European Feudalism and the Manor Economy - ?· “Feudalism” during the Medieval period in Western…

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    European Feudalism Directions:TheAPtextbookiscriticalofthetraditionalhistoricalnarrativeregardingthecharacterizationofFeudalismduringtheMedievalperiodinWesternEurope.However,whilecertainaspectsoftheFeudalism

    narrativemaybeoversimplifiedorinaccuratelygeneralized,thereisstillvalueinexaminingtheseconceptsandconstructsinordertodeterminewhichweshouldretain,whichweshouldmodifyorqualify,andwhichweshouldrejectentirely.Beginbyfamiliarizingyourselfwiththekeytermsandconcepts.Thenexaminethedocuments

    belowandanswerthequestions.Wewillthendiscusseachcomponentanditshistoricalvalidity.

    KeyTermsandConceptsofFeudalism&Manorialismv Feudalism-adecentralizedsocio-politicalsystembasedontheexchangeoflandforservicesv Lord-Landowningnoblewhogivessomeofhislandtoavassalv Vassal-NoblegivenlandbyaLordinexchangeforloyaltyandmilitaryprotection(eitherhimselforwith

    hisknights)v Knight-MinorvassalofnoblebirthtrainedasanarmoredmountedwarriorwhoisloyaltohisLordand

    fightsathiscommandv Chivalry-Codeofconducttaughttoknights(bravery,loyalty,honesty,etc)totrytopreventthemfrom

    excessiveviolencev Fief-ThelandgivenbyaLordtohisVassalv Serfs-Commonerpeasantfarmerswhowereboundtothelandoftheirlordv Manor-Thelordsestatewherehelivesandwheretheserfsworkthelandforhimv Manorialism-aruraleconomicsystemconnectedtoFeudalismwhichoriginatedintheLateRomanperiod

    inwhichserfswererequiredtoworkfortheLordonhismanorv Self-Sufficient-capableofprovidingforonesownneeds,usedtodescribethemanoreconomy

    Knights&Castles

    TheVikinginvasionshaddonealottomilitarizeEurope.Alotmoresoldierswereputtogetherintoarmies[but]oncethe[Viking]threatisover,whatdoyoudowithallthesesoldiers?Source:ProfessorKellyDeVries,LoyolaCollegeYourtypicalmedievalknighthadmuchmoreincommonwith[amobsterlike]TonySopranothanwith[KingArthursknight]Lancelot.Theyrethugs.Theyremuscle.Theyreviolentindividualswhoseprimarypurposeistobeatpeopleup,andtheownerofacastle(alord)wouldunleashknightsonthepeasantsofaneighboringterritory,andtheywouldenterthevillage,assaultingpeople,takingproperty,inanattempttoforcethesepeasantstoacceptthelordshipoftheownerofthecastle.Source:ProfessorPhilipDaileader,CollegeofWilliamandMary

    Locallordswhoarerulingoverthesereallysmallareas,theybecometheprinciple(main)sourcesofauthority.Thesearepeoplewhobuiltcastles,notnecessarilytoprotectthecountrysidefromoutsideraiders,buttosubjugatethecountryside,toenforcetheirwilluponthelocalpeasants,totakefromthemwhattheyneeded.Thisperiod,particularlyifyouwereapeasant,wouldhavebeenaprettyroughtimetobelivingin.Source:ProfessorBrettWhalen,UniversityofNorthCarolina,ChapelHill[Earlycastles]wereearthandwoodfortificationsthat[kings]constructedwherethepeoplewouldgoandhideandtaketheirgoodsandtaketheircattleandotherthingsthattheVikingsmightwanttoremovefromthem,andoncetheygotinthere,theVikingscouldnotattackthem.Theysimplydidnothavethesiegetechnologyorthewillfulnesstodoso.Source:ProfessorKellyDeVries,LoyolaCollege

  • 1. Examinethepaintingonthescreen.Inwhatwaydoesthepaintingshowtheknightscodeofchivalry?Doyouthinkthisisarealisticoridealizedportrayalofmedievalknights?Explain.

    2. AccordingtoProfessorDeVries,whyweretheresomanyout-of-workknightsinEurope?

    3. HowdoesthedescriptionbyProfessorDaileaderdifferfromtheidealizedviewofknights?

    4. AccordingtoProfessorsWhalenandDaileader,howdidpeasantscometobeundertheauthorityofalord?Directions:Examinetheinfographic,DefendingaCastle,onpages220and221inthetextbookandanswerthefollowingquestions:

    5. Whatwastheprimarypurposeofacastle?[Earlycastles]wereearthandwoodfortificationsthat[kings]constructedwherethepeoplewouldgoandhideandtaketheirgoodsandtaketheircattleandotherthingsthattheVikingsmightwanttoremovefromthem,andoncetheygotinthere,theVikingscouldnotattackthem.Theysimplydidnothavethesiegetechnologyorthewillfulnesstodoso.Source:ProfessorKellyDeVries,LoyolaCollege

    6. ExaminetheimageoftheMotteandBaileyCastle.BasedonthestatementbyProfessorDeVries,wouldthisbeaneffectivedefenseagainstVikings?Explain.

