Drifting Toward Disunion

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Drifting Toward Disunion. 1854 - 1861. Stowe. 1852 – Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin which showed the cruelty of slavery Helped start the war “So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war.” – Lincoln South believed it as an “unfair” indictment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Drifting Toward Disunion

  • Drifting Toward Disunion1854 - 1861

  • Stowe1852 Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin which showed the cruelty of slaveryHelped start the war So youre the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war. LincolnSouth believed it as an unfair indictmentCountless readers Stowe had never witnessed slavery first hand in the Deep South

  • Hinton R. Helper1857 Wrote The Impending Crisis of the SouthNonaristocratic white from NCAttempted to prove that nonslaveholding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slaveryBook was banned in the SouthDistributed by the Republicans in campaign literature

  • The Contest for KansasPopular sovereignty was not workingNew England Emigrant Aid Company sent 2,000 Free-Soilers into KansasPro-slavery Border Ruffians crossed the border from MissouriSoutherners had agreed with the Kansas-Nebraska Act believing that Kansas would be slave & Nebraska would be freeFew slaves were brought to Kansas

  • Kansas Election1855 Border Ruffians poured in from Missouri to vote early & oftenSlave supporters triumphedSet up their govt at Shawnee MissionFree-Soilers set up their govt in TopekaOne govt based on fraud, the other on illegality1856 Problems beginA gang of proslavery raiders shot up & burned part of the free-soil town of LawrencePrelude to a bloodier tragedy

  • John Brown & Civil War in KansasJohn Brown obsessively dedicated to the abolitionist movementOld Brown led a band of his followers to Pottawatomie Creek May 1856Hacked to pieces 5 surprised men proslaveryitesBrought retaliation from the proslavery forcesBleeding KansasCivil War in Kansas 1856Continued until it merged with the Civil War 1861-1865

  • Kansas Applies for Statehood1857 Kansas applies for statehoodLecompton ConstitutionVote for or against constitution as a whole, but not for the constitution either with slavery or with no slaveryIf they voted against slavery, one of the remaining provisions would protect the owners of slaves already in Kansas Supported by President/ opposed by DouglasDivided the Democratic PartyMany free-soilers boycotted the pollsSlaveryites approved the constitution with slavery

  • Problems in the US SenateSenator Charles Sumner - Massachusettsleading abolitionistDisliked by other senatorsGave a speech, The Crime against Kansas, condemning slavery Referred insultingly to SC & Senator Andrew Butler from SCCongressman Preston BrooksSCResented the insults to his state & senator

  • Sumner-Brooks ClashMay 22, 1856Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane until it brokeNo one interferedHouse of Rep. could not get enough votes to expel BrooksHe resigned Later reelectedSumner reelected couldnt serve for 3 years

  • Results of Sumner-BrooksIncreased support for Republican PartySouth was angry because Sumners speech was applauded in the NorthEmotion was displacing thought

  • Election of 1856Democrats James BuchananPenn lawyer & former minister to LondonPlatform - popular sovereignty

    Republicans John C. FrmontPlatform against extension of slavery into the territories

    Know-Nothing Party Millard Fillmore Nativists antiforeign & anti-Catholic

  • Electoral Fruits of 1856Buchanan won electionWhy were the Republicans defeated?Violent threats of southerners that the election of a sectional Black Republican would be a declaration of war on them, forcing them to secede Many northerners that depended on the South for their financial gain, voted for Buchanan

  • The Dred Scott Bombshell March 6, 1857 Supreme Court ruledThe CaseDred Scott, a slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in free territorySued for his freedom Basis because of his long residence on free soil

  • The RulingScott was a slave & not a citizen. Therefore, he could not sue in federal courtChief Justice Taney went further:Slaves were property & could be taken to any territory (5th Amendment) Can not deprive people of property without due processRuled that Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories

  • Reactions to the RulingRepublicans were infuriatedRuling was opinion, not a decision Southerners were inflamed by all of the defiance by the NorthApplauded by pro-slavery southerners

  • Financial Crash of 1857Causes of the crash:CA gold helped to inflate the currencyToo much grain productionFrenzied speculation in land & railroadsOver 5,000 businesses failed within 1 year

