Endocrine & Hormone

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<p>ENDOCRINE &amp; HORMONEArba Pramundita R., S.Farm., Apt</p> <p>LOGO</p> <p>Endocrine system maintains homeostasis</p> <p>The concept that hormones acting on distant target cells to maintain the stability of the internal milieu was a major advance in physiological understanding. The secretion of the hormone was evoked by a change in the milieu and the resulting action on the target cell restored the milieu to normal. The desired return to the status quo results in the maintenance of homeostasis</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>DEFINISI SISTEM ENDOKRIN SISTEM KELENJAR YANG MELIBATKAN PELEPASAN MOLEKULER YANG MEMBERIKAN SINYAL EKSTRASELULER~HORMON INSTRUMEN UNTUK MENGATUR METABOLISME, PERTUMBUHAN, PUBERTAS, FUNGSI JARINGAN, DAN BERPERAN DALAM MOOD</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Hormone Greekto set in motion A substance that is secreted by one cell and travel through the circulation, where it exerts action on other cell</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Sensing and signaling</p> <p>Endocrine glands synthesize and store hormones. These glands have a sensing and signaling system which regulate the duration and magnitude of hormone release via feedback from the target cell.</p> <p>Endocrine vs. Nervous SystemMajor communication systems in the body Integrate stimuli and responses to changes in external and internal environment Both are crucial to coordinated functions of highly differentiated cells, tissues and organs Unlike the nervous system, the endocrine system is anatomically discontinuous</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Nervous system has evolved to release regulatory substances from nerve terminals that act across synaptic junction on adjacent cell ~ neurotransmitters Act along the axon e.g. Acetylcholine, encephalin, dopamine</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Principal functions of the endocrine system Maintenance of the internal environment in the body (maintaining the optimum biochemical environment). Integration and regulation of growth and development. Control, maintenance and instigation of sexual reproduction, including gametogenesis, coitus, fertilization, fetal growth and development and nourishment of the newborn.</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Types of cell-to-cell signaling Classic endocrine hormones travel via bloodstream to target cells; neurohormones are released via synapses and travel via the bloostream; paracrine hormones act on adjacent cells and autocrine hormones are released and act on the cell that secreted them. Also, intracrine hormones act within the cell that produces them.www.themegallery.com Company Logo</p> <p>A cell is a target because is has a specific receptor for the hormone</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Receptor is a molecule to which the hormone binds to elicit its action Functions: Must be able to distinguish the hormone from all the other chemicals present in the circulation and bind it Must be capable binding with great affinity &amp; not bind extraneous substance</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Regulation of hormone secretion Sensing and signaling: a biological need is sensed, the endocrine system sends out a signal to a target cell whose action addresses the biological need. Key features of this stimulus response system are: receipt of stimulus synthesis and secretion of hormone delivery of hormone to target cell evoking target cell response degradation of hormone</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Feedback control Negative feedback is most common: for example, LH from pituitary stimulates the testis to produce testosterone which in turn feeds back and inhibits LH secretion Positive feedback is less common: examples include LH stimulation of estrogen which stimulates LH surge at ovulation</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Regulation of hormone release</p> <p>1. hormone-hormone 2. substrate-hormone 3. mineral-hormone</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Substrate-hormone control</p> <p>glucose and insulin: as glucose increases it stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Neural control</p> <p>Neural input to hypothalamus stimulates synthesis and secretion of releasing factors which stimulate pituitary hormone production and release</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Chronotropic control</p> <p>Endogenous neuronal rhythmicity Diurnal rhythms, circadian rhythms (growth hormone and cortisol), Sleepwake cycle; seasonal rhythm</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Circadian (chronotropic) control</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Inputs to endocrine cells</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>MACAM KELENJAR ENDOKRIN DAN HORMON-NYA</p> <p>KELENJARHIPOTALAMUS HIPOFISIS ANTERIOR HIPOFISIS POSTERIOR TIROID</p> <p>HORMONGnRH, TRH, CRH, GHRH, ADH, PRH FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, MSH, PRL, GH OKSITOSIN, VASOPRESIN T3, T4, KALSITONIN</p> <p>PARATIROIDADRENAL ADIPOSA