Specic energy consumption (SEC)
he ped aignite uethlateand
gathered from monthly records of the involved plant managements. Estimated electric energyconsumption data is gathered through on-site measurement. Actual and estimated electric energy
knownd 20/yr to 9mmonto su
including 35,000 companies and over 2 million employee. Exportincomes of the sector compose 23.5% of total export income ofTurkish economy in 2006 [5,6]. Total annual production volume ofthe sector is about $30 billion USD . Stable growth of Turkishtextile and clothing sectors have remained over the last two
the total industrial energy consumption (of rst biggest 500industrial plants) of Turkey is estimated as about 7.2% .
The aim of this paper is to investigate unit electric energyconsumption and its efciency in cotton textile processing stages ofspinning, warpingesizing, weaving, wet processing and clothingmanufacturing. Paper includes general knowledge about Turkishtextile sector, energymanagementprojects conducted inTurkeyandin the world, literature reviews, on-site data collection and analysisof electric energy consumption, characterizing the efciency in
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Contents lists availab
Energy 35 (2010) 2945e2952E-mail address: email@example.com. It is estimated from the report of UNIDO  thatelectricity consumption rate in the total consumpted energy forindividual textile production stages are 93% for spinning, 85% forweaving, 43% for wet processing, and 65% for clothingmanufacturing. Rest of the energy that is used in the textile pro-cessing plants is supplied by other energy sources of fuel, naturalgas, and coal [3,4].
Textile industry is one of the leading industries of Turkey,
for an ordinary textile good, produced in Turkey. As it is seen fromthe table production cost components of textile products are clas-sied under four groups of raw material-auxiliaries, labor, energy,and nance-transportation.
Among all the primary production cost components of textilegoods, share of energy cost in textile sector has been reported as6e14% in 1996 , 8e10% in 2000 , and 5e10% in 2007  intotal production cost. Energy consumption rate of textile sector in1. Introduction
Textile manufacturing stages areprocesses. Between years of 1971 atextile sector has doubled from 47 EjElectric energy is one of the most cothe textile and clothing plants, usedmachinery, heating and cooling contr0360-5442/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd.doi:10.1016/j.energy.2010.03.029unit textile product of each involved textile processing stages. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
n as energy intensive04 nal energy use in0 Ej/yr in the world .ly used energy types inpply energy for textileems, lighting, and ofce
decades, until elimination of quotas in textile sector for China in2005 . Competition in textile and clothing sector had becomemore severe eventually with the results of global economic crisisin 2008. Turkish textile manufacturers had to face the increasingcosts of textile raw materials, labor, energy, nance and otherrelated expenses.
In Table 1 share of the production cost components for yarn,woven fabric and clothing manufacturing have been summarizedTurkish textile sector specic electric energy consumption of the plants. It is found that actual electric energy consumptionamount per unit textile product is higher than the estimated electric energy consumption amount perCotton textile productionElectric energy use consumption data and monthly production quantities of the corresponding months are used to facilitateElectric energy consumption in the cott
Textile Engineering Department, Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, 20070 Kn
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:Received 24 July 2009Received in revised form16 March 2010Accepted 17 March 2010Available online 24 April 2010
a b s t r a c t
Electric energy is one of tenergy cost rate is reportmanufactured in Turkey. Sthis paper was to investigareal-time measurements melectric energy was calcuweaving, wet processing
journal homepage: wwwAll rights reserved.textile processing stages
rimary energy sources consumpted in cotton textile processing. Currentbout 8e10% in the total production cost of an ordinary textile productcantly important share of this energy cost is electric energy. The aim ofnit electric energy consumption of cotton textile processing stages usingod. Actual and estimated Specic Energy Consumption (SEC) values ford in the cotton textile processing stages of spinning, warpingesizing,clothing manufacturing. Actual electric energy consumption data are
le at ScienceDirect
electric energy usage associated with cotton textile processingplants in Industrial Zone of Denizli in Turkey. In particular this paperwill:
(1) Characterize electric energy usage in existing textile produc-tion plants,
(2) Quantify the magnitudes of actual and estimated specicelectric energy consumption (SEC) in the dened textile pro-cessing stages,
(3) To discuss the reason of the gaps between actual and estimatedSEC for electric energy consumption in the cotton textile pro-cessing stages.
2. Energy management in Turkey
Energy consumption rate of textile and clothing sector is repor-ted as 5.9% in total energy use of Turkish industrial sectors ,(annual energy consume of textile and clothing sector is 822,305 toein the total annual energy use volume of 13,923,448 toe in Turkey).
3. Textile manufacturing processes and energy prole
Textile manufacturing process is divided into ve main substages of ber processing, spinning, weavingeknitting, wet pro-cessing and garment manufacturing. Fig. 1 shows general produc-tion path line of a typical woven textile product. The dotted boxes 1and 2 in Fig. 1 represent primary and secondary energy consumingapplications in an ordinary textile production plant. The boxeslabeled A, B, and C represent the primary energy consumingproduction lines of spinning, sizing, weaving; wet processing; andgarment manufacturing. Heatingecooling, sanitation, trans-portation, exterior and other energy consuming applications areclassied as secondary energy consuming applications .
Each manufacturing process has its own energy consumptioncharacteristics. Some processes are more energy intensive thanothers. Different types of energy sources are consumed in eachdifferent processing stage, some processes require more electricity
Table 1Share of production cost components for a textile good, % .