    7. Whatwasonemajordownsidetousingacastlefordefense?

  • 8. Overtime,kingsandlordshadtobuildbiggerandmoredevelopedcastlestodefendagainstattacks.HowisthecastleinthemiddleofthepicturemoredevelopedthantheMotteandBaileyCastle?Whydoyouthinksuchchangesbecamenecessary?

    9. Whatstrategiesdidsoldiersuseagainstenemieswhowereprotectedinacastle?Whichstrategydoyouthinkwasbest?Explain.

    TheFeudalRelationshipTo William, most illustrious duke of the Aquitanians, Bishop Fulbert, the favor of his prayers: Requested to write something regarding the character of fealty, I have set down briefly for you, on the authority of the books, the following things. He who takes the oath of fealty [faithfulness] to his lord ought always to keep in mind these six things: what is harmless, safe, honorable, useful, easy, and practicable. Harmless, which means that he ought not to injure his lord in his body; safe, that he should not injure him by betraying his confidence or the defenses upon which he depends for security; honorable, that he should not injure him in his justice, or in other matters that relate to his honor; useful, that he should not injure him in his property; easy, that he should not make difficult that which his lord can do easily; and practicable, that he should not make impossible for the lord that which is possible. However, while it is proper that the faithful vassal avoid these injuries, it is not for doing this alone that he deserves his holding: for it is not enough to refrain from wrongdoing, unless that which is good is done also. It remains, therefore, that in the same six things referred to above he should faithfully advise and aid his lord, if he wishes to be regarded as worthy of his benefice and to be safe concerning the fealty which he has sworn. The lord also ought to act toward his faithful vassal in the same manner in all these things. And if he fails to do this, he will be rightfully regarded as guilty of bad faith, just as the former, if he should be found shirking, or willing to shirk, his obligations would be perfidious [treacherous] and perjured. I should have written to you at greater length had I not been busy with many other matters, including the rebuilding of our city and church, which were recently completely destroyed by a terrible fire. Though for a time we could not think of anything but this disaster, yet now, by the hope of Gods comfort, and of yours also, we breathe more freely again. Bishop Fulbert of Chartes, 1020

    10. Accordingtotheauthoroftheabovedocument,howareLordsandVassalssupposedtobehavetowardeachother?

    11. DoesthisdocumentsupporttheperceptionthatsuchformalizedfeudalrelationshipsweretheoverallnormthroughoutMedievalWesternEurope,orthatsuchrelationshipsalwaysfollowedtheserules?

  • The Manor Economy Directions:Examinethedocumentsandanswerthequestionsthatfollow.

    12. FeudalManors,liketheoneshownabove,areoftendescribedasself-sufficienteconomies,meaningtheycancompletelyprovideforthemselveswithoutanythingfromoutside.Examinethemapabove.Whatnecessitiesareprovidedfromwithinthemanor?Arethereanynecessitiesthatarenotprovidedfromwithinthemanor?DoyouagreethattheManorEconomyisself-sufficient?

  • 13. Whatseemtobethemajorconcernsinthenoblewomanslife?Howdotheycomparewiththoseofthepeasantwoman?

    14. Whatqualitieswouldyouassociatewiththepeasantwomanandthelifeshelived?

    Feudalism Summary Questions 15. WhatroledidwaranddefenseplayinthedevelopmentofFeudalism?

    16. WouldyoudescribeFeudalismasastablepoliticalsystem?Explain.

    17. WouldyoudescribeManorialismasastableeconomicsystem?Explain.

    368 Chapter 13

    songs about the joys and sorrows of romantic love. Sometimes troubadours sangtheir own verses in the castles of their lady. They also sent roving minstrels to carrytheir songs to courts.

    A troubadour might sing about loves disappointments: My loving heart, myfaithfulness, myself, my world she deigns to take. Then leave me bare and com-fortless to longing thoughts that ever wake.

    Other songs told of lovesick knights who adored ladies they would probablynever win: Love of a far-off land/For you my heart is aching/And I can find norelief. The code of chivalry promoted a false image of knights, making them seemmore romantic than brutal. In turn, these love songs created an artificial image ofwomen. In the troubadours eyes, noblewomen were always beautiful and pure.

    The most celebrated woman of the age was Eleanor of Aquitaine (11221204).Troubadours flocked to her court in the French duchy of Aquitaine. Later, as queenof England, Eleanor was the mother of two kings, Richard the Lion-Hearted andJohn. Richard himself composed romantic songs and poems.

    Womens Role in Feudal SocietyMost women in feudal society were powerless, just as most men were. Butwomen had the added burden of being thought inferior to men. This was the viewof the Church and was generally accepted in feudal society. Nonetheless, women

    P R I M A R Y S O U R C E P R I M A R Y S O U R C E

    Daily Life of a NoblewomanThis excerpt describes the daily life of an Englishnoblewoman of the Middle Ages, Cicely Neville, Duchess ofYork. A typical noblewoman is pictured below.

    Daily Life of a Peasant WomanThis excerpt describes the daily life of a typical medievalpeasant woman as pictured below.

    She gets up at 7a.m., and her chaplain iswaiting to say morning prayers . . . and

    when she has washed and dressed . . .she has breakfast, then she goes to thechapel, for another service, then has dinner. . . . After dinner, shediscusses business . . . then has a short sleep, then drinks ale orwine. Then . . . she goes to thechapel for evening service, and hassupper. After supper, she relaxes with

    her women attendants. . . .