Why is Nigeria a useful case study for students of AP CompGov?British colonization left Nigeria with a political and economic legacy that is common among many formerly colonized states.Nigerias socioeconomic indicators are typical of many developing countriesNigeria has been unable to fully capitalize on its oil reservesNigeria has experienced military rule and coups detat throughout its history but currently has a democratic constitution. Nigeria has experienced alternation between authoritarian and democratic regimesDespite its political and economic challenges, Nigeria is a leader in West Africa.
Intro to NigeriacontinuedNigeria is the most ethnically diverse of all the countries in AP CompGov. The 3 most significant ethic groups in the political system are the: Hausa-FulaniIgbo Yoruba.
Nigeria is not a nation. It is a mere geographical expression Chief Obafemi AwolowoSouthwestAKA The WestYoruba 2nd largest ethnic group 40% Christian40% Muslim20% YorubanAction Group (AG)
Southeast AKA The EastIgbo 3rd largest ethnic groupPredominantly ChristianNational Convention of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC)
NorthwestAKA The NorthHausa-FulaniLargest ethnic groupPredominantly MuslimNorthern Peoples Congress (NPC)
Three other minority zones exist (Northeast, Middle Belt, and the Delta)Nigeria is comprised of 250 separate nations
Major ethnic and religious cleavages. Sharia is practiced in many northern states, Christians fear that a Muslim leader would try to implement Sharia at a national levelFear that an Igbo-led government would lead to a lack of equitable distribution of the oil reserves of the southeastern region.Both Sharia law and political violence in Nigeria have both appeared as topics on the AP exam
Loyalty pyramids in Nigeria are a unique form of clientelism called prebendalism.The constitution adopted in 1999 established a presidential system, which had led to relative stability
International organizations like the World Bank, have played an important role in Nigeria.Nigeria is a borrower nation and adopted a structural adjustment program.Has made it different for Nigeria to provide social services to its citizens
Nigerias social welfare system is weak with a high infant morality rate, low life expectancy, and a low literacy rate, among other problems.
Nigeria has a free press and active civil society
Country BioPopulation- 151 millionTerritory- 356,668 square milesYear of Independence- 1960Year of current Constitution- 1999 Constitution based on the 1979 Constitution (including revisions drafted in 1995)Head of State- President Goodluck JonathanHead of Government- President Goodluck JonathanLanguages- English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, and 250 other ethnic groupsReligions- Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Transition to DemocracyBegan in 1999, hopefully with the election of Olusegun Obsanjo as president. He was reelected in 2003Umar Musa YarAdua was elected in 2007 Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as President with YarAdua fell ill
Frustration with the failure of Democracy in NigeriaUnable to harness the countrys wealth to provide basic human needs, education, potable water, reliable transportation, and communicationPower generation has fallen since 1999Income levels are barely 1/10 of what they are in US & EuropeHDI Activity
Roots /HistoryComplex systems of political institutionsInteracted in trade, cultural diffusion and warsThere was NO single Nigeria a century ago
Hausa-FulaniCity states in Northern Nigeria between 1000 and 1200 CECame under the influence of Islam no later than 15th centuryMosques and Koranic schools were flourishingNon Hausa court officials were Fulani. (who were originally from W. Sudan) Entered the Hausa lands as teachers, traders and court advisorsFulani dominated caliphate was establish in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria and controlled it until British defeated it in 1903Sokoto retains its role as the Muslim religious capital of Nigeria todayHausa and Fulani cultures are very intertwined with extensive intermarriage. Hausa is primary the language of both
Yoruba Empires (South)Highly centralized empires and kingdoms of Oyo and Ife; the Edo kingdom of Benin in the Midwest; Igbo societies to the east; and the trading city-states of the Niger Delta
British domination: how and why?Cause of interest was trade, slavesExchanged captives for goods20,000 people per year1807 British abolished the slave tradeSlave ships were replaced with Navy ships1850British began to interfere in politics and obtained treaties of protection and tradeThese treaties were favorable towards the British
