# Electromagnetism Kyle Thornton DMI 50B. Magnetic Attraction and Polarity n ava/magneticlines/index.html

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• Slide 1
• Electromagnetism Kyle Thornton DMI 50B
• Slide 2
• Magnetic Attraction and Polarity n http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/magneticlines/index.html http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/magneticlines/index.html n http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/magneticlines2/index.html http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/magneticlines2/index.html
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• The Relationship Between Electricity And Magnetism n Oersteds Discovery It was noted that a wire carrying a current also has a magnetic field However: Only when the charge is in motion Stationary charges produce only electric fields Direction of the magnetic flow is determined by the right hand rule
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• Magnetic Field Of A Current Carrying Solenoid n A wire wound into a coil would behave as a magnet (North and South pole) n If the current is reversed, magnetic polarity will reverse n Current direction is determined by application of the right hand rule
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• The Electromagnet n The magnetic field of a current-carrying solenoid is concentrated through the center of the coil n Inserting a bar of ferromagnetic material into the coil intensifies the magnetic n The field lines would be the same as a bar magnet n An electromagnet can be turned off or varied by varying the current flow through the wire
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• Faradays Discovery n If an electric current can induce a magnetic field, can a magnetic field induce a current in a conductor? n Yes, if: The magnet is moving The wire is moving The magnetic fields are changed n Application in Radiology Generators and electric motors used in radiologic equipment work on this principle
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• Magnitude Of The Induced Current n Depends on four factors The strength of the magnetic field The velocity of the field as it moves past the conductor The angle of the conductor to the magnetic field The number of turns in the conductor
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• Lenzs Law n Determines the direction of the induced current flow n Occurs when a changing magnetic field is used to induce current flow The induced current flow will oppose the action that induced it This is known as self-induction This law establishes magnetic polarity n Application in Radiology This principle is applied to rotating anodes
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• Lenz Law n http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/lenzlaw/index.html http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/lenzlaw/index.html
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• Self Induction n Autotransformers work on this principle n The generating of an opposing voltage or current in a single coil as result of changing magnetic fields when an AC is run through the coil
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• Mutual Induction n An electromagnet (primary coil) is placed near a coil of wire (secondary coil) n Current is passed through the primary coil n The resulting changing magnetic fields induce a current in the secondary coil n Most transformers work on this principle
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• Basic Electromechanical Equipment Used In Radiologic Machines n Generators n Motors n Rectifiers n Transformers
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• Generators n Converts mechanical energy to electrical energy n This utilizes the principle of a changing magnetic field to induce an electric current n The simplest type of generator is a coil of wire that rotates through a magnetic field This is called a single phase generator The current produced is alternating current n High voltage generators are necessary to produce x-rays in the x-ray tube
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• DC/AC Generators n http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/generator/dc.html http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/generator/dc.html n http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/generator/ac.html http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/generator/ac.html
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• Motors n Converts electrical energy to mechanical energy of motion n Simplest type is a battery powered DC motor n The components are the same as a generator Single wire inside a magnet n The electric current is sent through the wire n The resulting magnetic fields induce motion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2mSh GuG4RY&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2mSh GuG4RY&feature=related
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• Electric Motor n Electric Motor Animation Electric Motor Animation n http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/hsc/hsc/el ectric_motors.html http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/hsc/hsc/el ectric_motors.html
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• Synchronous And Induction Motors n Synchronous Motor Designed to rotate at the same rpm as the supplied current Used for timing devices n Induction Motor This type of motor spins the anode used to produce x-rays http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/hsc/hsc/electric_motors1.ht mlhttp://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/hsc/hsc/electric_motors1.ht ml http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWrNzUCjbkk&featur e=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWrNzUCjbkk&featur e=related
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• Rectification n Electrons are made to flow inside the x- ray tube via a high voltage AC generator n AC in the x-ray tube would be problematic n AC must be changed to DC n This is accomplished via rectifiers n Two types Vacuum tube Solid state
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• Rectifiers n Allows current to flow in one direction only n Vacuum tube Similar to x-ray tube Allows electrons to flow during positive half of AC cycle n Solid state Consists of a semiconductor and an added impure substance Results in more efficient x-ray production More commonly used in modern machines Longer life spans than vacuum tube rectifiers
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• Silicon Rectifier
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• Vacuum tube rectifiers
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• Transformers n Principles of operation Power supply is normally 110 - 220 Necessary to increase incoming voltage to kilovoltage for efficient x-ray production It is also necessary to decrease incoming voltage to 5 - 10 volts This is accomplished by transformers Transformers use interactions between electricity and magnetism to accomplish their tasks
• Slide 30
• Transformers n Transformers have two circuits n Primary circuit contains the power source n Current is induced into the secondary circuit by changing magnetic fields in the primary circuit n A transformer takes incoming voltages or currents and increases or decreases them n The output voltage depends on the turns ratio of the transformer
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• Transformers n http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/transformer/index.html http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/j ava/transformer/index.html
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• Transformers n Turns ratio N s /N p This expresses the relationship of turns in each coil A transformer with less turns in the secondary coil is a step-down transformer These decrease incoming voltage A transformer with a turns ratio > 1 (more turns in the secondary coil) is a step-up transformer These increase incoming voltage
• Slide 33
• Transformers n Types of transformers Air-core Two insulated coils placed in close proximity to each other Open-core The coils are wrapped around an iron bar Closed-core The coils are wrapped around a square or circle of iron Autotransformer An iron core with only one winding of wire Shell-type Each core plate contains two holes The coils are wrapped around the center post of the core This traps more magnetic field lines Results in more a more efficient transformer
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• Transformer Law #1 Voltage related to turns ratio V s /V p = N s /N p Work this problem An incoming voltage of 220 is placed across the primary side of a transformer that has 100 primary turns and 40,000 secondary turns X/220 = 40,000/100 Answer 88,000 V or 88 kV
• Slide 37
• Transformer Law #2 Current related to voltage Vp/Vs = Is/Ip Work the problem The input V is 220. The output is 22kV. The current in the primary is 20A. What is the current in the secondary? 220/22000 = X/20 Answer 0.2 A
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• Transformer Law #3 n Current related to turns ratio Ip/Is = Ns/Np Work the problem The turns ratio is 50. The current in the secondary is 5 A. What is the primary current? X/5 = 50/1 Answer 250 A
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• Safety Issues With Transformers n Transformer power rating is generally rated in kilowatts n This rating cannot be exceeded Overheating would occur n This must be taken into consideration when purchasing a machine and considering its i

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