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  • Encapsulation and Controlled ReleaseTechnologies in Food Systems

  • Encapsulation andControlled ReleaseTechnologies in FoodSystemsEDITED BY

    Jamileh M. LakkisExpert in encapsulation and controlled release technologiesBarcelonaSpain


  • This edition first published 2016 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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    Typeset in 9/12pt MeridienLTStd by SPi Global, Chennai, India

    1 2016


  • To my family

  • Contents

    List of contributors, xiii

    Foreword, xvii

    Preface to second edition, xix

    Preface to first edition, xxi

    1 Introduction, 1Jamileh M. Lakkis

    Wall-forming materials, 2

    Core materials, 2

    Release triggers, 2

    Payload, 2

    Current approaches to encapsulation and controlled release, 3

    Entrapment in carbohydrate matrices, 3

    Complexation into cyclodextrins, 6

    Encapsulation in microporous matrices: physical adsorption, 6

    Encapsulation in fats and waxes, 7

    Encapsulation in emulsions and micellar systems, 7

    Encapsulation in coacervated polymers, 8

    Encapsulation using supercritical fluids, 9

    Encapsulation into hydrogel matrices, 9

    Encapsulation using flow-focusing technology, 10

    Overview of controlled-release systems, 11

    Matrix systems, 11

    Reservoir systems, 12

    Combination systems, 12

    Release mechanisms, 13

    References, 13

    2 Encapsulation of edible active compounds using supercritical fluids, 16Salima Varona, ngel Martn and Mara Jos Cocero

    Supercritical fluid technology, 16

    Properties of supercritical fluids, 16

    Implementation of processes using SCFs: Basic considerations, 17

    Current industrial applications, 18

    Particle formation processes, 19

    SCFs as solvents, 19

    SCFs as antisolvents, 20

    SCFs as solutes, 22

    SCFs as propellants, 22

    Products, 24


  • viii Contents

    Single compound products, 24Co-precipitation and encapsulation processes: Carrier materials, 25Encapsulation of solid active compounds, 26Encapsulation of liquid active compounds, 27

    Case study: Encapsulation of lavandin essential oil, 29Encapsulation in water-soluble carriers, 30Encapsulation in water-insoluble carriers, 32Impregnation, 33Comparison with alternative encapsulation technologies, 34

    References, 36

    3 Encapsulation by complex coacervation, 41Curt Thies

    Introductory comments, 41Complex coacervation background and terminology, 42Biopolymers and complex coacervation, 43

    Biopolymer structure and properties, 43Milk and vegetable protein denaturation, 48Reproducibility issues, 49Concluding biopolymer comments, 51

    Stabilization and solidification of complex coacervate capsule shells, 52Overview, 52mTGase treatment of complex coacervate capsule shells, 53

    Overview of current encapsulation protocols, 59Concluding comments, 71References, 71

    4 Lyophilized liposomes for food applications: Fundamentals,processes, and potential applications, 78Taise Toniazzo and Samantha C. Pinho

    Introduction, 78Liposomes: Structure, production methods, and applications in foods, 79Formulation factors affecting liposome integrity after lyophilization, 84Influence of the lyophilization process parameters and technologicalfactors on the lyophilized product, 89Concluding remarks and future perspectives, 90References, 91

    5 Microencapsulation of probiotics, 97Thierry F. Vandamme, Gildas K. Gbassi, Trinh Lan Nguyen and Xiang Li

    Introduction to probiotics, 97Definitions, applications, and advantages of probiotics, 97

    Introduction to microencapsulation, 99Definition, 99Purpose of microencapsulation, 100Structural details of microcapsules, 100Materials used in the microencapsulation of probiotics, 102Factors affecting the microencapsulation effectiveness of probiotics, 114

    Methods used in microencapsulating probiotics, 115

  • Contents ix

    Extrusion technique for microencapsulation, 115Emulsion technique, 115Use of drying technology for microencapsulating Probiotics, 117Interfacial polymerization and coacervation, 119Co-crystallization method, 120Molecular inclusion, 120Centrifugal extrusion technique, 120

    Conclusion and prospects, 121References, 121

    6 Emulsions as delivery systems in foods, 129Ingrid A.M. Appelqvist, Matt Golding, Rob Vreeker and Nicolaas Jan Zuidam

    Introduction, 129Stabilization and destabilization of emulsion systems, 130

    Emulsion stabilization, 130Formulation design for food emulsions, 135

    Release triggers for emulsions, 142Delivery of water-soluble food actives via emulsions, 143

    Water-in-oil emulsions for controlling water-soluble actives, 143Effect of O/W emulsions on taste release and perception, 143Double emulsions for controlling water-soluble actives, 145

    Delivery of hydrophobic food actives via O/W emulsions, 149Lipophilic health ingredients in O/W emulsions, 149Aroma release from O/W emulsions, 149Structured emulsions in hydrogels for controlled release of aromas, 153

    Delivery of dietary fats as O/W emulsions and their protection againstoxidation, 155Future trends, 159

    Nature-made emulsions, 159Monodispersed emulsions, 163

    References, 164

    7 Improved solubilization and bioavailability of nutraceuticals innanosized self-assembled liquid vehicles, 173Nissim Garti, Eli Pinthus, Abraham Aserin and Aviram Spernath

    Introduction, 173U-Type microemulsions, swollen micelles, and progressive and fulldilution, 177Solubilization of nonsoluble nutraceuticals, 179

    Lycopene, 180Phytosterols, 185Lutein and lutein ester, 187

    Oxidative stability, 191Bioavailability, 192

    CoQ10 and Improved Bioavailability, 192Water binding, 195Conclusions, 197References, 198

  • x Contents

    8 Encapsulation and controlled release in bakery applications, 204Jamileh M. Lakkis

    Introduction, 204

    Encapsulation technologies for bakery applications, 205

    Hot melt particle coating technology, 205

    Spray congealing/chilling, 207

    High pressure congealing (beta process), 209

    Film-forming materials, 210

    Waxes, 210

    Resins, 212

    Glycol polymers, 212

    Fats and glycerides, 212

    Lauric acid group, 212

    Palmitic acid group, 213

    Oleic/linoleic acid group, 213

    Characteristics of wax and fat coating materials, 213

    Ideal properties of encapsulated particles for bakery applications, 216

    Good barrier properties, 216

    Mechanical strength, 216

    Surface morphology, 217

    Adhesion and cohesiveness, 217

    Particle size distribution, 217

    Film thickness, 217

    Melting properties, 217

    Applications of encapsulated actives in bakery applications, 218

    Leavening systems, 218

    Encapsulated sweeteners, 222

    Encapsulated antimicrobial agents, 224

    Encapsulated minor ingredients, 229

    Flavors, 229

    Encapsulated nutrients, 229

    References, 230

    9 Encapsulation and controlled release applications in confectioneryand oral care products, 236Jamileh M. Lakkis

    Introduction, 236

    Physiology and organization of the oral area, 237

    Permeability and barrier functions of the oral cavity, 239

    Membranes physiology and transport routes (Plasma and Epithelialmembranes), 239

    Plasma membranes, 239

    Epithelial membranes, 240

    Oral mucosa, 240

    Saliva, 242

    Keratinization, 242