LEARNINGGregory J. Kelly and Richard E. Mayer, Section Editors
Enhancing UndergraduateStudents ChemistryUnderstanding ThroughProject-Based Learning inan IT Environment
MIRI BARAKCenter for Educational Computing Initiatives, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
YEHUDIT JUDY DORIDepartment of Education in Technology and Science, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel, andCenter for Educational Computing Initiatives, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Received 12 October 2003; revised 11 February 2004; accepted 27 March 2004
DOI 10.1002/sce.20027Published online 19 November 2004 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).
ABSTRACT: Project-based learning (PBL), which is increasingly supported by infor-mation technologies (IT), contributes to fostering student-directed scientific inquiry ofproblems in a real-world setting. This study investigated the integration of PBL in anIT environment into three undergraduate chemistry courses, each including both experi-mental and control students. Students in the experimental group volunteered to carry out anindividual IT-based project, whereas the control students solved only traditional problems.The project included constructing computerized molecular models, seeking information onscientific phenomena, and inquiring about chemistry theories. The effect of the PBL wasexamined both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative analysis was based on apretest, a posttest, and a final examination, which served for comparing the learning gains
Correspondence to: Yehudit Judy Dori; e-mail: email@example.com
C 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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of the two research groups. For the qualitative analysis, we looked into the experimentalstudents performance, as reflected by the projects they had submitted. In addition, thinkaloud interviews and observations helped us gain insight into the students conceptualunderstanding of molecular structures. Students who participated in the IT-enhanced PBLperformed significantly better than their control classmates not only on their posttest butalso on their course final examination. Analyzing the qualitative findings, we concluded thatthe construction of computerized models and Web-based inquiry activities helped promotestudents ability of mentally traversing the four levels of chemistry understanding: sym-bolic, macroscopic, microscopic, and process. More generally, our results indicated thatincorporating IT-rich PBL into freshmen courses can enhance students understanding ofchemical concepts, theories, and molecular structures. C 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. SciEd 89:117139, 2005
INTRODUCTIONLooking at students achievements in mathematics and science in over 40 countries at the
elementary, middle, and high school levels, the Trends in International Mathematics andScience Study (TIMSS) (Schmidt et al., 2001) reported that countries such as the UnitedStates and Israel lag behind other countries, especially by the end of secondary school.The study findings indicate that the learning materials and the ways they are taught makethe difference. The key to improving mathematics and science teaching, according to theTIMSS researchers, is the curriculum in the broad sense, namely, the standards, textbooks,sequence, and depth of the content taught. On the basis of the TIMSS findings, the authorsconclude that creating challenging curricula across all years of schooling for all students isof utmost importance (Schmidt et al., 2001).
A prominent means to enhance science curricula is project-based learning (PBL). Thisteaching method is characterized by authentic investigation, the production of an end prod-uct, collaboration among peers, and the use of technology to support the process of inquiry(Klein & Merritt, 1994; Krajcik, Czerniak, & Berger, 1999; Polman & Pea, 2001). Nu-merous studies present innovative development of project-based courses for K-12 students(Barab et al., 2000; Dori, 2003a; Dori & Tal, 2000; McDonald & Czerniak, 1994; Schneideret al., 2002; Tal & Hochberg, 2003). Other studies report the integration of project-basedscience into pre- and in-service science teachers courses (Dori, 2003b; van Zee, Lay, &Roberts, 2003; Windschitl, 2003). There is, however, less evidence of PBL and its effect onbasic science courses in higher education.
This paper describes the effect of integrating IT-enhanced PBL into three undergraduatechemistry courses. The research was conducted at the Department of Chemistry at theTechnion, Israel Institute of Technology. The research goal was to investigate studentslearning outcomes and their ability to traverse the various chemistry understanding levels.The experimental students volunteered to engage in home assignments of inquiry-basedlearning through a project that included constructing computerized molecular models. Theresearch findings are presented and discussed in four sections. First, we present the studentslearning outcomes through statistical analysis of their pretest, posttest, and final examinationscores. Second, we analyze the students ability to mentally traverse the four levels ofchemistry understanding, as reflected in their projects. Third, we present the content analysisof the students projects. Last but least, we describe a case study that exemplifies thestudents learning process while using computerized molecular modeling (CMM) as a toolto construct models of complex molecules as part of their project. On the basis of ourfindings we argue that PBL encourages understanding of chemical concepts, theories, andmolecular structures.