  • Effects of the CrashNorth was hardest hitSouth was well off - proof that cotton was kingNorth demanded free farms of 160 acres from the public domainLand should be given as a reward instead of soldOpposed by:Eastern industrialists would cause workers to move out WestSouth slavery would not flourish/ free farmers would fill up the territoriesHomestead Act 1860 vetoed by Buchanan

  • Push for higher tariff ratesTariff of 1857 reduced duties by 20% Lowest point since War of 1812Many blamed low tariff for problemsPush to increase tariff for protectionGave the Republicans 2 surefire economic issues for the election of 1860Protection for the unprotectedFarms for the farmless

  • Douglas & LincolnSenator Douglass term was up & Lincoln decided to run for his seatLincolnLawyer Honest AbeServed 1 term in Congress 1847-1849After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, he emerged as one of the foremost politicians & orators of the Northwest.Why is that?

  • The Great DebateLincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debatesDebate in Freeport, IllMost famousLincoln asked the following:Suppose the people of a territory should vote down slavery? The Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision had decreed that they could not. Who would prevail, the Court or the people?(Freeport Question)What was the response?

  • Douglass ResponseFreeport DoctrineNo matter how the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down.Territorial legislatures could keep slavery out despite Supreme Courts decision.Douglas defeated LincolnSenators were chosen by state legislatures at this time.Lincoln emerges as a possible presidential candidateDouglass opposition to the Lecompton Constitution & defiance of the Supreme Court at Freeport, hurt his chances of being president Review what is LeCompton Const?

  • John BrownInvolved in Bleeding KansasHis scheme:Invade the South secretly with a handful of followersCall on slaves to rise upFurnish slaves with weaponsEstablish a black state as a sanctuary

  • Raid at Harpers FerryOctober 1859John Brown & his followers seized the federal arsenal in VirginiaKilled 7 innocent people and injured several othersSlaves did not rise up. Why?John Brown & his followers were captured by the Marines under the command of Robert E. LeeBrown was convicted of murder & treasonWas put to death

  • Effects of Harpers FerryIn the South:Viewed as a murder & an apostle of treasonHow could the South remain in the Union while a murderous gang of abolitionists were financing armed bands to Brown them.Believed that the abolitionists views were shared by all NorthernersIn the North:Many openly deplored the raidAbolitionists & other free-soilers were upset about Browns execution

  • John Brown:Murder or Martyr?Crazy or Sane?

  • Democratic National ConventionMet in Charleston, SC Stephen Douglas was the leading candidateRegarded by southerners as a traitor because of his stand on the Lecompton Constitution & Freeport DoctrineDelegates from the cotton states walked outRemaining delegates could not decide and convention fell apart

  • Democrats try again in Baltimore Northerners were still set on DouglasCotton states walked outRemaining democrats select DouglasPlatform:Popular sovereigntyAgainst obstruction of the Fugitive Slave Law

  • Southern DemocratsSoutherners organized a rival convention in BaltimoreSelected John C. BreckinridgePlatform:Extension of slavery into the territoriesAnnexation of slave-populated CubaWhere else will they want to annex?

  • Minor PartyConstitutional Union PartyDo Nothing / Old Gentlemens PartyMade up of former Whigs & Know-NothingsNominated John Bell from Tennessee Compromise candidate to prevent breakup of the union at any cost

  • Republican PartyGathered in ChicagoWilliam H. Seward was the best candidateToo many enemiesAbraham Lincoln was selectedFewer enemiesPlatform:Nonextension of slavery (Free-soilers)Protective tariff (Industrialists)No abridgement of rights (immigrants)Pacific Railroad (Northwest)Internal improvements at federal expense (West)Free homesteads from the public domain (farmers)Who are they leaving out?

  • Election of 1860Lincolns victory- Result of:Split in the Democratic Party Formation of a third partyDivided the southern vote & gave Lincoln 40% of the vote all in the north

  • Electoral Upheaval of 1860Lincoln was a minority presidentHe was a sectional presidentNot allowed on the ballot in 10 southern states The election was virtual

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