Education is about teaching students how to think, not what to think

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  • Education is about teaching students how to think, not what to think.

  • The only way students will learn to read, write, listen and speak English is through lots of practice. Too much teacher talk deprives students of time to practiceListening to a teacher explain grammar explanations does as much good as listening to someone explain how to play the guitarIn large discussions, usually only a few students will participate and the quiet students will never participate

  • Student-Centered ClassroomsRegardless of who you are teaching, be it primary school, middle school, or university students, the students should be doing most of the work in the classroom.

    How much learning can take place if a student is listening to a teacher lecture for 1 hours?

    Lets take a look.

  • Cone of LearningWe remember

  • Teaching Learning

  • I taught Stripe how to whistle.I dont hear him whistling.I said I taught him. I didnt say he learned it.(Leveque, 1999-2000)

  • A teacher should be well-prepared for each class. If a teacher walks into the classroom, opens a book, and begins to read from the book, both the teacher and the students will be bored.

    The students should be prepared to work while in the classroom, not simply listen while a teacher talks (or sleep while a teacher talks).

  • Lets take a look at two common approaches used for TEFL/TESLAudio-Lingual Method (ALM)

    Communicative Approach

  • ALMSentence patterns are presented orally, in dialoguesEach dialogue has drills: repetition, substitution, transformationThis method follows the order: Presentation (teacher introduces dialogue)Practice (students mindlessly repeat, over and over and over)Production (maybe a written exercise like fill in the blank, match the word with the definition, etc.)

  • ALM

    ProsSimple and directRegular and predictable; students know what to expectStudents quickly able to memorize dialoguesEasy to control class

    ConsTeacher is at center stage the whole classBoringStudents unable to function outside of the dialogueDoesnt allow creativityPromotes a lack of confidence since students are only familiar with the structures theyve practicedProvides no way of exploring the language; students dont know sentence patterns can change

  • Communicative ApproachEmphasis is placed on the learners responsibility for his or her learning Students are actively engaged; teacher does not carry full responsibility for students learningUses language for real conversations and exchanges; promotes real communicationStudents encouraged to talk about current events/whats going on in the world todayLanguage sounds natural, not artificial Less error correction (model the correct answer and move on) More opportunities for students to speak (esp. about topics of interest-gives students freedom to bring up own topics)Uses questioning techniques to ensue attention and involvement from the whole classPromotes critical thinking

  • ALM vs. Communicative ApproachTeacher: What color shirt is Mike wearing? Student: Mike is wearing a blue shirt.

    Vs.

    Teacher: Do you like the color of Mikes blue shirt? Student: ?????? (teacher doesnt know the response the student will give)

  • Multiple Intelligence TheoryFacts:All people have all nine intelligences. The strength of the intelligences is different in each individual and can change over time. All learners are unique individuals. The class is not a unified being. Each learner has different needs and learns by different learning styles.

  • The Nine IntelligencesNaturalisticLogical/MathematicalInterpersonalIntrapersonalVisualLinguisticMusicalExistentialBodily/Kinesthetic

  • Multiple Intelligence Theory also suggestsTraditional education techniques only use and develop a limited range of intelligences in learners. Other intelligences are neglected (forgotten about). Learners are traditionally evaluated (tested) by a system that favors specific intelligence types.

  • Why is this theory useful for teachers?It helps us identify different learning styles. It helps us identify our own teaching style. It helps us to plan our lessons by knowing our students needs. It encourages us to balance our classroom activities. It helps us to create a balanced evaluation process.

  • You will not be able to include classroom activities in every lesson that cover the full range of intelligences. Rather, try to balance activities over a series of lessons.

    Also, not all students will be happy all the time. However, some lessons (or parts of lessons) will be more useful for some students than for others. If we are aware of this and plan for this, then most of the class will be engaged most of the time.

