YEAR 7 TOPIC 1 INVESTIGATING HISTORY Inquiry questions What is History? How do historians investigate the past? Why is conserving our heritage important? Objectives – Students Learn to: interpret and construct time lines define the terms that describe historical periods of time sequence societies and events within specific periods of time ask historical questions distinguish between fact and opinion draw some conclusions about the usefulness of sources including a website examine differing historical perspectives and interpretations explain cause and effect identify significant people of the past examine the motives for people’s actions in the past explain the consequences of people’s actions describe some aspects of family/community heritage appreciate the value of preserving and conserving our heritage 1

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Page 1: Differentiated curriculum


YEAR 7 TOPIC 1 INVESTIGATING HISTORYInquiry questions What is History?How do historians investigate the past?Why is conserving our heritage important?

Objectives – Students Learn to: interpret and construct time linesdefine the terms that describe historical periods of timesequence societies and events within specific periods of timeask historical questionsdistinguish between fact and opiniondraw some conclusions about the usefulness of sources including a websiteexamine differing historical perspectives and interpretationsexplain cause and effectidentify significant people of the pastexamine the motives for people’s actions in the pastexplain the consequences of people’s actionsdescribe some aspects of family/community heritageappreciate the value of preserving and conserving our heritage

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Outcomes • 4.1 describes and explains the nature of history, the main

features of past societies and periods and their legacy• 4.4 identifies major periods of historical time and

sequences people and events within specific periods of time

• 4.5 identifies the meaning, purpose and context of historical sources

• 4.6 draws conclusions about the usefulness of sources as evidence in an inquiry

• 4.7 identifies different contexts, perspectives and interpretations of the past

• 4.8 locates, selects and organises relevant information from a number of sources, including ICT, to conduct basic historical research

• 4.9 uses historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts

• 4.10 selects and uses appropriate oral, written and other forms, including ICT, to communicate effectively about the past.

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• The following is a layer curriculum for the topic Investigating History in the Stage 4 History curriculum. There are 3 layers, C, B, and A. In each layer there are a number of different activities and each is worth a particular number of points. In each layer a certain number of points must be completed

• In this unit you must complete activities worth 100 points. The assignments that are marked with an asterisk are required assignments. They must be completed in order to move on to the next layer or to pass the C layer. You must complete at least 65 points, but no more than 70 points in order to receive a C and move on to the B layer. A MAXIMUM of 6 assignments may be taken home as homework.


C 60

B 20

A 20


A 86+

B 71-85

C 56-70

D 40-55

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ACTIVITIESC LAYER – 60 points*means it is a compulsory activity1. Listen to ‘teacher talks’ about what is history, why we need to

study it and how we study it. There will be 5 talks and from each talk you must produce at least 2 important points. Topics are:- What is history?- Why do we study history?- How do we study history?- What are sources?- How do we use sources in history? 10 POINTS*

2. Terminology quiz – how well do you know what the words mean that we often use in history? Complete the quiz to find out. 5 POINTS

3. What is a timeline, what does it tell us and how do we make one? Learn what a timeline is and construct a world history timeline. 10 POINTS*

4. Create your own personal timeline. 5 POINTS*5. Participate in the dictagloss activity about. 10 POINTS*6. Close passage activity. Use your historical and general

knowledge to complete the passage. 10 POINTS7. Source work. 10 POINTS*8. Asking historical questions – analysing historical sources using

historical questions and peer reviewing. 10 POINTS9. Fact v opinion – myths and legends. 10 POINTS10. Graphic organiser – Tollund Man and the bog bodies. 10


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• B LAYER – 20 points• Significant people study. 10 POINTS• Personal timeline extension. 10 POINTS• Research Summary based on C layer work on

graphic organiser – activity 10. 10 POINTS• Society study - looks at the Egyptian people,

complete a worksheet on the daily life, housing, clothing food. 10 POINTS

• World Heritage studies – create a poster about one World Heritage site and discuss why it is important to preserve things such as this. 10 POINTS

• A LAYER – 20 points• The Rosetta Stone dispute – who should own

the Stone? Note making activity and hieroglyphs. 20 POINTS

• Heinrich Schliemann radio interview. 20 POINTS

• Who built the pyramids – a debate based on sources. 20 POINTS

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I will be completing the following 6 assignments at home

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Student contract – Investigating HistoryStage 4 Topic 1

• Name:• Start date:• Finish date:

My progress chartLAYER ACTIVITY




C 1 10 compulsory

C 2 5

C 3 10 compulsory

C 4 5 compulsory

C 5 10 compulsory

C 6 15

C 7 10 compulsory

C 8 10

C 9 10

C 10 10

B 11 10

B 12 10

B 13 10

B 14 10

B 15 10

A 16 20

A 17 20

A 18 20

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I, ____________________________ will complete the assigned points

in each layer by the finish date


___________________________ Print name


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In the year of the Lord

1000 years

A period of history delimited by a start

event and an end event

A period of history having some distinctive


10 years

100 years

Before Christ

Pair up the historical term with the definition.

