Early Twentieth Century. 1900-1945. Progressive Era & WWI. Populist Movement gives birth (in essence) to the Progressive Era Opposition to monopolies, direct election of senators Populist Movement sought change through political action Progressive Era - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Early Twentieth Century1900-1945Progressive Era & WWIPopulist Movement gives birth (in essence) to the Progressive Era Opposition to monopolies, direct election of senators Populist Movement sought change through political action Progressive EraContrasts: Populists farmers that sought radical reform. Progressives middle class reformers, increase role of government, capitalist economy. Farmers had to struggle to make a living which typically meant no time for politics, had no funds to continue support. Progressives dominate first 20 yrs. of the 20th century, typically urban/ middle class, more economic and political force, did not intensify class strife. Roots: associations and organizations created at the turn of the century for the betterment of the general public (typically those who were in need). Mostly educated, well-off individuals who were offended by the way the poor were treated. -National Women Suffrage Association-American Bar Association-National Municipal League Progressive Movement.Role of journalism: Muckrakers (coined by Teddy Roosevelt)Revealed how the poor lived- due to the greed of the rich (business owners) Example: Upton Sinclair- The Jungle Raised the moral stakes for Progressives Campaigned for the change of attitudes towards education and government regulation.
Progressive Activists *African American: W.E.B Du Bois headed NAACP; racial justiceEventually the fight was to much for him to handle, moves to Africa *Women: Suffrage, feminist movement, Margaret Sanger (promotes contraceptives). Movements greatest success: 19th Amendment *State Leaders: Robert La Follette sought after & implemented plans for income tax, direct primary elections & rail regulation. -Extended greater power to the voters through the 1. ballot initiative 2. referendum 3. recall election -Further success on the state level: work day limitations, minimum wage, child labor laws, urban housing codes & income tax laws.
Progressive LeadersPresident Theodore Teddy Roosevelt: (R) expected to contend with McKinley's conservative agenda. Most Prominent Progressive LeaderNew Nationalism / Square Deal Sherman Anti-Trust Act successfully against monopolies Trustbuster (good v bad trust)FDA (The Jungle) National Parks overdevelopment protection William Howard Taft: Directed the drive for the 16th & 17th constitutional amendments income tax and direct election of senators Went against monopolies even tougher than TeddyWoodrow Wilson: Ran against Teddy and Taft (1912)New Freedom (in regards to his ideas and policies) Democrats- NOW- federal government had to intervene over businesses to protect freedomsAll trusts were bad- committed to getting rid of monopolies & restoring competition
Wilson (Continued). Created the Federal Trade Commission: went after unfair business practices Clayton Anti-trust Act (1914): Supported the Sherman Anti-trust Act, took out anti-competitive practices, allowed for businesses to sue other businesses if their businesses had been hurt because of monopolies or trusts. Federal Reserve System: gives government greater control over the nations finances
Progressive Era EndsLasts until the end of WWI. Nation was weary from war Influenza outbreakRussian Revolution Red Scare divides leftists and moderates within the Progressive coalition Many of the movements goals had been achieved, many did not feel the need to continue to fight Brought to an end by its own success. Foreign Policy & WWITeddy: devout imperialist 1903: Uses his big stick policy into getting Cuba to sign the Platt AmendmentU.S occupied Cuba for about 10 years, up until 1922Anti-American rhetoric in Cuba Central America: Panama Canal would shorten the sea trip from East Coast to California Congress approves plan while Panama still belonged to ColumbiaColumbia asks a very high price of the U.SU.S encourages and supports a revolt in Panama against ColumbiaPanama, in turn, gave the U.S a much better deal American commercial interests peak as the canal becomes a success Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Latin America domestic instability would cause a threat to U.S security excuse for the strong U.S military presence in Panama for the duration of the canal. ContinuedU.S foreign policy continued to follow Monroes Doctrine U.S assumes role of an international police force intervene where necessary in Western Hemisphere protect U.SU.S wanted no part in European affairs or disputes. However, this will soon change. U.S & G.B slowly but surely becoming allies G.B didnt get in the way of the U.Ss intervention in Central & Latin America trying to line up an alliance with the U.S as tensions between G.B & Germany were heating up. WWI & the U.S1912: Three Way Race between Teddy, Taft & WilsonWilson