Effective Public Speaking
Chapter # 2
Basic Tips for Speech Preparation and Delivery The Essential Steps in Planning , Preparing, and Presenting a SpeechSelecting the subjectNarrowing the subjectDetermining the purposes , including central ideas and claimsAnalyzing the audience and occasionGathering the speech materialOutlining the speechPracticing aloudSelecting the SubjectFollow these guidelines while selecting a subject
Select a subject which you already know something and can find out more.
Select topic appropriate to the occasion.
Select a subject which interest you and your audience.A topic may interest listeners for one or more of the following reasonsIt concerns their health , happiness, or security.
It offers a solution to a recognized problem.
It is surrounded by controversy or conflict of opinion.
It provides information on a misunderstood or little understood issue.Narrowing the SubjectA general subject will be of little value until it is narrowed down to a manageable size. Narrowing a subject to more precise speech topic involves three primary considerations:-
Narrow your subject so you can discuss it effectively in the time allotted for the speech.Narrow your subject to meet the specific expectations of your audience .Gauge your subject to the comprehension level of the audience.Determining of purpose Once you know what to talk about, the next task is to consider a series of why questions :-Why this topic?Why audience want to listen?Why this topic is appropriate to this occasion?These questions can be answered easily by considering these four points in sequence:-Think about the general purposes that people have in mind when they speak in public.Consider your own specific purpose for speaking.Focus on the claim or central idea which you want to communicate.Create a title for the presentation that captures your goals and tells the audience what your central idea or claim will focus on.General purposes of speechesGeneral purposes can be determined by asking your self these questions:-Are you trying to tell them something that they dont know but they should ?Are you seeking to change how they feel about a social or political issue ?Are you interested in having them do something as a result of your speech ?Do you want them laugh and learn at the same time ?
To InformTo Persuade To ActuateTo Entertain
To InformThe general purpose of speech to inform, help listeners to understand idea, concept or to widen their range of knowledge.
To Persuade or To Actuate The purpose of speech to Persuade or to Actuate is to influence listeners whether to adopt a new point of view or to take a course of action.To influence or alter your listeners beliefs and actions , you need to present well-ordered arguments that are supported by facts, figures examples , and expert opinions.
To EntertainTo entertain , amuse , or provide other enjoyment for listeners is frequently the general purpose of speech.
Specific Purposes A specific purpose focuses audience attention on the particular goal of your presentation.
You may have more than one specific purposes for a speech ( clearly expressed and hidden one)
Specific purposes may be short term as well as long term.If you declare statement which summarize your speech for example :- This institution is taking specific steps to promote education in Afghanistan this sentence is called central idea.
This institution should take specific steps to promote education in Afghanistan is a claim.Central Idea and ClaimsAnalyzing The Audience & the OccasionYou need to analyze the people that compose your audience, their age range , gender , culture , background , and fears.
The audience knowledge of and attitude towards you.
The audience knowledge of and attitude towards the topic.
Are there specific rules or customs that you need to know and follow.
Gathering of the Speech MaterialsYou need to do these things:-
Assess what information you think is needed in order to accomplish your objectives.Reflect on what you already know.Figure out what is relevant to your central idea and claim.Investigate where additional information can be found , if necessary.Obtain the additional information.Outlining the SpeechWhile outlining follow these rules:-
Arrange your main ideas in a clear and systematic order Arrange the sub points under each Main idea in a manner that clearly illustrate their connection to the main point.Preserve (maintain) the unity of your speech by making sure that each point , whether a main point or a sub point, is directly related to your specific purpose and central idea or claimPracticing AloudPractice alone or with friends aloud.
Record your speech then listen and watch it.
Also criticize your own speech by assessment. Selecting the Method of PresentationThe most important thing is the selection of method for presenting your speech. Your choice should be based on several criteria:
Type of speaking occasion
The seriousness and purpose of your speech
Your own weaknesses and strengths as a speaker
The Impromptu Speech :-
A speech done or said without earlier planning or preparation. In this method try to focus on a single idea , carefully relating all significant details to it.
The Memorized Speech:-
It is written out , word for word , and committed to memory. This type of speech is good for drama, speeches in a Shakespearean play but not suitable for general purposes.
The Read Speech:-
It is also like the memorized one but in this method, a reader reads from a manuscript. For examples President Speech.
The Extemporaneous Speech:-
Representing a middle course between the memorized, read and the impromptu speech ,the extemporaneous speech requires careful planning and a good outline.For example book writing.
Communicating Self-ConfidenceMany students ready to give their first speech ask:-
How should I deliver my speech?
How can I communicate a sense of self-confidence to an audience ? Answer of these questions can be found by:-
Be YourselfLook at your listenersCommunicate with your body as well as your voice.The classroom is like a laboratory for studying and evaluating speech content and delivery.
The evaluation form is designed to help sharpen your critical listening skills as well as sensitivity to the fundamentals of the speechmaking process.
Learning to Evaluate SpeechesEvaluation FormName :- Date:-Occasion :- Speech length :- Topic:-
Introduction (15 points)Gained Audiences Attention.Established credibility and goodwill.Nature of the topic as central idea and claim points:-_____ BODY(40 points)Clearly identified main points.Developed each main point with appropriate materials.Developed topic appropriately for this occasion and audience.
Arranged ideas logically .Provided appropriate support (examples , opinions)Related to and included audience.Made appropriate use of visual aids points:___
Conclusion (15 points)Prepared audience for end.Reinforced central idea or claim in appropriate manner.
Presentation and Delivery (20 points)Enthusiasm for subject .Gestures / movements appropriate.Facial expressions appropriate.
Eye contact appropriate.Pronunciation clear and accurate.Vocal varietyFluent expression Points:-____
Overall Evaluation(10 points) Points:-____ Total points ___/100