Some of the words above come from Latin, the language spoken by the Romans and used for the written word for many years after

Clues: Deca means 10, Mille means 1000, Cent means 100, Anno comes from the word year, Domini comes from the word meaning Lord.


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_________________’S TIMELINE• You are going to create a timeline for your life. Think back to the world history timeline we

did and what you need on a timeline. Here is what you need to do1. But your date of birth in the box label ‘BORN’ and today’s date in the box label ‘TODAY’2. Put a mark on the timeline below for every year of your life and label each mark with the

year and the age you were at the time3. Think of at least one significant event that happened for every year of your life so far.

Significant events mean things like the birth of a brother or sister, when your family got a new pet, when you lost your first tooth, things like that. Ask your parents for help with the first few years if you cannot remember.

4. Draw some pictures if you can.5. DON’T LOSE THIS SHEET, WE CAN USE IT FOR ANOTHER ACTIVITY

BORN ___/___/___

TODAY ___/___/___

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• DICTAGLOSS – WHAT IS HISTORY• HOW?• A short text is read to the class at normal pace. The

students should listen for meaning.• The text is read again and as it is being read the students

should jot down key words and phrases.• Working in small groups the students pool their words and

phrases and attempt to reconstruct the text from their shared resources. Their version should contain the main ideas of the text and approximate the language choices of the passage.

• Each group of students produces their own reconstructed version, aiming at grammatical accuracy and textual cohesion but not at replicating the original text.

• Each group reads their finished version to the class and each text is analysed and compared and the students should then refine their own texts in the light of the shared scrutiny and discussion.

• POINTS TO REMEMBER• It is helpful if the teacher is prepared for the last phase (5)

of the lesson by considering the most important language features of the text (hence the language analysis below) so that they can focus on these with the students.

• Write any new or challenging language on the board for scaffolding purposes.

• This activity should be used to consolidate (not introduce) new knowledge.

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WHAT IS HISTORY – text to be read to class• What is history? It sounds such a simple question doesn't it? But it can cause a lot of disagreement. Napoleon called it 'a myth' and Henry Ford called it 'bunk'! Other people

think it is much more important, believing, like the American historian David McCullough that "History is who we are and why we are the way we are."• Whatever they think about the usefulness of history most people will, however, agree that history is the study of the past. In fact, historians are a bit like detectives - using

evidence to find out what happened and why. This is not an easy job. You must be able to recognise evidence, decide how useful it is and come to conclusions based on what you have found out.

• Chronology or putting things in the right order is very important in history. Can you imagine how confused you would be if you didn't know that the Romans arrived in Britain before William the Conqueror or that Queen Victoria came to the throne after Queen Elizabeth I? This is why dates are so important to the study of history. The most commonly used system of dating things in history is the one which we use every day that is based on the Gregorian Calendar.

• The Gregorian Calendar was named after Pope Gregory XIII who ordered its adoption in 1582. Under the Gregorian Calendar the year is divided into 365 (or 366 in a leap year) days which are then grouped into twelve months. The years are numbered according to the year in which Christ was believed to have been born. The period before that is known as B.C. (short for Before Christ) and the years after are known as A.D (short Anno Domini, and meaning the Year of our Lord). Now we refer to B.C. as B.C.E. which means Before Common Era and A.D. has become C.E. which means Common Era. This is because most scholars generally believe that Christ was born some years before 1 A.D., and the historical evidence is too sketchy to allow a definitive dating. It also shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as the one that originated with and is currently used by Christians, but who are not themselves Christian. What can make this system confusing is that events in the B.C. era are dated in descending order, whilst those in the A.D. era happen in ascending order.

• Not all countries adopted the Gregorian Calendar immediately. Some countries objected because it was a Catholic invention. Britain (and her Empire) did not adopt the calendar until 1752, Russia adopted it in 1918 and Greece waited until 1923!

• The other thing to remember about timelines in history is to be careful when talking about centuries. The century is always bigger than the actual date. For example, the War of the Roses took place between 1455 and 1487 - this was in the fifteenth century, the Battle of Waterloo took place 1815 - this was in the nineteenth century. One way of remembering it is to think about your birthday. When you are 12, you have been alive for 12 years and are now in your 13th year.