LAMBUNG DUODENUM</p> <p>PARATIROIDKORTISOL, ALDOSTERON, ANDROGEN, EPINEFRIN, DOPAMIN, ENKEFALIN LEPTIN, ESTROGEN GASTRIN, GHRELIN, HISTAMIN, ENDOTHELIN, NEUROPEPTID Y SEKRETIN, KOLESISTOKININ</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Classes of hormone</p> <p>Water soluble e.g. catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and peptide/protein hormones</p> <p>Lipid soluble thyroid hormone, steroid hormones and Vitamin D3</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Hypothalamus main releasing controller of pituitary secretions production of hormones of posterior pituitary many other control centers here - ANS, hunger, thirst, temperature, biological clock General name releasing or inhibiting hormone or factor</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>HypothalamusThyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) Gonadotropin (GnRH) Corticotropin (CRH) Growth hormone (GHRH) Growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH=somatostatin) Prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH=dopamine) Prolactin - releasing hormone (PRH)</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Anterior pituitaryControl of endocrine glands: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Secretion of thyroid hormone</p> <p> Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Secretion of glucocorticoids, androgens and mineralocorticoids to a lesser extent</p> <p> Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) follicle growth, estrogen secretion stimulates sperm production</p> <p> Lutenizing hormone (LH) triggers ovulation and estrogen and progesterone production promotes testosterone productionwww.themegallery.com Company Logo</p> <p>Posterior PituitaryStorage and release of hypothalamic hormones Oxytocin (OT) Uterine contractions and milk ejection</p> <p> Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) production of concentrated low volume urine</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>PinealCircadian rhythms Serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, histamine MAIN melatonin</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Thyroid Metabolic rate and Ca++ and PO4-3 balance Role in growth and development Thyroid T3 &amp; T4 calcitonin</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Parathyroid</p> <p>Ca++ and PO4-3 balance parathyroid hormone</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>Company Logo</p> <p>Thymus</p> <p>Immune function thymic hormones</p> <p>Growth HormoneHypothalamus Somatostatin + GHRH</p> <p>Anterior pituitary gland</p> <p>GHLiver IGF-1 Somatomedin Cartilage and bone growth Muscle and other organs: -Protein synthesis and growth Adipose Tissue -lipolysis - release of FFAs Most Tissues glucose utilization - blood glucose</p> <p>GH levels and effects are most pronounced during puberty</p> <p>AdrenalsStress response cortex - mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids medulla - which is of course part of the sympathetic NS but acts in an endocrine function to prolong the sympathetic response</p> <p>Adrenal hormoneAdrenal Medulla Situated directly atop each kidney and stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system Secretes the catecholamines Epinephrine: elicits a fight or flight response Increase H.R. and B.P. Increase respiration Increase metabolic rate Increase glycogenolysis Vasodilation</p> <p> Norepinephrine House keeping system</p> <p>Adrenal CortexSecretes over 30 different steroid hormones (corticosteroids) Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone: maintains electrolyte balance</p> <p> Glucocorticoids Cortisol: Mobilization of free fatty acids Glucose sparing</p> <p> Gonadocorticoids testosterone, estrogen, progesterone</p> <p>Adrenal glucocorticoids No effect on growth in normal amounts Cortisol, corticosterone levels during stress and / or disease to help adapt Decreases blood glucose uptake into tissues Antagonizes insulin Increases breakdown from tissues Liver - gluconeogenesis</p> <p> Increases glucose substrates Enhances fat breakdown Very CATABOLIC (breaks down everything including bone)</p> <p> Anti-inflammatory agent</p> <p>Pancreas</p> <p>Glucose metabolism energy accessibility insulin (beta cells) glucagon (alpha cells) somatostatin or GHIH (delta cells) amylin (beta cells)</p> <p>GonadsReproductive function Female estrogens and progesterone Males testosterone</p> <p>Other organs which produce hormones GI tractStomach - gastrin and serotonin in stomach release of HCl and contraction Duodenum - secretin and cholecyctokinin in pancreas release of bicarbonate and enzymes</p> <p>Kidney- erythropoetin production of RBCs in bone marrow</p> <p>Skin- cholecalciferol from vitamin D activated in the kidneys to calcitirol promotes Ca++ absorption</p> <p>Heart - atrial natriuretic factor ( ANF) in kidneys inhibits Na+ reabsoption and renin release and inhibits secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex</p> <p>Placenta- a bunch of hormones including progesterone and estrogen ,human chorionic gonadotropin and others</p> <p>www.themegallery.com</p> <p>LOGO</p>


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