wins with the mentality of staying neutral (especially with tensions heating up in Europe) 1914: War breaks out in Europe and Wilson immediately declares U.S policy of neutrality (hoped that the U.S would actually play a part in settling the conflict) Issues: U.S close relationship with G.B, many on Wilsons advisory board openly favored entering the War. More complications: - England imposes a blockade on shipments leaving U.S & headed to Germany, G.B confiscated U.S ships but paid for the cargo to avoid U.S trying to counter the blockade - Germany counters with the use of U-boats, however, broke the international law of the time (must give a warning when firing on civilian ships prior to attacking)Germans announce they would attack ANY such shipDoesnt satisfy Wilson Germans sink Lusitania (1915) killing 128 American passengers Turns public attention against the Germans cease using U-boat warfare temporarily
Continued WWIs Aftermath 1916: Wilson campaigning for his re-election he kept us out of warGermany sinks another ship the Arabic Wilson asks congress to put the military into a state of preparedness popular support of war starts to grow. 1917: Zimmerman telegraph intercepted U.S declares war on Germany AFTERMATH: Government role expands controls telephone, telegraph & rail industries War Industry Board guaranteed U.S & allies would be well supplied Civil liberties curtailed Espionage Act (1917) & Sedition Act (1918)Schenck v. United States (Supreme Court upholds Espionage Act)Socialist and critic of U.S capitalism who printed leaflets urging men to resist the draft (Selective Service Act of 1918) Inhibited anyone who voiced unpopular ideas Red ScareContinuedInhibiting freedoms: Russian Revolution Red Scare Radical labor unions considered enemies (leaders thrown into jail) Eugene Debs (socialist leader) also imprisoned for criticizing governmental decisions of entering war. F.B.I created to prevent radicals taking over (J. Edgar Hoover) Business gain more power, unions lost power use forceful tactics to break strikesPalmer Raids governments help in ending strikes Union halls, pool halls, social clubs and residences arrested 4,000 (some had committed no crime at all. Committee on Public Information Wartime Propaganda Lectures, movies, newspapers, magazines Created an anti-German rhetoric in the U.S during WWISauerkraut liberty cabbage Violence against German immigrants or anyone with German ancestors
WWI, New Opportunities Women: Number of women in workforce doesnt increase dramatically in this World War type of job performed changes (factories) war efforts helped in achieving their right to vote veterans return & women return to their domestic role (very similar to WWII) African Americans: Great Migration join army in hopes to social equality (doesnt happen until WWII) Army segregation (menial labor) assigned to French command Many of these social changes- civil rights movements dont take place until after WWII and for more or less the same reasons. WWI ContinuedTwo years after U.S joins war, Germans ready to sign peace treaty. Wilsons Fourteen Points (initial negotiations) plan delivered to congress before wars end ending of colonialism (self-determination) League of Nations (blue print for todays U.N) called for cooperation among nations through equality (very idealistic) European allies wanted tougher punishment for Germany Treaty of VersaillesGermany cedes colonial territories to the AlliesDisarmsReparationsAdmit total fault **Helps sets stage to WWII
WWI Continued Creates League of Nations and Wilson hopes would remedy the Treatys many flawsWilson returns to the U.S & Senate opposes entering the League (principles of separation of powers) many believed it would limit the U.Ss power to declare war.Democrats, Republicans and Reservationists (Henry Cabot Lodge Lodge Reservationists) Wilson very stubborn on his stance of not compromising United States never joins the League (envisioned by an American President) U.S public weary of war isolationism (didnt want to get involved in foreign affairs) Wilson attempts to campaign for support for U.S entry but unfortunately suffers a stroke during his travels and passes away. Some historians believe that if the U.S would have entered the League, WWII may have been avoided. List of ReservationsReservation One[The United States reserves the right to determine when it can withdraw from the League of Nations.Reservation Two Nothing compels the United States to ensure border contiguity or political independence of any nation, to interfere in foreign domestic disputes regardless of their status in the League, or to command troops or ships without Congressional declaration of war. Reservation Three The United States retains sole control over foreign issues.Reservation Four The United States is not to be questioned about the Monroe Doctrine, or Its interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine.Reservation Five The United States reserves the right to take either side if China and Japan start a war against e