• Sources are an historian’s most important tools in their investigation. Without sources it is impossible to try and piece together the past. An issue that historians have today is anachronisms in sources. Anachronism means out of time or order, something that could not have been there at that particular time. If you had a photograph of one of your grandparent's house when they were your age you would not expect to see a computer or DVD player would you? If you did you might think the photograph had been altered or was fake. The computer or the DVD player would be an anachronism.

• Being able to spot anachronisms is important because it helps us test the reliability of a source. If a source seems unreliable then we probably shouldn't use it. We also need to know about anachronisms so that we don't include them when we write about history.

• Now let’s look at some types of sources. What is the first thing you do when you want to find out about what happened in the past? Most people would probably say that they would look in a book, ask a teacher or other expert or check it out on the internet. These are all excellent sources of information. Resources like this can tell us not only historical facts but we can also use them to find out what other people think about what happened, in other words their interpretation of history. This type of information is called a secondary source.

• Imagine you are a detective investigating a crime. What would you need to help you find out what happened? What would you be looking for when you visited the scene of the crime? That's right - clues or evidence. Historians are no different. When they want to find out what happened in the past they need to look at the evidence. We call evidence that was created at the time of the event, primary evidence. Lots of sources can be counted as primary sources or evidence - letters, newspapers, maps, photographs, pictures, objects and film (just to name a few).

• Primary evidence can be broken down into four main categories: written sources, images, artefacts and oral testimony.• If you asked people to give you example of a historical record or primary source, most would people would probably mention some kind of written source. They might say

official reports, files, court documents, financial papers, newspapers, old family papers or official files. All these written sources can be used by historians to find out about the past. They might not have been created for that purpose but they are still very useful.

• Some examples of primary sources include an official document, entries from a diary, an inventory, extracts from a newspaper and a map. When you look at the sources think about why they were made or created and how this differs from how we use them today.

• We also use images as primary sources. Every day we find things out by looking at different kinds of images. We look at photographs, cartoons, watch television and look at the internet. Historians are no different. They can use different kinds of images from the past to find things out.

• As well as using books, documents, images and oral testimony, historians also use artefacts or objects to help them learn about the past. People have learnt a lot about history by looking at things that archaeologists have found. We know things about the Iron Age, the Bronze Age, the Romans and Medieval history that we wouldn't have known if we only had written evidence to look at. But using artefacts is not just useful for the study of ancient and medieval history, artefacts can enliven any period of history.

• Oral testimony can be described as the oldest type of evidence. Before people started to write down or otherwise record their history, they passed information from generation to generation through story-telling. It still goes on today. How do you know about the lives of your grandparents, your Mum, your Dad, other family members? Probably because you have heard them talk about it to you or to other people. It's not hard to understand therefore why oral testimony is such an important source of evidence.

• However, it hasn't always been recognised as being important. Lots of historians in the past thought it was unreliable and preferred to rely on written evidence. They thought the story might have changed as it was passed down and that there was no way of checking whether what it revealed was true. This had lots of unfortunate consequences. Written sources tend to record the details of important, rich or otherwise noticeable people rather than ordinary people so a lot of information about the lives of people like you or me was lost.

• But oral history never went away completely. Even in the 18th and 19th centuries efforts were made to record the thoughts and beliefs of all kinds of people on all kinds of subjects. A lot of these testimonies have survived albeit in written form. Think about the evidence found in Royal Commission reports to name just one example. Oral history experienced a renaissance in the 20th century when the whole business was made much easier by the invention of the telephone and recording equipment. Interviewing people had never been easier and their thoughts could be recorded for posterity.

• So, how useful is oral testimony to historians today? The answer is simple - very! If we are careful about using it and treat it like any other kind of evidence we can find out a lot about the past. Oral testimony can tell us what life was like in the past, what people thought about various subjects, even how people talked.

• Now that you have found about the different kinds of evidence that historians use, move on to the next section to find out about bias. • Are you biased? It's not a trick question. Practically everyone is biased in some way. If you support the Rabbitohs you are probably biased against the Roosters, if you

support the Bulldogs you are probably biased against the Eels. You can show bias when talking about different bands, books, television programmes, politics, even the weather.

• So what does it mean? Basically, bias means having an unfair or unbalanced opinion. Since history is a subject where people express their opinions it means that we have to be very careful to watch out for bias.

• This doesn't mean that we shouldn't use this source - just that we should be careful. • It is also important to recognise that bias is not found just in secondary sources, primary sources can also be biased. People naturally show their feelings on a subject

whenever they put pen to paper. Recognising bias can be hard but it helps if you ask yourself the following questions: - who wrote the source?- who were they writing for, in other words who was their audience?- why were they writing the source?- when did they write the source?