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THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDIn this section we focus on three subjects related to our research: PBL, applications of
the Internet to science education, and the four levels of chemistry understanding.
Project-Based LearningProject-based learning has been defined in the educational literature in a rather broad
sense. In his review of research on problem- and project-based learning, Thomas (2000)found five criteria for identifying characteristics of PBL:
1. Centrality: PBL-type projects are central to the curriculum.2. Driving question: The projects should focus on questions or problems that drive
students to encounter (and struggle with) the central concepts and principles of adiscipline.
3. Constructive investigations: The central activities of the project must involve theconstruction of knowledge by students.
4. Autonomy: Projects are student-driven to some significant degree.5. Realism: Pojects are realistic or authentic, not school-like.
Garrison (1999) and Thomas (2000) are among the few researchers who have described PBLstudies with undergraduate students. Garrison (1999) described experiences of a project-based distance-learning course, where students learned, refined techniques, and workedtoward conceptual understanding of various finance and accounting topics. Thomas (2000)gave examples of problem-based learning models for medical students to help them improvetheir diagnostic skills through working on ill-structured problems.
Other educational studies on PBL included cooperative projects done by undergradu-ate students (Smith, 1998), inquiry projects conducted by pre-service secondary teachers(Windschitl, 2003), and project-based science (PBS) with elementary, middle, and highschool students (Schneider et al., 2002). PBS, which has been studied quite intensively(Barak & Raz, 2000; Krajcik, Czerniak, & Berger, 1999; Marx et al., 1997; Tinker, 1996),is an approach that makes extensive use of student-directed scientific inquiry supportedby technology and collaboration. In PBS environments, as in PBL in general, students areengaged as active participants in the learning process, setting their own learning goals andforging meaningful relations through their experiences, as they investigate real-world is-sues (Barab & Luehmann, 2002). PBS learning models typically have at least four essentialcomponents: (1) a driving question that organizes a long-term, authentic investigation ordesign project; (2) the production of tangible, meaningful artifacts as the end products ofthe learning activity; (3) collaboration with any subset of a learners community, includingpeers, teachers, or members of society; and (4) the use of a cognitive tool, such as theInternet, to support the process of inquiry (Blumenfeld et al., 2000; Krajcik, Czerniak, &Berger, 1999).
Internet Applications in Science EducationOver the past decade, science educators have been engaged in experimental projects that
focus on the integration of the Internet and the World Wide Web as an additional mediumfor teaching and learning. Information and communication technologies facilitate world-wide contacts between teachers and students, removing time and geographical barriers. TheInternet is used as a source of scientific data and theoretical information (Murov, 2001).
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Among its many applications, the Web serves as a tool for designing new learning environ-ments (Barak & Rafaeli, 2004; Donovan & Nakhleh, 2001; Eylon 2000), integrating virtualmodels (Kozma & Russell, 1997), and creating learning communities (Gordin et al., 1997;Sudweeks & Rafaeli, 1996). Judicious use of these technologies can boost learning that isadapted to the abilities of each student, and enhance higher order thinking skills.
The Internet offers a viable means to support authentic science projects (Barab et al.,2000; Barab & Luehmann, 2002; Linn, 2000; Songer, Lee, & Kam, 2002). An importantchallenge in leveraging technologies to enhance innovative science teaching and learningis to determine how to design curricula that effectively integrate the use of these tools ina coherent and authentic way (Barab & Luehmann, 2002). Examples of innovative K-12projects that have integrated technology into science classrooms include Global Learningand Observations to Benefit the EnvironmentGLOBE (Finarelli, 1998), Knowledge In-tegration EnvironmentKIE (Linn, 2000), Kids as Global ScientistsKGS (Songer et al.,2002), LabNet (Ruopp et al., 1993), and Web-based Inquiry Science EnvironmentWISE(Linn, Clark, & Slotta, 2003). However, research concerning the assimilation of PBL inhigher education is less prevalent.
