Design for Six Sigma Slides

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    2014. Dr. Jos Carlos Miranda

    2009. Dr. Jos Carlos Miranda

    DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA

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    2014. Dr. Jos Carlos Miranda

    SIX SIGMA

    Standard DeviationDefects per Million

    OpportunitiesSuccess rate

    1 Sigma 690,000 31%

    2 Sigma 308,000 69.2%

    3 Sigma 66,800 93.3%

    4 Sigma 6,210 99.4%

    5 Sigma 230 99.97%

    6 Sigma 3.4 99.99966%

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    2014. Dr. Jos Carlos Miranda

    SIX SIGMA

    4.5sigma

    4.5sigma

    1.5sigma

    1.5sigma

    ProcessMean

    LSL USL

    Motorola Interpretation of Six Sigma (after Yang & El-Haik, 2003).

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    2014. Dr. Jos Carlos Miranda

    IF THE U.S.A. HAD 3.8 SIGMA

    The US Mail will lose 20,000 articles every hour.

    5,000 surgical procedures will go bad every week. 4 accidents will occur every day at major airports.

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    2014. Dr. Jos Carlos Miranda

    SIX SIGMA

    The a Six Sigma project, five stages are used to improve aprocess (DMAIC): Definethe problem and customer requirements Measurethe defects and process operation

    Analyzethe data and discover causes of the problem

    Improvethe process to remove causes of defects Controlthe process to make sure defects don t appear again.

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    SIX SIGMA

    It is a downstreamoperation, meaning that it takes placeafter the product or process has been designed.

    Six Sigma cannot help if a company is trying to fulfill customerneeds -and therefore achieve customer satisfaction- with thewrong product or service.

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    DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA

    Is a systematic methodologyusing tools, training, and

    measurementsto enable the designof products, services andprocesses that meet customer expectations at Six Sigma

    quality levels. DFSS optimizes your design processto achieve sixsigma performance and integrates characteristics of Six Sigma at

    the outset of new product development with a disciplined set oftools (Brue, 2003).

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    SIX SIGMA VS. DFSS

    $

    +

    0

    DMAIC

    IDDOV

    Project Implementation

    6

    5

    Gain obtained by DMAIC (Six Sigma) vs IDOV (Design for Six Sigma) approaches

    (after Chowdhury, 2003).

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    DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA

    It is a upstream operation, meaning that it takes placeduring the design phase of a product or process.

    In a Design for Six Sigma project, four stages are carried out(IDOV):

    IdentifyRequirements Definethe Design Optimizethe Design Validatethe Design

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    IDENTIFYREQUIREMENTS

    In this stage customer needs are identified and converted intodesign specifications.

    Minimum requirements are established and benchmarking is

    used to detect gaps in current offer.

    Critical-to-satisfaction requirements are defined.

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    IDENTIFYREQUIREMENTS

    Tools used: Market / Customer research Quality Function Deployment

    Kano analysis

    Risk Analysis

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    DEFINETHE DESIGN

    In this stage concepts are generated. Then, concepts are selected to create a product that is

    capable of achieving the desired design specifications.

    The possible failures in the proposed design are evaluated and,if critical, corrected.

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    DEFINETHE DESIGN

    Steps:1. Translate CTS requirements to design specifications2. Generate Design Alternatives3. Evaluate Design Alternatives4. Identify and eliminate potential failures in the product.

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    DEFINETHE DESIGN

    Tools used: Quality Function Deployment

    Functional Decomposition

    Brainstorming, 6-3-5 method, Morphological charts, etc. TRIZ Pugh matrix, Criteria-Based Matrix

    FMEA

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    OPTIMIZETHE DESIGN

    Here the product is optimized according to selected criteriato achieve higher performance and lower cost.

    An additional objective is to minimize the variability inperformance that the product can experience due to externalfactors.

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    OPTIMIZETHE DESIGN

    Tools used: Design of Experiments

    Robust Design

    Response Surface Method

    Reliability-based Design

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    VERIFYTHE DESIGN

    Ensure that the product fulfils customer expectations bytesting, verifying and validating the design.

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    VERIFYTHE DESIGN

    Tools used: Process capability modelling Design of Experiments

    Reliability testing

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    CONCLUSIONS

    DFSS is a powerful methodology to achieve Six Sigmaperformance in downstream operations.

    DFSS is not Six Sigma in Design. DFSS is a combination of statistical analysis and design and

    engineering methods.

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    CONCLUSIONS

    Although DFSS may involve a higher cost than Six Sigma, itsReturn-on-Investment is higher.

    DFSS provides a framework to manage design anddevelopment projects that yield higher customer satisfaction.

    DFSS is the gateway to true Six Sigma quality levels.