Cost components Yarn Woven fabric Clothing
Raw material and auxiliaries 55e65 65 55e65Labor 5e8 12e18 20Energy 5e10 5e8 5e8Finance, transportation, etc. 17e35 9e18 17e20
S. Palamutcu / Energy 35 (2010) 2945e29522946Energy management and saving policies has become subject ofinterest for textile manufacturers as it is for other industrial sectors,right after the 1970s. The world has started to revise its energybudget by utilizing higher efciencies, and to pay attention theurgency of environmental protection. Parallel to emerging concernsabout energy and environment in the world, Turkey had alsoalerted about energy savings and management regulations.Depending on social and economic development of Turkey, totalenergy demand and also electric energy demand are grown rapidly.Reported energy demand increase rate is about 11% for every yearsince 1970s . Alongside the increasing energy demand, energymanagement and energy saving actions had been enhancednationwidely since the beginning of 1980s. It is reported as result ofthe Turkish energy conservation programs that Turkish industrialsectors have an annual energy saving potential of approximately30%. Annual energy saving potential for textile and clothing sectoris reported as 8.36% [13,14] which is substantial potential con-cerning the increasing energy costs in textile processing.Fig. 1. General production path linewhile others requires more heat energy.Spinning process in its various stages (mixing, opening, prepara-
tion, the spinning operation itself, winding and doubling) consumeselectric energy. Amount of energy consumption in this process isvariable depending on type of spinning system, type of winding anddoubling machines, desired yarn properties and raw material char-acteristics. In case of middle count, carded, ring yarn processing, thespinning and winding processes represent about 80% of energyconsumption per kg of single yarn [16,17]. Sizing process is animportantprocessbetweenspinningandweavingprocesses.Sizingofyarns before warping mostly requires indirect steam that is heatedusing electricity, gas or oil. Weaving processes requires electricalenergy. Amount of energy consumption changes depending on fabricstructure and technical parameters of weaving machine.
Controlled climatic room condition (25 C temperature, 65%relative humidity) in spinning and weaving rooms is anotherimportant electric energy consuming station in textile processingstages. Seasonal climatic variation is also important parameter forenergy consumption quantity of air conditioning systems.of a woven textile product .
production capacity (number of unit) energy type
y 35 (2010) 2945e2952 2947process
Cotton spinning 50,000spindle
Opening-blendingline (2)Carding machine (16)Drawing lines (2)Roving machineRing spinning machineWinding machine
Serial warpingmachine (1)Conical warpingmachine (1)Sizing machine (1)
Weaving 36 loom Jacquard weavingmachines (36)Quality controlmachinery (8)
Wet processing 30tons/day
Pre-nishing lineWashing lineDrying lineDyeing machineFinishing lineVolumizing machineOpening andrewinding machinesQuality controlmachinery
Electricity steamElectricity steamElectricity hot oilElectricityElectricityElectricity hot oilElectricityElectricity
Clothing e Long side cutting ElectricityTable 2Machine park and consumed energy types of cotton textile processing plants.
Name of Production Machine name Consumed
S. Palamutcu / EnergWet processing stages of pretreatment, bleaching, dyeing, posttreatments and drying-xation processes consume considerableamounts of heat in the form of hot water, steam and hot air.Mechanical parts of the wet processing machinery are driven usingelectric energy. Total electric energy consumption inwet processingis quite low comparing the other textile processing stages.
Clothing manufacturing stages of laying up, cutting, sewing,cleaning with air suction, ironing, and transporting processesmostly consumes electric energy. Only heatingeironing processesmay require steam or hot air.
Research about energy management, improvement of energyefciency, and energy saving potentials are main concern of manydifferent industrial sectors including textile sector [18e33]. Therehave been many international [2,18e20,34e38] and national[1,4,7,10e14,21e23,39,40e43] projects concerning energy manage-ment and improvement of energy efciency in different industrialsectors. Energy management methods and practices are describedusing the total quality management approach of P (plan), D (do), C(check) and A (action) cycles [2,13,14,21,35e37]. Energy saving areasin the industrial manufacturing plants is basically categorized asboilers, steam systems, heat isolation, leakage prevention of pneu-matic systems, electric motors and motion transmission systems.Implementation of accurate maintenance plans and procedures isadvised promptly for industrial manufacturing plants to preventpotential energy losses [2e4,18,36,38,40,42,43].
This section explains textile processing stages of the involvedplants, details of walkthrough electric energy analysis, data
manufacturing machine (1)Long side hemmingmachine (2)Sewing machine (50)Overlock machine (23)
collection method from the plant management, and approaches
Table 4Average production and electric energy consumption information of the textile plants.
Plant Average production quantity Electric energy consumption
Production Lighting HVAC
Yarn 871.392 kg/month 2,232.249Warpingesizing 447.630 m/month 2.023Weaving 86.195 kg/month 100.553Wet processing 740.230 kg/month 482.661Clothing 35.217 kg/month 1.493
S. Palamutcu / Energy 35 (2010) 2945e29522948used to calculate actual and estimated electric energy SEC values.Involved manufacturing plants in the present study are cotton
spinning plant, warpingesizing plant, weaving plant, wet pro-cessing plant and clothing manufacturing plant, which are locatedin the industrial zone of Denizli, working connectively each other assub contractors. Production capacity, machinery park andconsumed energy types of the plants are given in Table 2. As it isseen main energy types used in textile processing stages are elec-tric and heat (provided using natural gas or coal burning) energies.
Before conductingwalkthrough energy inspection in the involvedcotton textile processing plants, consultation meetings were heldwith production and energy-maintenance departments at manage-rial level. After approval of project initiation by plant managements,electric energy consumption analysis project is introduced to allrelevant plant personnel in serial meetings. Purpose of the projectwas explained and their suggestions were discussed in detail.Monthly production and electric energy consumption data of theinvolved plants were gathered from the relevant managerialdepartments....