• Bias is not necessarily a bad thing. In fact it can be very useful as it lets us find out about what people believed or thought about a particular subject. What historians need to do is to try and find evidence from lots of different sources so that they can form a balanced opinion themselves.

• - why were they writing the source?- when did they write the source?

• Bias is not necessarily a bad thing. In fact it can be very useful as it lets us find out about what people believed or thought about a particular subject. What historians need to do is to try and find evidence from lots of different sources so that they can form a balanced opinion themselves.

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CLOZE PASSAGE• Fill in the gaps in the paragraph with the words in the box at the bottom of the

page• A _____________source is a term used to describe source material that is closest

to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. In the study of _____________ a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, a _______________, a recording, or other source of information that was created at the time under study. If created by a human source, then a source with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. It serves as an _____________ source of information about the topic. History is based on primary sources, as evaluated by the community of scholars, who report their findings in books, articles and papers. Arthur Marwick says "Primary sources are absolutely fundamental to history." Ideally, a historian will use all available primary sources _____________ by the people involved, at the time being studied. In practice some sources have been _________________, while others are not available for research. Perhaps the only eyewitness reports of an event may be memoirs, autobiographies, or __________interviews taken years later. Sometimes the only documents relating to an event or person in the distant past were written ________________ or centuries later. This is a common problem in classical studies, where sometimes only a summary of a book has ________________. Potential difficulties with primary sources have the result that history is usually taught in schools using _________________ sources. The following questions are asked about primary sources:

• What is the tone?• Who is the intended _________________?• What is the purpose of the publication?• What ___________________ does the author make?• What are the bases of the author's _________________?• Does the author agree or disagree with other authors of the subject?• Does the content agree with what you know or have learned about the issue?• _____________ was the source made? • A secondary source is a document or recording that relates or discusses

information __________________ presented elsewhere. A secondary ______________ with a primary source. Secondary sources involve generalization, ________________, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information. Secondary sources in history and humanities are usually ___________________, magazine, academic journal, or other written accounts from the ____________________ of a different person than the person who experienced the event.



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SOURCESWe know what a primary source is and what a secondary source is. Use your knowledge to identify which of the

following sources is primary or secondary and describe why you think this is so.Source Description of source Primary or secondary?

Why?Ancient oil lamps.

Extract from The War History of the 18th Battalion Durham Light Infantry by W D Lowe, 1923.

Extracts from a diary written by J Theodore West between 1853 and 1866.

Extract from 18DLI War Diary Appendix C May 1917.

Cartoon entitled 'Amputation' by Thomas Rowlandson, dated 1785.

Photograph showing men at work in Saddler Street, Durham, 1923.

Map showing the results of the Agricultural Survey for Durham, 1810.

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Graphic OrganiserMy Research Notes about ___________________________________________________________________

Choose three things you would like to know about Tollund Man and research for the answers using three different sources


Research Question 1 Research Question 2 Research Question 3

Research Source 1

Research Source 2

Research Source 3

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SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE IN HISTORY• In every period of history there are people who left a mark and today

we still know their names, Tutankhamun, Julius Caesar, Henry VIII, Marie Antoinette, the list goes on.

• In this activity you are going to use your world history timeline that we created in the C layer to choose a period of history to look at.

• In this period of history you will find one significant person and answer the following questions using the approved websites below.

• Consult your teacher once you have chosen your significant person to make sure it is an appropriate choice.

• • Questions – fill in the name of your significant person in the gaps• Who is the significant person you have chosen?• What period of history did _________________________ come from?• Where in the world did _________________________come from?• What are some memorable things

______________________________did?• Pick one particularly memorable thing, why did

_________________________ do this?• What impact did this thing have on ________________________’s

society at the time?• Did this impact extend to future generations?• Why do you think we remember _________________________

today?• Why do you think you are only to use certain websites? What sort of

issues come up with internet research?• • Websites to use• The BBC www.bbc.co.uk/history• Who2? www.who2.com and direct links from this site are OK too• The Historical Figures of George Stuart


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PERSONAL TIMELINE EXTENSIONUsing the timeline of your life that you did in C layer and using internet research, find one significant world event for each year of your life and create a new timeline below. Make sure you make a note of ALL websites you use as a source in the space provided. You must include the following information

• Date• Significant event• Why it is important• Lasting effects on the world

BORN ___/___/___

TODAY ___/___/___

Websites I used as sources:

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RESEARCH SUMMARYWith the help of your graphic organizer, write a report that summarises what you already knew about Tollund Man and bog bodies and what you learnt through your research. This cannot be done in point form or copied straight from a text. A summary is written in your own words. For each of your answered questions you must use a different text and record the title, the author, and the page number.