  • Activities to Use in the ClassroomVisualGraphs and chartsWatching videosFlashcards, diagrams, photosCreating maps, drawing, illustrating

    Verbal/LinguisticVocabulary activitiesDialogsClass discussionsLecturesListening exercisesStorytellingLogical/Math-ematicalMatching cards Word order activitiesCreating questions and answers

  • Creating Questions and Answers

    Name __________

    True or False: Please circle either T or F. T F _____________________T F _____________________T F _____________________

    One word answer: Please answer the question with one word only. _______ ________________________________ _________________________

  • Tapering DialoguesYou will be with a partner. You will write a dialogue with your partner, but you CANNOT speak to your partner. You can only communicate through writing.

  • Directions1. Each group of 2 receives two pieces of paper. 2. Using one of the pieces of paper, you write the beginning of a dialogue with your partner using exactly 7 words. Meanwhile, your partner will begin a dialogue with you, using exactly 7 words. 3 Then, switch papers with your partner. Answer your partner's dialogue using exactly 6 words. 4. Again, switch papers. Continue the dialogue using 5 words. 5. Continue swapping papers and stop when you get down to one-word responses. 6. When all groups are finished, each group will share their dialogue with the class.

  • Daily Activities1. Like on the following slide, please draw 6 pictures representing what you do everyday. For example, in the first box, draw something that you do when you first wake up in the morning everyday, in the second box, something that you do mid-morning, in the third box, something you do around noon, etc. KEEP YOUR DRAWINGS SIMPLE! You can use stick figures. You have 4 minutes. 2. Then, you must explain your daily activities to a partner. Show them your pictures and talk about what you do everyday. 3. Then, I'll put you in groups and you are to share your picture one more time and explain your daily activities, this time to the classmates in your group. stick figure

  • Daily activities

  • Vary how students read and repeat the dialogueSplit the class in half or groupsHave several students volunteerHave students work in pairsStudents read in different voicesReading Dialogues in a Large Classroom

  • Reading DialoguesA. When can I see you again?B. I think we should lay low for a while. A. But I want to know now. B. How about the day after tomorrow?A. Where can we meet?B. I'll contact you when the time is right.A. You're just full of surprises, aren't you?

  • Reading the dialoguesWith a partner, you will read it different ways. One of you is student A, one of you is student B. Look at each other when you speak.1. Read it normally. 2. Read it loudly. 3. Read it quietly. 4. A speaks loudly, B speaks quietly. 5. A speaks quietly, B speaks loudly. 6. A speaks quickly, B speaks slowly. 7. A speaks slowly, B speaks quickly. 8. A is in love with B but B doesn't like A.9. A and B are lovers. 10. A and B just robbed a bank.

  • Last week I said I'd let you ask me questions for 3 minutes, but I forgot! Now is your chance.

    Any questions?

  • Activities to Use in the ClassroomVisualGraphs and chartsWatching videosFlashcards, diagrams, photosCreating maps, drawing, illustrating

    Verbal/LinguisticVocabulary activitiesDialogsClass discussionsLecturesListening exercisesStorytellingLogical/Math-ematicalMatching cards Word order activitiesCreating questions and answers

  • Quick Review: Reading DialoguesA. When can I see you again?B. I think we should lay low for a while. A. But I want to know now. B. How about the day after tomorrow?A. Where can we meet?B. I'll contact you when the time is right.A. You're just full of surprises, aren't you?

  • Reading the dialoguesWith a partner, you will read it different ways. One of you is student A, one of you is student B. Look at each other when you speak.1. Read it normally. 2. Read it loudly. 3. Read it quietly. 4. A speaks loudly, B speaks quietly. 5. A speaks quietly, B speaks loudly. 6. A speaks quickly, B speaks slowly. 7. A speaks slowly, B speaks quickly. 8. A is in love with B but B doesn't like A.9. A and B are lovers. 10. A and B just robbed a bank.

  • Listening Activity: Shrinking Story1. Four students leave the classroom. The rest of the students read the story. 2. As a class, discuss the most important points and write them down. 3. Student #1 comes in. A student in the class, or the teacher, reads the story to Student #1. 4. Student #1 tells the story to Student #2. Class checks off which important points were remembered. 5. Student #2 tells the story to Student #3. Class checks off which important points were mentioned. 6. Student #3 tells the story