Dynamic Range-enhanced Electronics and Materials (DREaM) .Dynamic Range-enhanced Electronics and

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  • Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

    Dynamic Range-enhanced Electronics and Materials (DREaM)

    Daniel S. Green U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

    DREaM Proposers DayArlington, VA

    March 29, 2017

    1

  • Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited) 2

    Purpose of this meeting: Discuss program objectives and structure.

    After BAA published and until the deadline for receipt of proposals Open communications between proposers and the program manager are

    encouraged. But: Information given to one proposer must be available to all proposers. The best way to get a question answered is to email it, and to retrieve your

    answer from the Questions and Answers list via the MTO solicitations website.

    Note that any question that contains distribution restrictions, such as company proprietary, will not be answered.

    Ground Rules

    Questions: DREAM-BAA@darpa.mil

    mailto:DREAM-BAA@darpa.mil

  • Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited) 3

    Welcome to the DREaM Proposers Day

    08:30-09:00: Registration 09:00-09:05: Security Brief 09:05-09:15: Bill Chappell - Opening Remarks 09:15-09:45: Dan Green - DREaM Program 09:45-11:15: Presentations

    MIT Lincoln Lab Mark Hollis UC Santa Barbara Susanne Stemmer Carbonics Chris Rutherglen Air Force Research Labs Gregg Jessen MIT Tomas Palacios Michigan State University John Albrecht Naval Research Laboratory David Meyer

    11:15-11:30: Break 11:30-12:00: Contracting 12:00-13:00: Q&A/Concluding Remarks

  • Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited) 4

    Dr. Daniel Green

    DREaM Program Manager

  • 5

    DREaM will exploit new materials and novel device structures to create RF transistors that operate in a complex, mm-Wave spectrum

    What is DREaM?

    Device Design

    Materials

    DREaM transistors will transmit and receive complex EM signals of the future

    Power Density

    RF

    Pow

    er

    Frequency

    Linearity

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • 6

    20001990 20202010 2030

    MIMIC ProgramTRL 1 TRL 7

    GaAs (1W/mm)

    WBGS-RF Program

    GaN (5W/mm)

    Today

    Early Transistor Research

    TRL 1 TRL 7

    Maturation/Future SystemsDREaM

    DREaM FET (20W/mm)

    DREaM power density will enable high power apertures in small form factors

    DREaM is a fundamental technology investment

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • 7

    Power density possible with new materials and devices

    Materials and device concepts emerging to enable pushing high power density

    3X higher power density (6.71 W/mm) at 94GHz!

    Device Engineering

    ~10X higher charge density than GaN HEMT!

    Emerging materials

    SrTiO3

    GdTiO3

    SrTiO3 GdTiO3

    Ener

    gy (e

    V)

    Depth (nm)

    Wienecke et al., 2016 74th Annual Device Research Conference (DRC), 1-2.

    S. Raghavan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 132104 (2015).

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • 1

    10

    100

    1000

    0 10 20

    Line

    arity

    Met

    ric

    Power Density (W/mm)

    8

    20001990 20202010 2030

    Si

    MIMIC ProgramTRL 1 TRL 7

    GaAs (1W/mm)

    Si

    GaAs

    Si

    GaAsGaN TA1Si

    GaAsGaN

    WBGS-RF Program

    GaN (5W/mm)

    Today

    Early Transistor Research

    TRL 1 TRL 7

    Maturation/Future SystemsDREaM

    DREaM FET (20W/mm)

    DREaM will drive system capabilities in new directions

    DREaM recognizes the emergence of Receive

    TA2

    Technical Area #1

    Technical Area #2

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • 9

    Thinking about dynamic range

    DR

    Today

    RF P

    ower

    Desired signals

    UnwantedIM3

    Linea

    rity D

    R

    After DREaM

    RF P

    ower

    Frequency

    RF P

    ower

    (dB

    m)

    Linearity Signal Impact

    Two-Frequency Signal

    Thermal Noise Limit

    OIP3

    FrequencyMixing

    products

    High linearity required for detection of weak signals

    Amplifier Impact

    Amp

    Frequency (GHz)

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • Line

    arity

    (O

    IP3)