Key events in Colonial RuleBerlin Conference in 1884Divided Africa1886 the Royal Niger Company was granted a royal charter to control Nigeria Trade1900 it was replaced by the creation of the colony of Lagos and the Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria
Problem with the colonial linesIn West Africa, prevailing climates and ecological zones run east to westColonies went from the coast, northward intersecting climate zones and guaranteeing that colonies thus established would be composed of people coming from vastly different cultures
Indirect RuleAllowed traditional structures to persist as subordinates to the British governor and a small administrative apparatusIn the more dispersed kingdoms as among the Yoruba, colonizers either strengthen traditional chiefs or appointed warrant chiefs(who ruled by warrant of the British CrownWeakened the previous practices of accountability and participationBritish also played off ethnic and social divisions to keep Nigerians from developing organized political resistance to colonial rule. Oppressively put down any form of resistance, however, promoted democratic political systemConflicted democratic idea: formal democratic institutions within an authoritarian cultureColonialism strengthened the collective identities of Nigerias multiple ethnic groups
Chief Obafemi Awolowo, leader of the AG (Action Group)Wrote in 1947, Nigeria is not a nation. It is a mere geographical expression. There are no Nigerians in the same sense as there are English, Welsh, or French. The word Nigerian is a mere distinctive appellation to distinguish those who live within the boundaries of Nigeria from those who do not.
First Republic (1960-1966)Independence in 1960Initially adopted the British Westminster model at the federal and regional levels, with the PM chosen by the majority party or coalition.Northerners came to dominate the federal government because they had a greater population.First 2 years quickly turned into a northern-only grouping when the NPC (Northern Peoples Congress) achieved an outright majority in the legislatureRedistribution of Resources- North benefited less from the economic, educational, and infrastructural benefits of colonialism and set to redistribute them for their benefit
First RepublicNPC policy of northernization brought them into direct conflict with the south.Coalition between NCNC and NPC fell apart because the NPC did not need it.Nnamdi Azikiwe, NCNC (National Convention of Nigerian Citizens) coalition president (largely symbolic position at the time)Tafawa Balewa (NPC) Prime MinisterBoth approached the military and asked for their loyalty
Civil War and Military Rule1966-1979Igbo officers seized power in Jan 1966Yakubu Gowon, a Middle Belt Christian, came to powerViolence broke out against the Igbo because so many northern officials were killed in the coupEthnic violence sent many Igbos fleeing to their home region in the EastIn 1967, predominately Igbo population of eastern Nigeria attempted to secede and form its own independent country named BiafraGowon built a military-led government of national unity in what remained of Nigeria (North and West)3 year war of attrition and starvation tactics, defeated Biafra in Jan. 1970Conflicted claimed approx. 1 million deaths
Biafra (1967-70)Igbo secessionist stateDesired freedom because they believed the North would always dominate because of their larger numbers (Igbo are the smallest of the big-three ethnicities)Three year civil war resulted in over a million deathsYakubu Gowon, a Middle-Belt Christian came to power to lead a Nigerian unity government to stop the secession
Post warPolicy of national reconciliationSenior officers reaped the benefits of the 1973-1974 oil boomCorruption was widespreadGowon postponed a return to civilian rule, and was overthrown by Murtala Muhammad in 1975Murtala Muhammad was assassinated before he could achieve democratic transitionGeneral Olusegun Obasanjo, Muhammads second-in-command and successor, peacefully ceded power to an elected cilivian government in 1979, which became known as the Second Republic. Then retires and reemerges as a civilian president in 1999
Second and Third Republics, and Predatory Military Rule 1979-19991979-1983 President was Shehu Shagari, National Party of Nigeria (NPN). Supported largely by the North.Mistrust and corruptionMassive fraud and violent electionsThe military, led by, Major General Muhammadu Buhari seized power
Second and Third Republics, and Predatory Military Rule 1979-1999General Buhari refused to pledge to a rapid return to democratic rule and failed to revived a plummeting economy, lost his supporters1985 General Ibrahim Babangida seized powerAnnounced a transition to democratic rule, then stalled and annulled the presidential election of June 1993, he resignedHandpicked successor of Babangida, Ernest Shonekan, led a weak c