The Internet has rapidly emerged as an important tool for teaching science in highereducation. Indeed, the number of chemistry courses that incorporate student use of the Webhas increased (Foust et al., 1999; Donovan & Nakhleh, 2001; Dori, Barak, & Adir, 2003).Discovering the scope of information available over the Web and how to use it should bepart of the undergraduate education of every chemistry student (Murov, 2001). Along thisline, this study investigated the integration of PBL in undergraduate chemistry courses usingCMM tools and the Internet as the learning environment.
Chemistry Understanding LevelsWhile teaching the properties of substances and how they react, chemistry educators
initially identified three levels of understanding: macroscopic nature of matter, particulatenature of matter, and the symbolic representations of matter (Bunce & Gabel, 2002; Gabel,1998; Johnstone, 1991). The macroscopic level refers to the sensory/visible phenomena thatcan be seen with the naked eye. The particulate nature of matter refers to the microscopiclevel, which deals with atoms, molecules, and ions and their spatial structure. The symbolicrepresentation refers to chemical formulae and equations. In addition to these three levels,Dori and Hameiri (2003) suggested a fourth levelthe process level, at which substancesundergo change: they can be formed or decomposed, or can react with other substances.
Difficulties in learning chemistry are attributed mainly to its abstract, unobservable,particulate basis and to the need for agile transfer across the various levels of chemistryunderstanding (Johnstone, 2000; Gabel, Briner, & Haines, 1992; Coll & Treagust, 2003).Several researchers (Gabel & Sherwood, 1980; Garnett, Tobin, & Swingler, 1985) suggestedusing concrete models to help students visualize the particulate nature of matter. With theadvent of computer graphics, CMM (Computerized Molecular Modeling) has become sus-tainable. Incorporating CMM into chemistry courses has been found to foster understandingof molecular 3D structure and spatial ability and to promote meaningful learning (Barnea& Dori, 1999; Dori & Barak, 2001; Donovan & Nakhleh, 2001).
RESEARCH QUESTION AND POPULATIONWhile integrating PBL in an IT-rich environment into undergraduate chemistry courses,
we combined the PBL characteristics described by Krajcik et al. (1998), Marx et al. (1994),and Thomas (2000). Our PBL had a variation on the driving question, which originated
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from the instructor rather than from the student and was conducted in an IT-rich environ-ment. Additionally, the student autonomy element in our version of PBL was manifestedas independent, individualized work after class.
The research question was: What is the effect of IT-enhanced PBL on students achieve-ments in general and on their ability to traverse the various chemistry understanding levelsin particular?
This study was conducted at the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. Since most ofthe students study toward science or engineering degrees, they are required to take a generalchemistry course as freshmen or sophomore. This study investigated 215 students whoparticipated in three general chemistry courses taught by the same instructor and severalteaching assistants.
The distribution of the research population into experimental (N = 95) and control (N =120) groups was not random. Rather, it was based on the students preferences of carrying outthe project. One reason for doing so was the course instructors position, who maintainedthat enforcing a new teaching/learning method against individual students preferencesis not acceptable. The other reason was that educational research that involves humansubjects must consider their will and opinions. Moreover, forcing university students to actagainst their own will might adversely affect their behavior and attitudes, and consequentlyjeopardize the research reliability and its external validity.
The experimental group students consisted of those students who elected to carry out theIT-based project. They were credited with 5 extra points (out of 100) toward their coursesfinal grade (but were not included in the posttest and final examination scores, which wereused for the quantitative analysis). The extra credit was assigned to encourage students toparticipate in the PBL assignments. This was introduced since only few students elected toparticipate in a pilot study conducted a year prior to this research, in which no extra pointswere offered.
The self-selected research groups and the extra credit might have posed a threat to theresearch validity. We therefore investigated the experimental and control students universityentry-level grades and adm...