    100mW

    10mW

    1mW

    1W

    10W

    100W

    1kW

    10

    Price of dynamic range

    Breaking the 10 dB rule will alter the SWAP and performance trade space

    Enhanced linearity

    Reducedpower

    Existing transistor technologies follow a 10 dB rule

    10kW

    1mW 10mW

    PDC

    100mW 1W 10W 100W

    Freq > 3 GHz

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • 11

    Gap at millimeter wave

    There are no alternative solutions in mm-Wave

    Feedback amplifier designs

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • 12

    Linearity benefits realized in prototype devices

    Nanoscale devices and materials show potential for linearity gains

    Intrinsic linear device

    Carbon nanotube FET has improved transfer function

    New fabrication process

    FINFET approach improves transfer function

    Carbon nanotube FET

    M. Schroter et al., IEEE J. Electron Devices Society, vol. 1, pp. 9 D. S. Lee et al., IEEE Electron Dev Lett, vol. 34 pp. 969

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

  • 13

    DREaM Program Plan & Metrics: Tech Area #1

    Metric Today Phase I Phase II Phase III

    Center Frequency (GHz) 30

    TA1

    High

    Pow

    er T

    rack

    Test Condition Power Amplifier Focus (a)

    Min CW Power Density (b) (W//mm or equivalent) ~4 10 15 20

    Min CW Power (Watt) (b)(c) 1~2 1 2 4Min OIP3/PDC (dB) up to 10 dB backoff

    from peak PAE

  • 14

    DREaM Program Plan & Metrics: Tech Area #2

    Metric Today Phase I Phase II Phase III

    Center Frequency (GHz) 30

    TA2

    High

    Lin

    earit

    y Tr

    ack

    Test Condition Low Noise Amplifier Focus (a)

    Max NF (dB) 3 2 2 2Min Gain (dB) 15 15 15 15

    Min Linear Pout (dBm) 0 0 0 0Min OIP3/PDC (dB) up to 0 dBm Pout

  • Metric Testing Methodology

    Step 1: Plot from the 2-tone test, ,0, IM3, PAE and vs

    Noise Floor + Noise Figure

    ,0

    ,

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited) 15

  • Metric Testing Methodology

    Step 1: Plot from the 2-tone test, ,0, IM3, PAE and vs

    Noise Floor + Noise Figure

    ,0

    ,

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

    0 Step 2: Locate peak PAE and draw a vertical line 10 dB backed-off from peak PAE

    16

  • Metric Testing Methodology

    Step 1: Plot from the 2-tone test, ,0, IM3, PAE and vs

    Noise Floor + Noise Figure

    ,0

    ,

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

    0 Step 2: Locate peak PAE and draw a vertical line 10 dB backed-off from peak PAE

    Step 3: For the of interest, draw a horizontal line 10 dB above

    0

    ,1

    17

  • Metric Testing Methodology

    Step 1: Plot from the 2-tone test, ,0, IM3, PAE and vs

    Noise Floor + Noise Figure

    ,0

    ,

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

    0 Step 2: Locate peak PAE and draw a vertical line 10 dB backed-off from peak PAE

    Step 3: For the of interest, draw a horizontal line 10 dB above

    0

    ,1

    Step 4: Extrapolate ,0 from its linear region (slope = 1) until it crosses the horizontal line drawn in Step 3

    18

  • Metric Testing Methodology

    Step 1: Plot from the 2-tone test, ,0, IM3, PAE and vs

    Noise Floor + Noise Figure

    ,0

    ,

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)

    0 Step 2: Locate peak PAE and draw a vertical line 10 dB backed-off from peak PAE

    Step 3: For the of interest, draw a horizontal line 10 dB above

    0

    ,1

    Step 4: Extrapolate ,0 from its linear region (slope = 1) until it crosses the horizontal line drawn in Step 3

    Step 5: Draw a line with a 3:1 slope that goes through the crossing point of the lines in Steps 3 and 4.

    19

  • Metric Testing Methodology

    Step 1: Plot from the 2-tone test, ,0, IM3, PAE and vs

    Step 2: Locate peak PAE and draw a vertical line 10 dB backed-off from peak PAE

    Step 3: For the of interest, draw a horizontal line 10 dB above

    Step 4: Extrapolate ,0 from its linear region (slope = 1) until it crosses the horizontal line drawn in Step 3

    Step 5: Draw a line with a 3:1 slope that goes through the crossing point of the lines in Steps 3 and 4.

    Noise Floor + Noise Figure

    ,0

    ,

    0

    Acceptable IM3 region

    ,1

    Step 6: If IM3 is below the line drawn in Step 5, then the device meets the metric at that level

    Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited) 20

  • Metric Testing Methodology: TA2

    Step 1: Plot from the 2-tone test, ,0, IM3, PAE and vs

    Step 3: For the of in