient need, preferences, priorities, available resources and evidence of the effects of providing different forms of care Slide 12 Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials Other Necessary Evidence Effects of care N e e d s MAKING POLICIES AND TAKING DECISIONS Professional and providers Service users and purchasers researchers and funders ResourcesPriorities Slide 13 Both the doctor and patient require access to reliable and valid information ----- > to the situation is required. Both the doctor and patient require access to reliable and valid information ----- > to the situation is required. EBM is the phrase used to describe such an approach and entails (from the doctors perspective): - the conscientious EBM is the phrase used to describe such an approach and entails (from the doctors perspective): - the conscientious - explicit - explicit - judicious use - judicious use GP acquire, wisdom and judgment through their clinical experience GP acquire, wisdom and judgment through their clinical experience Slide 14 This expertise produces clinical skills and acumen (diligent) in detecting signs and symptoms. This expertise produces clinical skills and acumen (diligent) in detecting signs and symptoms. Greater understanding of individuals (predicament, rights and preferences) in making clinical decisions about their care. Greater understanding of individuals (predicament, rights and preferences) in making clinical decisions about their care. The judgment for decision making based on the availability of better research methods for assessing the validity of evidence of effectiveness through to improved techniques for collating evidence in a systematic way The judgment for decision making based on the availability of better research methods for assessing the validity of evidence of effectiveness through to improved techniques for collating evidence in a systematic way Slide 15 The distinction between EBM and Evidence Based Health Care Evidence Based Medicine Evidence Based Health Care Conceptual approach that Conceptual approach that health care professionals health care professionals can be used in making can be used in making decisions about the care decisions about the care of individuals patients of individuals patients Broader concepts that Broader concepts that incorporates improve incorporates improve approach to understanding approach to understanding patients, families and patients, families and practitioners beliefs, values practitioners beliefs, values and attitudes. and attitudes. Takes account evidence at a Takes account evidence at a population levels population levels Slide 16 How to get started: a five-step process for using an evidence based approach in GP The McMaster University EBM Resources Group have identified a five-step approach need to follow : The McMaster University EBM Resources Group have identified a five-step approach need to follow : 1. define the problem; 2. track down the information sources you need; 3. critically appraise the information; 4. apply the information with your patients; 5. evaluate how effective this application of information is Slide 17 Step 1: defining the problem Questions frequently arises, such as pros and conts of using a particular form of therapy, the value of having a particular diagnostic test or screening procedure, the risk or prognosis of a particular disease or the cost of a potential intervention. Questions frequently arises, such as pros and conts of using a particular form of therapy, the value of having a particular diagnostic test or screening procedure, the risk or prognosis of a particular disease or the cost of a potential intervention. There is a clinical problem for which you are unsure of the evidence and to make a decision to investigate it further. There is a clinical problem for which you are unsure of the evidence and to make a decision to investigate it further. Slide 18 Step 2: tracking down the information sources needed Medical literature which can assist in providing answers to the question raised in clinical practice is broadly scattered; journals, family medicine journals and government reports Medical literature which can assist in providing answers to the question raised in clinical practice is broadly scattered; journals, family medicine journals and government reports Slide 19 Step 3: critically appraising the information Decided which journal articles to read. It is important to read them carefully as not all published is of equal value Decided which journal articles to read. It is important to read them carefully as not all published is of equal value Critical appraisal of articles is a process which involves carefully reading an article and analysing its methodology, content and conclusion Critical appraisal of articles is a process which involves carefully reading an article and analysing its methodology, content and conclusion Do I believe these result sufficiently that I would be prepared to adopt a similar approach or reach a similar conclusion, with my own patients ?. Do I believe these result sufficiently that I would be prepared to adopt a similar approach or reach a similar conclusion, with my own patients ?. Slide 20 Step 4: applying the information with your patients How to apply the information obtained to the particular circumstances of your patients ?. This is a probably the most crucial step in the process. How to apply the information obtained to the particular circumstances of your patients ?. This is a probably the most crucial step in the process. Whether there are any methodological issues raised about the evidence which might prompt you to reject it outright. Whether there are any methodological issues raised about the evidence which might prompt you to reject it outright. This process requires a partnership between the doctor and patient. If at the end of the process the decision is made be a mutual and conscientious This process requires a partnership between the doctor and patient. If at the end of the process the decision is made be a mutual and conscientious Slide 21 Step 5: evaluating how effective it is. Evaluate the effect of the evidence as applied to specific patients. Evaluate the effect of the evidence as applied to specific patients. The expected benefits that arose from using a particular item of evidence were consistent with the observed benefits. The expected benefits that arose from using a particular item of evidence were consistent with the observed benefits. It may well generate the need for further research to identify why some patients have not responded in the expected manner and what be done to rectify this It may well generate the need for further research to identify why some patients have not responded in the expected manner and what be done to rectify this The practitioner is having sufficient time to apply these steps routinely in their daily practice The practitioner is having sufficient time to apply these steps routinely in their daily practice Slide 22 Supporting a framework for Evidence-Based Practice within general practice As professional you have the challenge and responsibilities in facing general practice As professional you have the challenge and responsibilities in facing general practice Framework needs to be built around ensuring that the evidence required to inform decision-making is available, accessible, acceptable and applied by GP. Framework needs to be built around ensuring that the evidence required to inform decision-making is available, accessible, acceptable and applied by GP. Emerged internationally which aim to produce systematic summaries with trying to practice EBP. Emerged internationally which aim to produce systematic summaries with trying to practice EBP. Slide 23 Supporting a framework for Evidence- Based Practice within general practice Good examples are: Good examples are: - Cochrane library (a database of high quality systematic review of health care) review of health care) - AGP Journal Club. - BMJ and Lancet. - BMJ and Lancet. At a more local level, there are a growing number of networks being amongs general practitioner of searching for and appraising evidence At a more local level, there are a growing number of networks being amongs general practitioner of searching for and appraising evidence A natural extension of this process is apply EB Protocols and guidelines, develop by he colleagues in clinical practice. A natural extension of this process is apply EB Protocols and guidelines, develop by he colleagues in clinical practice. Slide 24 The relevant clinical questions in your patients must contain 4 element: 1). The patients problem. 2). Intervention, which by research methodology, diagnostic test and the treatment 3). If needed with intervention comparable. 4). Clinical outcome or outcome of interest. The 4 element to form the terminology i.e. PICO P= Patient, I = Intervention, C= Comparison, O= Outcome. Slide 25 Use of theophylline in asthma Following the publication for the management of asthma in adults, dr. A noted the statement that thephylline might have a role in patients whose asthma was not controlled with high dose inhaled steroid, but even then alternative treatment might have fewer side effects. He decided it was time to review his prescribing of theophylline and used the practice computer to produce a list of all his asthmatic patients and their recent medication. He found 86 patients, three of whom were taking theophylline. He was reassured that his use of theophylline was limited, but made an entry in the records of each of these patients to remind him to review their medication when the patient next attended. Ultimately, he was able to persuade two of these patients to discontinue theophylline, and after 6 months the prescribing data were checked again to confirm that these changes had persisted. Slide 26 Prognosis - What are the consequences of having the diseasePrognosis - What are the consequences of having the disease Is it dangerous ? Could I die of it How long will I be able to continue my present actives ? Will it ever go away altogether? Slide 27 The prognosis question A qualitative aspect A qualitative aspect (which outcomes could happen?) A quantitative aspect A quantitative aspect (how likely are they to happen ?) A temporal aspect A temporal aspect (over what time period...

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