• What I already knew about Tollund Man and bog bodies __________________________________________________________________


• Question 1 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

• Source - ___________________________________________________________• Question 2



• Source -___________________________________________________________

• Question 3


• Source - ___________________________________________________________

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EGYPTIAN SOCIETY AND ITS PEOPLEUsing the information sheet “Daily Life in Egypt”, use the information to create a cartoon of the day in

the life of an ancient Egyptian. Include information about:• Food• Clothing• Shelter• Work• Transportation• Recreation

By __________________________

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WORLD HERITAGE SITESHeritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what

we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. Places as unique and diverse as the wilds of East Africa’s Serengeti, the Pyramids of Egypt, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia and the Baroque cathedrals of Latin America make up our world’s heritage.

What makes the concept of World Heritage exceptional is its universal application. World Heritage sites belong to all the peoples of the world, irrespective of the territory on which they are located.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972.

Your job is to create a poster to present to a group of sceptics. The group that you will be speaking to believe that these World Heritage sites do not need to be preserved and you need to convince them otherwise. For your presentation you need to create a poster with the information on it. The information you need is:

• The name of the World Heritage site• A world map and the location of the

site clearly marked• A detailed description of the site and

a picture to illustrate (100 words)• A clear explanation of the

importance of the site to mankind (200 words)

• A persuasive argument as to why it should be a World Heritage site (200 words)

• Use the website http://whc.unesco.org/ to begin your search

There are three pictures on this page and each is a World Heritage site, can you name any?

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Who is it between? a) b)

What are their arguments?a)


What is the controversy?

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Can you write your name in hieroglyphics?

Can you write a message in hieroglyphics for someone else to decode?


G H I & E J K




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Heinrich Schliemann and TroyThis activity needs to be done in pairs. The year is 1873 and the world has just heard that the famous archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann has

discovered the city of Troy that Homer wrote of in his work The Iliad. Many people are saying that his claims are false. One of you is an investigative reporter for a radio station and your boss has asked you to investigate the claims made by Schliemann in preparation for an interview with the man himself. The other person in the pair in Heinrich Schliemann himself and is prepared to do the radio interview to prove his critics wrong.

• Your task in this activity is to each prepare for the interview which will be done in front of the class. The reporter must prepare a list of questions about• Schliemann’s life• His work prior to his discovery of Troy• What he found at Troy• The theories that exist about Schliemann’s work other than what he claims• What he says about the evidence to support these other theoriesHeinrich Schliemann must prepare to answer questions about • His life – birth, childhood, marriages, children, etc.• His work prior to his discovery of Troy• What he found at Troy• The theories that exist about Schliemann’s work other than what he claims• What he says about the evidence to support these other theoriesTo begin this assignment• Gather your sources. Visit www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/literature/iliad.htm to find out the story

of the Iliad. • Visit www.archaeologyexpert.co.uk/HeinrichSchliemann.html . From this site get information about

Schliemann’s life, where he was born, his family, his early work and how he died.• These two sites should get you started and it will be your own research from there. Remember when

using the internet to gather sources you must be careful about where you get it from, it may not necessarily be correct. HINT – if you find some information in one spot, see if you can find it on another site to verify it.

• Once you have gathered some information you need to come up with a list of questions that will be asked during the interview and a list of answers to the questions

• Once you have your list of questions you need to write a script for the interview. You don’t need to memorise the script, you can use palm cards during the interview

• It is advisable to practice your interview before it is time to do it in front of the class.


Extra question – who is the woman in the picture and what is she wearing?

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• Was it aliens or was it men, people have argued both for many years now. In this activity you will need groups of 3.

• One person is the host of a special interest TV show and today’s episode is devoted to the topic of debating who the true builders of the pyramids at Giza are.

• The host of the show must• Come up with a list of questions to ask his/her 2 guests – a firm believer that man

alone built the pyramids and a true believer that aliens were wholly responsible for these enormous structures.

• There should be at least 3 questions for each guest• Keep order during the interview and make sure the guests stay on their best

behaviour – who knows what could happen! • The guest who believes man built the pyramids must• Explain this theory• Have evidence to support this theory – based on primary and secondary sources• The guest who believes aliens built the pyramids must• Explain this theory• Have evidence to support this theory – based on primary and secondary sources• As a group you must• Write a script for the TV show• Practice it before you must perform it in front of the class