Digital Age Enterprise - YouTube, LLC

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    DIGITAL AGE ENTERPRISE

    YouTube, LLC

    The Future of Online Video

    - from Conce t to H er-Growth!

    Presented b : Go alakrishnan

    Information Technology System | University of SussexMarch 06th 2008

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    -an Overview

    oun e in e ruary , y a ur ey , teve en

    Jawed Karim as an Video Sharing Website.

    Acquired by Google Inc., for $1.65 Billion on October 16th 2006

    2n most popular website in the World. [Sourced: Alexa.com]

    Video Sharing Website, users can Upload, View and Share Video Clips.

    Uses Adobe Flash technology to display wide variety of video content.

    Available in 19Language (au, br, ca, fr, de, hk, ie, it, jp, kr, mx, nl, nz, pl, ru, es, tw, uk, us)

    Headquarters in San Bruno, California, US.

    Revenue $15 - $50 Million (approx).

    YouTube Mobile launched on 15th June 2007

    YouTube Remixer launched on 18th June 2007

    ICT Policy & Strategy Presentation | University of SussexSource: www.youtube.com | www.alexa.com | www.wikipedia.org| www.usatoday.comPhoto Credits: Martin E. Klimek (USA Today)

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    -Concept

    Killer Applications LiveJournal (1999), HotOrNot (2000), Wikipedia (2001), Friendster(2002), del.icio.us (2003), Flickr (2004).

    ,Download via HTTP. Issues with Codec in Playing.

    Video Viewing Experience Windoes Media Player (buffering..10%...15%...20%....

    Wrong Codec... Downloading codec..10%...20%....Cant decode Video...!! Audio Only!!).ea ayer a es over your sys em esource .

    Clip Cultures emerges. Feb 1st 2004 (Wardrobe Malfunction) and October 15th

    2004 (Stewart on Crossfire)

    BitTorrent Effect Video Solutions over Internet. Lar e audience is Over the Internet.

    Video Sharing Site: Upload & Watch Video!

    Broadband at Home

    Macromdiea (now Adobe) Flash7

    Digital Camera & Cellphones

    Source: video.google.com | www.youtube.com

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    - Concept

    ou u e ro ect c tarts February 14th 2005: Work Begins

    April 23rd 2005: First Video

    Promote through Wired Reporters (no one replied!)

    Talk to VCs (Venture Capitalist) Cute product! So what?

    Marketing 101: E-Mail Your Friends

    May 2005: Slow Start!

    Promote via Craiglist (Upload Video & Earn $)

    June 2005 Revamp Increase views through Related Videos, , .

    August 2005: Catching On! Pitch In to VCs.

    Sequoia Funds YouTube $3.5 Million.

    . .

    Source: video.google.com | www.youtube.com

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    - in Numbers

    100 Million Video views per day 70,000 videos uploaded per sec (~1/second)

    58% of Internet Videos watched on YouTube

    Time spent / user / day: ~30 minutes 6.1 million videos (requiring 45 TB of storage space) in August 2006

    74,200,000 Videos available in March 2008 (March 6th 2008)

    500, 000 user accounts in August 2006

    20% Growing rate every year

    Super computer 400 Nodes and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection

    Source: www.wsj.com | www.wikipedia.org | www.newsweek.com | www.alexa.com

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    - in Statistics

    Source: Alexa Traffic Details | www.alexa.com Statistics of YouTube.com vs. MySpace.com vs. Wikipedia.org vs. Yahoo.com

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    - Architecture

    at orm Apache

    Python

    Linux (SuSe)

    MySQL

    psyco, a dynamic python -> C Compiler

    lighttpd for video instead of Apache

    The Team 2 System Administrators, 2 Software Architect

    2 Feature Developers, 2 Network Engineers, 1 DBA

    Source: video.google.com | www.youtube.com | www.newsweek.com

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    - Architecture

    ec pe or an ng rap grow

    while (true)

    identify_and_fix_bottlenecks();

    r n ;

    sleep();

    no ce_new_ o enec ;}

    This loop runs many times a day!

    Source: YouTube Scalability [URL: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6304964351441328559]

    by Cuong Do (Engineering Manager YouTube). Photo snapshot from Video.

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    - Architecture

    e ervers NetScalar is used for load balancing and caching static content.

    Run Apache with mod_fast_cgi

    Python allows rapid flexible development and deployment.

    For high CPU intensive activities like encryption, they use C extensions

    Row level caching in the database.

    Video Serving Each video hosted by a mini-cluster.

    Most popular content is moved to a CDN (Content Delivery Network) Less popular content (1-20 views per day) uses YouTube servers in various colo sites.

    Servers use the lighttpd web server for video

    Source: video.google.com | www.youtube.com

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    - Architecture

    erv ng eo ey o nts Keep it simple and cheap.

    Keep a simple network path.

    Use commodity hardware.

    Use simple common tools.

    Handle random seeks well (SATA, tweaks).

    Serving Thumbnails 4 thumbnails for each video so there are a lot more thumbnails than videos.

    Thumbnails are hosted on just a few machines.

    Saw problems associated with serving a lot of small objects.

    Started using Google's BigTable.

    Source: video.google.com | www.youtube.com

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    - Architecture

    ata ases Use MySQL to store meta data like users, tags, and descriptions.

    Suffered from replica lag.

    Went to Database Partitioning.

    Better cache locality which means less IO

    Can now scale database almost arbitrarily.

    Data Center Strategy Used Managed Hosting Providers. (Living Off Credit Cards - Cuong Do)

    Went to a colocation arrangement - customize everything and negotiate

    Use 5 or 6 data centers plus the CDN.

    For images latency matters, especially when you have 60 images on a page.

    Images are replicated to different data centers using Googles BigTable.

    Source: video.google.com | www.youtube.com

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    - Architecture

    utcome Stall for time. Creative and risky tricks can help you cope in the short term while you work

    out longer term solutions.

    r or t ze. now w at s essent a to your serv ce an pr or t ze your resources an e ortsaround those priorities..

    Pick your battles. Don't be afraid to outsource some essential services. YouTube uses aCDN to distribute their most popular content. Creating their own network would have takentoo long and cost too much.

    Keep it simple! Simplicity allows you to rearchitect more quickly so you can respond toproblems.

    '. , , , .about getting more writes performance.

    You succeed as a team! Have a good cross discipline team that understands the wholesystem and what's underneath the system. With a good team all things are possible.

    Source: video.google.com | www.youtube.com

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    - Recap

    Concept of YouTube

    tatistics o YouTu e

    Architecture of YouTube Scalability of YouTube

    Just because experts reject it doesnt mean its a bad idea. In certain areas there noexpert, if there were experts why didnt they develop this? If you are doing somethingnew You are an expert! Jawed Karim (October 2006 at University of Illinois)

    Quote Source: YouTube Video by Jawed Karim http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nssfmTo7SZg

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    - Questions (or) Comments?

    Thank You for your Time! Questions & Comments are welcome!

    Photo Credits: Martin E. Klimek (USA Today)

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