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  • Endocrine System Pre-Movie: http://kidshealth.org/kid/closet/movies/how _the_body_works_interim.html http://kidshealth.org/kid/closet/movies/how _the_body_works_interim.html Major structures: Hypothalamus Pituitary Pancreas and many other endocrine glands
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  • Endocrine System Key Functions Regulates body temperature, metabolism, development, and reproduction Maintains homeostasis Regulates other organ systems
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  • Hormones Hormones substances released by cells that regulate the activity of other cells in the body (chemical messengers of the endocrine system) Some of the functions of hormones include the following: 1) regulating growth, development, behavior, and reproduction 2) coordinating the production, use, and storage of energy 3) maintaining homeostasis (temperature regulation, metabolism, excretion, water & salt balance) 4) responding to stimuli from outside the body
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  • Endocrine Glands and Tissues The human body makes more than 40 hormones, and the body must regulate the release of the hormones Endocrine glands ductless organs that secrete hormones directly into either the bloodstream or the fluid around cells Several organs contain cells that secrete hormones Brain Stomach Small intestine Kidney Liver Heart
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  • Hormones Act On Target Cells Target cell a specific cell that a hormone binds to and acts on (carries the message to) The binding of the hormone with its receptor signals the target cell to change its activity
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  • Nervous System Works With Endocrine System Nerve impulses alone can increase or decrease secretion of some hormones Example: a baby nursing on a mothers breast stimulates the release of the hormone oxytocin, which in turn stimulates the release of milk from the mothers mammary glands The endocrine system plays an important role in homeostasis; different hormones moving through the bloodstream affect specific target tissues and the amounts of various hormones must be maintained within a very narrow range.
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  • Endocrine System Control The hypothalamus coordinates the activities of the nervous and endocrine systems & issues instructions (hormones) to the pituitary gland The pituitary gland secretes many hormones, including some that control endocrine glands elsewhere in the body
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  • The thyroid gland makes and releases thyroid hormones, which regulate the bodys metabolic rate and promote normal growth of the brain, bones, and muscles during childhood. They also affect reproductive functions and maintain mental alertness in adults.
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  • Adrenal glands endocrine organs located above each kidney; the adrenal medulla releases fight-or-flight hormones that prepare the body for action in emergencies (increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose level, blood flow to the heart and lungs, etc.)
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  • Pancreas The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans that release hormones Insulin a hormone that lowers blood glucose levels by promoting the accumulation of glycogen in the liver
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  • Regulating Reproduction The ovaries and the testes secrete hormones that regulate reproduction, affecting the formation of gametes & controlling sexual behavior/cycles. The hormones also stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics, such as breast size, hair growth, and muscle development. Ovaries: secrete estrogens and progesterone Testes: produce testosterone
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  • Females: ovaries
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  • Males: testes
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