Seok Yong YoonSenior Public Management Specialist (e-Governance)RSDD/RSGP
ADB and ICT ADB and e-Governance
ADBMy presentation consists of four parts:Overview of ICT projects in ADBADBs e-Government projects based on survey resultsE-Governments case study in IndiaHow to improve the performance of ADBs ICTD projects going forward
1ADB - IntroductionEstablished in 1966
67 Member Countries (48 from the region, 19 non regional)
HQ in Manila, Philippines. RM in 29 countries, Regional Office (USA, Japan, Germany)
3,000 employees (~1,000 intl)
Financing in 2013: $21.02 bil
2ADB management and organizationBoard of Directors
President, MD, 6 Vice Presidents =>
VPKM (Knowledge Management): RD 1: South Asia, Central WestRD 2: Southeast Asia, Pacific, East AsiaPrivate Sector Operation and Co-financingFinance and Risk ManagementProcurement, HR, Administration
3CapitalCapitalADB - Business Model / Financial Instruments
LIBOR 0.x%LIBOR London Interbank Offered RateOCR Ordinary Capital ResourcesADF Asian Development Fund
OCR LoansLIBOR + 0.x%
ADFADF LoansGrantsADF Non-ADFAAA4
ADB - Project Life CycleCountry StrategyOperational PlansLoan Portfolio, GrantsProject / Program Preparation, AssessmentsLoan Negotiation / Appraisal / ApprovalProjectImplementationMonitoringEvaluation5ADB - Strategy 20203 development agendasInclusive growth Environmentally sustainable growthRegional integration
5 core sectors: Infrastructure:Environment Regional Cooperation and Integration Finance Sector Education Sector
ADB and e-Governance
ADB and ICTMy presentation consists of four parts:Overview of ICT projects in ADBADBs e-Government projects based on survey resultsE-Governments case study in IndiaHow to improve the performance of ADBs ICTD projects going forward
7ADBs ICT sectorICT as both a sector and an enabler
ICT is classified as a separate sector but most ICT projects are under other sectors with ICT componentsADB Sector Classification (2014)1Agriculture and Natural resource and Rural Development2Education3Energy4Finance5Health6Industry and trade7Water and Urban Service8Public sector management9Transport10Multi-sector11ICTADB recognizes ICT as a tool or enabler for sector development.
ADB classifies ICT as part of infrastructure under Transport and ICT but most ICT projects are under other sectors as a ICT component.
So, it is very difficult to identify ICT projects from the project database and is virtually impossible to find the amount of money invested on ICT projects.
89From 2000-2011, ADB had approved 348 projects that are classified as Transport and ICT or include ICT components. Among them about 30% (111 projects) of total are loans.
Among others, higher priority has been placed in Public management ,Education in addition to Transport & ICT.
910Trends in time ADB has been increasing investment on ICT both in number of projects and amount of investment
If you look at trends in time, there is increasing trends over time. There is sharp increases in 2009 and 2010.
10Presentation topics ADB
ADB and ICT
ADB and e-GovernanceMy presentation consists of four parts:Overview of ICT projects in ADBADBs e-Government projects based on survey resultsE-Governments case study in IndiaHow to improve the performance of ADBs ICTD projects going forward
1112ADBs e-Governance ProjectsADB e-Governance Project: Projects under public sector management (PSM) including ICT componentsFrom 2000 to 2011, 68 e-Governenance projects (PSM projects with ICT components) 79% e-Gov projects: Technical Assistance (TA) and Grants Only 11 projects are loan (during 2003-2011, 81 PSM loans were approved)Moving on ADBs e-Governance projects:
We identified ADBs e-Government projects as those projects including ICT components under public sector management (PSM) From 2000 to 2011, ADB has supported 68 e-Government projects.Many of these projects (79%) are supported by technical assistance (TA) and grants.Only 11 projects are loan (during 2003-2011, 81 PSM loans were approved)
Source: ADB project documents approved in 2000-2011.Geographic portfolio in e-Gov projectsADB e-Gov ProjectsThe most number of ADB-supported e-Government projects were regional in scope (21%). This was followed by a few DMCs such as Viet Nam (6); India, Indonesia, and Pakistan (5 each); and Kyrgyzstan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka (4 each). 13Source: ADB project documents approved in 2000-2011.e-Gov applications portfolioADB e-Gov Projects
This slide shows ADB e-Gov projects in areas of focus. The top areas include public finance management (17), economic management (12), tax and revenue administration (8), local government administration, ICT capacity development (5), e-procurement (4), judicial administration (4), etc.14To identify internal perception on e-GovernmentSurveyed director level staff through onlineTotal 25 responded
2012 ADB Internal SurveyAn online survey to ADB staff was conducted in April 2012 to identify the demand for potential e-Gov intervention, issues, and areas of supports to improve ADBs e-Gov operations.
The 25 respondents participated in the survey across the Bank. Many of them specialize in public sector management (14), followed by finance (5), and ICT (2). 1516Source: ADB staff survey results on e-Gov in 2012.Motivations of DMCs e-Gov initiativesSurvey on e-Governance
Almost all the respondents have chosen e-Government as means for improving public service delivery of government to citizens (33%), improving efficiency of internal government processes (31%) and Transparency and Accountability (27%)
1617Source: ADB staff survey results on e-Gov in 2012.Major factors for successful e-Gov projectsSurvey on e-Governance
When the respondents were asked to select the two major factors that contributed to the good performance of the e-Government projects, the highest ranking was given to the following:
strong leadership and a conducive political environment (government ownership, risk reduction), project management, appropriate organizational reforms (capacity building, skills training, change management, etc), and adequate preparation and clarity of design (clear objectives, user-friendly).
This does not mean that others are less important. Rather, this means that government ownership is the last element to achieve the intended results on top of other elements.
The score was weighted according to prioritization.
1718Source: ADB staff survey results on e-Gov in 2012.Major obstacles for e-Gov projectsSurvey on e-Governance
On the other hand, when asked about what they thought were the major obstacles to implementing e-Government, most respondents ranked
weak capacity of government organization, officials, and staff and institutional/organizational resistance (e.g., unaddressed resistance to change, conflicting interests)poor ICT awareness and ICT literacyinsufficient funding and financial sustainability
Again, this survey results should be interpreted such that the weak capacity of government is the most difficult part to be addressed for successful e-Government projects.1819Source: ADB staff survey results on e-Gov in 2012.E-Gov focus areas that ADB should supportSurvey on e-Governance
Almost all the respondents (83%) agreed that ADB should put more emphasis on e-government, in the belief that there is general recognition of the effectiveness of ICT as a development catalyst and enabler and increasing demand of DMCs for ICT for development (ICT4D) and e-Government projects.
If ADB were to provide more support to e-Government, most respondents thought it should prioritize focus areas such as procurement tax and revenue managementpublic finance management. local government administrationHR systemPayment, property registration, business registration
Figure 7 below shows a list of fields under e-Government that ADB staff members deem as priority areas. 19Thank youQ/A