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Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

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Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism. Benedict. Benedict says the wide-spread “standard” cultural values of modern, Western societies has created a “false sense of inevitability of the particular” moral values. Arguments in Support of Cultural Relativism. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Page 2: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism
Page 3: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

BenedictBenedict says the wide-spread “standard” cultural values of modern, Western societies has created a “false sense of inevitability of the particular” moral values.

Page 4: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Arguments in Support of Cultural Relativism

Different societies have different moral codes.

There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one societal code better than another.

The moral code of our own society has no special status.

There is no “universal truth” in ethics.

The moral code of a society determines what is right within that society.

We should reject arrogance and adopt an attitude of tolerance toward the practices of other cultures.

Page 5: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

The Cultural Relativism Argument

People’s judgment about right and wrong differ from culture to culture.

If people’s judgments about right and wrong differ from culture to culture, then right and wrong are relative to culture, and there are no objective moral principles.

Therefore, right and wrong are relative to culture, and there are no objective moral principles.

Is cultural relativism and viable ethical theory?

Page 6: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Moral Progress

What is “moral progress” and “moral reform”?

Have human being made moral progress?

Should we try to do so?

Warren Jeffs and his 12 year-old child bride, May 2008

Page 7: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Ethical SubjectivismDifferent people have different moral codes.

There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one person’s code as better than another.

Our own moral code has no special status.

There is no “universal truth” in ethics.

The moral code of a person determines what is right for that person.

We should reject arrogance and adopt an attitude of tolerance toward the practices of others.

Page 8: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Moral Values vs. Expressions of Moral Values

Page 9: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism
Page 10: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

Beliefs vs. Moral Values

Monogamy.

Incest.

Justified foreign war.

The Truth.

Honesty.

Well-being, health.

Murder.

Telling the truth.

Page 11: Ethical Subjectivism & Ethical Relativism

An Example Standard

Does the practice promote or hinder the welfare of the people whose lives are affected by it?

Is there an alternative set of social arrangements that would do a better job of promoting their welfare?

Are there universal qualities associated with individual and social welfare?