Design of Water Distribution System for SVNIT Campus

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Final Year Project Report

Text of Design of Water Distribution System for SVNIT Campus




Guided byDr. P.L.PATEL Professor


CERTIFICATEThis is to certify the following students of B. Tech -IV sem. 7th have satisfactorily completed their project preliminary report on Design of Water Distribution System (SVNIT CAMPUS) for Revised Demand during academic year 2011 2012.ANSHUK GARG RAJWANSH SINGH RAVI TEJA TAMMU TULSIRAM AVINASH KUMAR SACHIN GAUTAM U08CE069 U08CE047 U08CE056 U08CE044 U08CE067 U08CE006

Signature of Guide

Signature of Head of Department



We take great opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Dr.P.L.Patel in Civil Engineering department, S.V.N.I.T, Surat for his valuable guidance, useful comments and co-operation with kind and encouraging attitude at all stages of the experimental work for the successful completion of this work. We would like to thank Dr. P.V.Timbadiya and Viraj Sir for their help with the softwares and guidance in the Hydrology Lab. We would also like to thank our head of department Dr. J.N. Patel. We are thankful to S.V.N.I.T, Surat and its staff for providing us this opportunity which helped in gaining knowledge and to make this Project report successful endeavour.

Thank You

TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Introduction.1

2. Networking parameters...2 3. Darcy-Weisbach equation and Newton-Raphson Method.3

4. Analysis of study area.5

5. Analysis of Capacity and Demand.6

6. Analysis of the network.7

7. Gravity network.7

8. Pressure network8

9. Software support a. LOOP 4.0...8 b. WaterGEMS...9 10. Nodes for Gravity Network...13

11. Gravity Network Layout..15

12. Pressure Network Layout.16

13. Results a. Pipe Results..17 b. Junction Results19 14. Conclusions..22

INTRODUCTIONWater is a vital element in the living system and is an important component and also a key element for the socio-economic development of a country. All living things require water for their sustenance. In fixing the living standards of the population, the availability of water to domestic needs plays an important role. With the increase in population in the sphere, the demand for water and the fight to share this resource during the period of scarcity also increases enormously. This has been true with particular reference to the recent past. In a country like India, the rainfall is seasonal and is highly erratic in nature, leading to spatial and temporal variations in the water availability. Thus, it becomes necessary for the water supply engineers to supply pure and adequate water, equally to all the consumers. For this challenging task, the design, and the analysis, of the pipe network system on optimization and other techniques have been based throughout the world.

A water distribution system is an essential infrastructure in the supply of water for domestic as well as industrial uses. It connects consumers to sources of water, using hydraulic components, such as pipes, valves, pumps and tanks. The design of such systems is a multifarious task involving numerous interrelated factors, requiring careful consideration in the design process. Important design parameters include water demand, minimum pressure requirements, topography; system reliability, economics, piping, pumping and energy use.

The primary goal of all water distribution system engineers is the delivery of water to meet the demands on quantity and pressure. Unfortunately, as a water distribution system ages, its ability to transport water diminishes and the demands placed upon it typically increase. In addition to the unsatisfactory performance of a deteriorated network, there are direct economic impacts of a failing system. Older systems have reduced the carrying capacity due to corrosion and tuberculation and are more susceptible to leaks and breaks, resulting in loss of water, requiring time and money to repair. Moreover population explosion is one of the main reasons for the increase in the demand of water for consumption and most of the networks fail to meet this demand.

Researchers have developed two principal approaches in pipe network design and analysis. One is the linear programming approach and the other one is the non-linear programming approach. The non linear optimization includes MINOs (Murtagh and Saunders 1987), GINO and GAMS. All these packages use a constrained generalized reduced gradient technique to identify a local optimum for the network problem. Constraints can be included explicitly in the model. Examples include, the continuity equations, head losses around loops or between reservoirs, minimum and maximum pressure limitations, and minimum and maximum diameters. Costs can be expressed as any non-linear function of pipe diameter and length. The limitations of the technique are as follows:

1. Since the pipe diameters are continuous variables, the optimal values will not necessarily confirm to the available pipe sizes; thus a rounding off of the final solution is required.

2. Only a local optimum is obtained.

3. There is a limitation on the number of constraints and hence the size of the network that can be handled.

The main objective of this project is to design a water distribution network for the increasing requirement in Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute Of Technology, Surat.

NETWORKING PARAMETERS For the design of network there is a need for calibration of various parameters like discharge at nodes, height requirement to acquire the desired head etc. In addition to that it also requires the capacity of various structures, the daily demand of various buildings. The following are various sequential networking parameters that are to be calibrated.

Configuration-It involves the location of sites for various elements such as elevated service reservoirs, pumps, pipes, valves, and accessories. The configuration is decided by taking into consideration the existing pattern of streets and highways, existing and planned subdivisions,

property right-of-ways, possible sites for elevated and ground service reservoirs, location and density of demand centres, and general topography.

Pipe Lengths-The pipe lengths are obtained from the known geometrical layout of the network. When nodes are connected by links consisting of pipes in series, in parallel, and in series-parallel combination, such pipes are usually replaced by equivalent pipes in network analysis.

Pipe Diameters-The pipe diameters are either known or calculated for equivalent pipes.

Pipe Roughness coefficients-The pipe roughness coefficients such as Hazen-William coefficient CHW and Mannings coefficient N are considered known and remains constant during the analysis. But Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f is a function of Reynolds number and therefore of pipe discharge, and thus must be re-evaluated when the pipe discharge changes.

Minor Appurtenances-The effect of minor appurtenances can be individually considered. However in network analysis, it is common practice to consider equivalent pipes and correspondingly increase the pipe length by 5-10% to account for the effect of minor appurtenances.

Demand Pattern-The demand fluctuate with time, days and seasons. But it is common practice to assume that demands remain constant in the analysis.

Hydraulic Gradient Levels-The hydraulic gradient levels or simply the heads are mostly unknown and obtained from the analysis.

DARCY-WEISHBACH EQUATIONIn fluid dynamics, the DarcyWeisbach equation is a phenomenological equation, which relates the head loss or pressure loss due to friction along a given length of pipe to the average velocity of the fluid flow. The equation is named after Henry Darcy and Julius Weisbach. It is of two types

Pressure loss form:

Head loss form:

hf head loss due to friction L - length of pipe D- hydraulic diameter of the pipe V- average velocity of flow g- acceleration due to gravity f- dimensionless constant, darcys friction coefficient

The calibrations in many software is done by using three main hydraulic equations named DarcyWeisbach equation, Newton-Raphson method and Mannings equation.

NEWTON-RAPHSONS METHODIn numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the NewtonRaphson method), named after Issac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real -valued function. The algorithm is first in the class of Householders method succeeded by Halleys method. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. Given a function defined over the real x, and its derivative f, we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is

Geometrically, (x1, 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0, f (x0)).The process is repeated as

until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root, then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus), and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the