Do Now:Task 1: Get out homework & crossword puzzlesTask 2: Get out notes and answer the following question:Can the Union reunite the country and at the same time guarantee equal rights for freed African-Americans?
Do Now:Task 1: Get out notes and complete the Political Cartoon Skills p.528 #1-3:
How were Southerners affected by the end of slavery?How were Northerners affected by the end of slavery?What problems faced freed blacks at the end of the war?What problems faced Northerners at the end of the war?What obstacles do you see to reconstructing the union (to putting the nation back together as one nation)? Who will rule the South, whites or blacks, Northerners or Southerners?
Chapter 18:The Reconstruction Era (1864-1877)
Lincoln AssassinatedApril 14, 1865John Wilkes Booth Assassinates President LincolnA Nation Mourns
Presidential Reconstruction Under Andrew JohnsonJohnsons terms for Southern states are lenient. Southern states can rejoin the government if:A majority of voters in a state must pledge loyalty to the U.S.A.The state must ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which banned slavery throughout the nationSouthern states quickly meet Johnsons terms and elect Democrats, including many former Confederate officers and government officials, to Congress.Southern states refuse to grant suffrage to black men.
Congressional Republicans refuse to seat the southern Congressmen and instead set up a committee to draw up a Congressional Reconstruction Plan for the South.
The Black Codes Slavery without the ChainBlacks denied suffrage (the right to vote)Denied right to own gunsDenied right to serve on juries cases of blacks accused of crimes are heard by all-white juriesRequired to sign 1-year labor contracts - or be sentenced to forced labor on a plantationPermitted to marry and granted limited property ownership rights
Sharecroppers and Tenant FarmersSharecropping:Effectively a return to slaveryLandowners broke up land into small plots, provided seed, farm supplies, livestockPart of the crop used to pay back landownerDebt kept freedmen tied to the land
Scalawags and CarpetbaggersA scalawag was the Southern term for a Southerner who cooperated with the Northern Republicans to control the South.A carpetbagger was the Southern term for a Northerner who came south to gain political or economic power during Reconstruction. Many Southerners saw them as invaders ready to loot the former Confederacy.
Scalawags and carpetbaggers were hated by Southern whites who resented the Military rule of Congressional Reconstruction.
Civil Rights Act (1866), the Fourteenth Amendment & Congressional Override of President Johnsons VetoCivil Rights Act - grants citizenship to blacks with the same rights as all citizens, and authorizes the federal government to step in if states do not protect those rights.
Johnson vetoed the Act, saying it would operate in favor of the colored and against the white race.Congressional Republicans override Johnsons veto.
Fourteenth Amendment - All persons born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens and cannot be denied their rights without due process of law.
Reconstruction Act (1867)Reconstruction Act:Threw out all states that refused to ratify the 14th AmendmentPlaced Confederacy under Military ruleRequired southern states to rewrite their constitutions including ratifying the 14th Amendment and granting freedmen the right to voteMost whites refused to vote, which enabled Republicans to win southern states despite white, Democratic majorities
Reconstruction Act of 1867Divided former Confederate states into five military districtsCongressional approval required for Southern state constitutionsAll males given right to voteStates required to ratify 14th AmendmentThe Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided the former Confederacy into five separate military districts, each headed by a military governor
Impeachment of Andrew JohnsonBelieving that Johnson would not enforce the Reconstruction Act, Congress voted to impeach him.Radical Republicans fall one vote short, and Johnson was acquitted.
Impeachment: ImpactImpeachment on political grounds discouragedJohnsons credibility as a national leader significantly diminishedJohnson served out his term, but ran for Senate in 1874Died soon after taking office
Election of 1868Ulysses S. Grant Elected PresidentWith Freedmen voting for the 1st time in the South, Grant easily defeated the Democratic candidate
Fifteenth Amendment - The right to vote cannot be denied on the basis of race. (Ratified, 1870)
Spreading Terror - Conservative Whites Fight BackThe Rise of the Ku Klux KlanSouthern planters resisted the loss of their power and their way of life and fought back with violence.Small farmers and white laborers usually sided with the planters out of racism and fear of economic competition from freedmen.
Congress Responds1870 - Congress made it a crime to use force to prevent people from votingKlan violence diminished, butso did black participation in politics, due to threats and fear of losing their jobs
The End of Reconstruction Radicals in DeclineBy late 1870s, with economy in recession, most northern whites were weary of ReconstructionWant reconciliation, and for South to govern itself, even if it means abandoning equality for freedmenAmnesty Act (1872) restored voting rights to nearly all whitesSouthern whites voted almost exclusively Democratic, breaking Republican control of southern statesElection of 1876 - Southern Democrats agree to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as President in exchange for Hayes pledge to remove federal troops from the South and end ReconstructionThe Nation Chooses Reconciliation over Equality
The Compromise of 1877Knowing Hayes would win, Democrats agreed to:Accept Hayes as presidentAdhere to the 13th15th AmendmentsNot retaliate politically against RepublicansIn return, Hayes would pull the last troops from the South and hire a Southern postmaster generalTroop withdrawal effectively ended Reconstruction
Southern RedemptionReturn of Democratic rule to Southern states at the end of ReconstructionDecline in black voter registration diminished their political rights and representationJim Crow laws spread as the Supreme Court chipped away at blacks constitutional rightsBlacks essentially abandoned by Northern reformers after Reconstruction
The Rise of Jim CrowThe return of white Democratic control led to laws limiting the civil rights of blacks and separating the races Jim Crow LawsVoting RestrictionsPoll taxes - fee to voteLiteracy tests - pass test to vote
Plessy v. Ferguson - Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal facilities were constitutional.SegregationSeparate schools, hospitals, cemeteriesSeparate seating in restaurants, hotels, trains