Detroit Health DepartmentDetroit Public SchoolsDetroit Recreation DepartmentSMART
Methods / Approaches (What We Did)
Results (What We Found)
Conclusions ( What We Think About What We Found)
Public Health Implications
BackgroundYouth Obesity: A Public Health CrisisThe Prevalence of increased obesity and overweight among teens that adversely affect the quality of health and academic performance
Today, there are nearly twice as many overweight children and almost three times as many overweight adolescents as there were in 1980. Increase in Type II diabetes among children, estimated eight times the pre-1992 level.
Overweight in children and adolescents is generally caused by lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of the two (2001 Surgeon General's Call to Action)
BackgroundYouth Obesity: A Public Health CrisisConsidered a national epidemicThreefold increase in overweight children and teens in last two decadesChildrens health at further risk due to undernourishment.Sedentary lifestyle compounds problemUnhealthy/sedentary lifestyles result in $100 billion in costs and 300,000 deaths annually (U.S. Surgeon Generals Report, 2002)
BackgroundYouth Obesity: A Public Health CrisisIncreased prevalence of overweight children in each age group
Between 1988-94 and 1999-2000, weight increased by 10% among African American and Mexican American adolescents!
15% (1 in 6) of children 6 years and older are overweight Study (Journal of the American Medical Association)
Prevalence of Overweight Children in U.S.--NHANES
BackgroundYouth Obesity: A Public Health CrisisOne third of Michigan school children are overweight. In fact, they are among the heaviest in the nation. For example, a typical 17-year-old child is 7 pounds heavier than the national average.
One of five African-American girls, one of six African-American boys, and one of twelve Caucasian children have significantly elevated resting blood pressures.
2-4% of Michigan school children have "severely high" blood pressure, compared to a national average of 1%.
39% of Michigan children have elevated cholesterol levels compared to a national average of 25%.
(Kuntzleman C.T. University of Michigan Dept. of Movement Science)
BackgroundYouth Obesity: A Public Health CrisisOnly 22% of male and 19% of female teens meet the minimum average daily goal of at least five servings of vegetables and fruits.
1/3 of students do not receive the recommended amount of both moderate and vigorous physical activity during the week.
Younger students were more likely to watch three or more hours of television each day on an average school day.
(2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Detroit High School Survey)
What We DidMethods & ApproachesBrought stakeholders and partners together
Committed resources from three district bureaucratic organizations to address a common public health problem adversely impacting teens
Enhanced coordination among the local health department and the local school district to leverage resources as a mechanism to achieve health and academic goals of students
What We DidMethods & Approaches (contd)Complied health data from the school-based health centers, physical education activity data from the school district and geographic recreation service delivery data from the Citys Recreation Department
Assisted in the development and submission of a Michigan collaborative grant application
Participated in the development of a Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) for the Detroit Public School District
The SMART initiative will be implemented more effectively with the infrastructure of CSHP
What We DidInventory of Programs, Services and SupportsFaith Based Initiatives Parks & RecreationsProject FRESHEFNEPMall-walking Programs
MDCH Cardiovascular Health ProgramGovernors Council on Physical Fitness and Health SportsMoTown in MotionAfrican American Health Initiative
What We FoundResults: Schools Critical RoleKey environment identified in U.S. Surgeon Generals reportPotential significant influencing powerExtraordinary opportunity to guide and shape healthy eating and physical activity habitsKey link to parents and communityGrowing trend: commercial interests target schools and compete with healthy choices, i.e., vending machines
What We FoundResults Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Students Eating Habits (9 - 12th graders) Physical Education in Schools Self Reports of Students Weight
School Based Health Center Dat
Random Sample Student Chart Review Heights & Weights
Community / Recreational Data
Recommended Time Allotment for Students Physical Education
What We FoundResults: Recreational/Non-School Hours Principal Survey
Elementary(%)Middle(%)High(%)Academic/Tutorial796579Sports588367Recreational38258Computer293325Dance222838Detroit Public Schools, prepared by Moore & Associates, June 2002
What We FoundResults: 2001 YRBS Detroit High School Survey
Percent of students who attended physical education (PE) class dailyGradePercentageNumber9th39.446210th26.647311th25.133112th15.4253
What We FoundResults: 2001 YRBS Detroit High School Survey
Percent of students who watched three or more hours of TV per day on an average school dayGradePercentageNumber9th62.653510th60.352611th59.338112th54.0289
Coordinated School Health Program Model
What We FoundCoordinated School Health Programs Eight Components
Health EducationPhysical EducationHealth ServicesFamily / Community InvolvementMental Health ServicesNutrition ServicesHealthy School EnvironmentHealth Promotion for Staff
What We FoundAchievement Tied to Good HealthPhysical ActivityImproves self esteemReduces anxiety and stress in teens
Documented FactsGood health and nourishment enhance performance on cognitive testingImproved tests scores are a result of participation in school breakfast program
What We Think About What We Found CONCLUSIONSBig picture realized, however, data gaps remain
Efficient way to leverage existing resources among local governmental entities to ensure program implementation, program operation and program sustainability
Collaboration is effective
What We Think About What We Found C0nclusions (contd)Obesity problem brought to the forefront and able to obtain buy-in from Public Health Director, Public Schools CEO and the Mayor
The Coordinated School Health Program is a vehicle to address health initiatives, particularly the prevalence of obesity among school age children
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS
Compelling Message forPublic HealthAdvocacy and resiliency is needed to reverse the obesity epidemic among school age children
National and local resources are required
Buy-in of the community; students, parents, private sector, clergy, businesses, media and other stakeholders
Compelling Message forPublic Health
Healthy Youth Make Better Students
Better Students Make Healthy Communities