Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education ... Table 1-12. School program ... Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education

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  • Chapter 1Elementary and Secondary

    Mathematics and Science Education

    1-1

    Highlights .....................................................................................................................................1-4Student Learning in Mathematics and Science .........................................................................1-4Student Coursetaking in Mathematics and Science ..................................................................1-4Teachers of Mathematics and Science ......................................................................................1-5Instructional Technology and Digital Learning ........................................................................1-6Transition to Higher Education ................................................................................................1-6

    Introduction ..................................................................................................................................1-8Chapter Overview .....................................................................................................................1-8Chapter Organization ................................................................................................................1-8

    Student Learning in Mathematics and Science ..........................................................................1-10Mathematics and Science Performance During the Kindergarten Year .................................1-10Mathematics and Science Performance in Grades 4 and 8 .....................................................1-12International Comparisons of Mathematics and Science Performance ..................................1-17

    Student Coursetaking in Mathematics and Science ...................................................................1-19High School Graduation Requirements and Curriculum Standards .......................................1-20Ninth Grade Mathematics and Science Coursetaking ............................................................1-21Participation and Performance in the Advanced Placement Program ....................................1-23

    Teachers of Mathematics and Science .......................................................................................1-26Characteristics of High-Quality Teachers ..............................................................................1-26Teacher Professional Development ........................................................................................1-31Teachers Working Conditions ...............................................................................................1-31Mathematics and Science Teacher Attrition ...........................................................................1-33

    Instructional Technology and Digital Learning .........................................................................1-34Technology as an Instructional Tool ......................................................................................1-35Research on Instructional Technology ...................................................................................1-35Internet Access ........................................................................................................................1-36Distance Education and Online Learning ...............................................................................1-36Research on Effectiveness of Online Learning ......................................................................1-37

    Transition to Higher Education ..................................................................................................1-38Completion of High School ....................................................................................................1-38Enrollment in Postsecondary Education .................................................................................1-39

    Conclusion .................................................................................................................................1-41Notes ..........................................................................................................................................1-42Glossary .....................................................................................................................................1-44References ..................................................................................................................................1-45

    Please see chapter errata

  • 1-2 Chapter 1. Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education

    List of TablesTable 1-1. Indicators of elementary and secondary school mathematics and

    science education ....................................................................................................................1-9Table 1-2. Changes in NAEP mathematics and science score gaps between

    selected groups of students in grades 4 and 8: 19902011 ...................................................1-16Table 1-3. Highest-level mathematics course in which ninth graders enrolled,

    by student and family characteristics: 2009 ..........................................................................1-21Table 1-4. Highest-level science course in which ninth graders enrolled, by student

    and family characteristics: 2009............................................................................................1-23Table 1-5. Public school students who took or passed an AP exam in high school,

    by subject: Graduating classes 2002, 2007, and 2012 ..........................................................1-25Table 1-6. Public school students who took or passed an AP exam as a proportion of

    overall student population, by subject: Graduating classes 2002, 2007, and 2012 ...............1-25Table 1-7. Mathematics and science teachers, by path to certification and grade

    level: 2012 .............................................................................................................................1-28Table 1-8. Mathematics and science teachers with an undergraduate or graduate degree

    in mathematics or science, by grade level: 2012 ...................................................................1-29Table 1-9. Mathematics and science teachers considering themselves very well prepared

    for various tasks associated with instruction, by grade level: 2012 ......................................1-31Table 1-10. Mathematics and science teachers, by most recent participation in

    subject-focused professional development and grade level: 2012 ........................................1-32Table 1-11. Mathematics and science teachers spending time in subject-focused

    professional development in the past 3 years, by grade level: 2012 .....................................1-32Table 1-12. School program representatives reporting various issues as serious problems

    for mathematics and science instruction, by school level: 2012 ...........................................1-33Table 1-13. Public school teachers reporting the availability and frequency of use of

    technology devices, by school level: 2009 ............................................................................1-35Table 1-14. Public school districts with students enrolled in distance education courses

    indicating how important various reasons were for having distance education courses in their district, by district characteristic: School year 200910 ...........................................1-37

    Table 1-15. Beginning 200304 postsecondary students who took remedial courses during their enrollment, by type of first institution: 200309 ...............................................1-41

    Table 1-A. Average number of AP mathematics and science courses offered in high schools, by school characteristic: 2012 .........................................................................1-24

    List of SidebarsRace to the Top ............................................................................................................................1-8Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K12 STEM Education ..............................................1-9The Role of Nonschool Factors in Student Learning .................................................................1-13TIMSS 2011 Sample Items ........................................................................................................1-17Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards ..................................1-20Access to Advanced Placement Courses in Mathematics and Science .....................................1-24100Kin10....................................................................................................................................1-34

  • Science and Engineering Indicators 2014 1-3

    List of FiguresFigure 1-1. Average mathematics assessment scores of first-time kindergartners,

    by child and family characteristics: Fall 2010 and spring 2011 ............................................1-11Figure 1-2. Average NAEP mathematics scores of students in grades 4 and 8: 19902011 ........1-14Figure 1-3. Students in grades 4 and 8 scoring at or above NAEPs proficient level

    in mathematics for their grade: 19902011 ..........................................................................1-14Figure 1-4. Average NAEP science scores of students in grade 8, by student and

    school characteristics: 2009 and 2011...................................................................................1-15Figure 1-5. Average NAEP mathematics scores of students in grade 8, by sex, race,

    and ethnicity: 2011 ................................................................................................................1-15Figure 1-6. Average NA