01 Solid fuels (sources, winning, properties)
0l SOLID FUELS
Sources, winning, properties
03100458 Analysis on coal quality of Kilkenny coal at Xincun town, Mishan city Jin, J. and Chen, G. Meitan Jishu, 2002, 21, (1), 54-56. (In Chinese) Applying test data, a detailed analysis is made on coal quality of Kilkenny coal at Xincun town, Mishan City, specifically looking at the inhomogeneity of coal quality change, and producing an evaluation on local use.
03100459 Coal availability studies: Fruitland and menefee formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico Hoffman, C. K. and Jones, G. E. Transactions of Society for Mining, Metallurgy'. and Exploration, Inc., 2002, (310), 1-10. Two San Juan Basin studies were completed through the USGS National Coal Availability programme. The study areas are in the northwest Bisti field (Fruitland Formation) and in the eastern Standing Rock field (Menefee Formation). In the Bisti and Standing Rock areas, the original coal resources are estimated at 4.66 and 3.17 Gt (5.14 and 3.49 billion st), respectively. The Bisti coal resources are greatly reduced by the Bisti-De-Na-Zin wilderness area, which contains and estimated 1.13 Gt (1.25 billion st) of coal. Technology restrictions remove 32.5% from Standing Rock original resource. Available resources are 60%, 2.79 Gt (3.07 billion st), of the Bisti original resource and 65%, 2.07 Gt (2.28 billion st), of the original Standing Rock resource.
03/00460 Coals as sorbents for the removal and reduction of hexavalent chromium from aqueous waste streams Lakatos, J. et al. Fuel, 2002, 81, (5), 691-698. The aim is to demonstrate the potential of coals as a low-cost reactive barrier material for environmental protection applications, with the ability to prevent leaching of toxic Cr(VI) and other transition metals. Depending on the type of ion and the surface functionalities, the uptake can involve ion sorption, ion exchange, chelation and redox mechanisms with the surface functionalities being considered as partners in electron transfer processes. The capacity for Cr(VI) uptake of low rank coals and oxidized bituminous coals is 0.2-0.6 mM/g. Air oxidation of bituminous coals can increase their Cr(VI) removal capacities. The effect of air oxidation of coals on uptake capacity was more pronounced for Cr(VI) than Cr(III), but less than for Hg(II) and the other ions (Ca z+, Ba 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+) studied. As previously found for Hg(lI), redox mechanisms play an important role in Cr(VI) uptake, with sorption of the resultant Cr(III) being aided by the functionalities from oxidation of the coal surface. In acidic media, much of the resultant Cr(III) is exchanged back into solution by H ions, but some of the sorbed Cr is irreversibly bound to the coal. The reduction of Cr(VI) alone is often considered a satisfactory solution in view of Cr(III) being essentially non-toxic.
03100461 Deformation of Upper Carboniferous coal measures in the Sydney Basin: evidence for late Alleghanian tectonism in Atlantic Canada Gibting, M. R. et al. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 2002, 39, (1), 79-93. Upper Carboniferous (Stephanian) coal measures of the Sydney Basin are deformed by reverse faults and folds with dips of up to 50 on the limbs. These structures represent compressional or transpressional events (Donkin Episode) of unknown sequence and timing. Vitrinite reflectance patterns of oriented coal samples from the fold limbs are uniaxial negative, with minimum reflectance axes (R rain) near-normal to bedding and fanning across fold axes. This pattern implies that the bulk of coalification took place through burial compaction without directed horizontal stress, prior to the deformation that produced the folds. Available apatite fission-track data for the Sydney Basin indicate that cooling of the coal measures to below 100 5: 20C was underway by the Middle to Late Triassic or earlier. Because cooling implies that coalification was largely complete, the fission-track results are compatible with latest Paleozoic or early Mesozoic deformation.
0300462 FT-IR analysis of Neyveli lignite and fly ash samples Venkatachalapathy, R. et al. Indian Journal 0]" Pure and Applied Physics, 2002, 40, (3), 207-212. IR spectroscopy was recognized as a promising technique for the study of chem-structure and components present in the lignite samples. The extinction coefficient (K) values for aromatic-CH (3030 cm l) and
aliphatic-CH (2920 and 2850 cm 1) groups present in the lignite samples were calculated and compared with atmospheric H/C and O/C ratios. Neyveli lignite formation belongs to Tertiary period of very low rank coals. The probable period of formation is Miocene and Oligocene-Paleocene period. The fly ash spectrum reveals the removal of all organic compounds present in lignite and the presence of small amounts of refractive materials of inorganic nature like SiOz, FeO and FeS.
03100463 Perspective of Chinese coal characterization Li, W. and Jiang, Y. Proceedings - Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, 2002, (18), 29-35. An introduction is given for a classification system for Chinese coals, including coal analysis methods, Chinese standards, and a comparison with ISO coal analysis standards and standards from other main coal- producing and coal-consuming countries.
03/00464 Relations between coal properties and spontaneous combustion parameters Kaymakci, E. and Didari, V. Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, 2002, 26, (1), 59-64. The results of linear and multiple regression analyses to detect the relation between spontaneous combustion parameters (derived from time-temperature curves obtained from laboratory tests) and coal parameters (obtained from proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses) were explained. The linear regression analyses have shown that ash (A), volatile matter (VM), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), exinite (E), inertinite (I) and mineral matter (MM) are the major factors affecting spontaneous combustion. According to the multiple re- gression analyses, these major factors are volatile matter, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), sulfur (S) and inertinite. As a result of this study, some empirical were derived using statistical models.
03/00465 Relationship between thermal extraction yield and softening temperature for coals Yoshida, T. et al. Energy & Fuels, 2002, 16, (4), 1006-1007. Various bituminous coals were extracted with light cycle oil (LCO) at 360 in a flow-type extractor, and extraction yield up to 60% could be achieved. The same coals were extracted with CSz/N-methy-2-pyrroli- idinone (NMP) at room temperature, and the softening temperature of the raw coal was detected. No relation was found for the extraction yields from LCO and CS2/NMP extraction, suggesting that the extraction mechanism for these solvent systems was different due to the swelling of the coal at increased temperatures. It was found that the LCC extraction yield decreased with increasing softening temperature of the coal sample.
03/00466 SO2 formation characteristics of coal in O~JCO2 mixture Wang, H. et al. Huazhong Keji Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexuehan, 2002, 30, (1), 100-102. (In Chinese) Systematical experiments on the emission of SO2 of Heshan coal under different conditions were carried out. Compared with conventional air condition, the results show that SOz releases faster and the emission of total quantity of SOz decreases due to different combustion charac- teristic and chemical reaction of coal in a COz/Oz mixer. The results suggest that the desulfurization ratio of calcium based sorbent at high temperatures is more efficient in a COz/Oz mixer.
03100467 Study of coal chemical group composition. Part (11). Optimization of coal dissolution system Tian, Y. et al. Meitan Zhuanhua, 2002, 25, (l), 28-32. (In Chinese) The coal dissolution system is the precondition and key for studying coal composition. In order to achieve the system of desirable features such as high extraction yield, solvent recovery being fast, convenient and accurate, a series of optimal coal dissolution system was proposed by considering factors such as solvent selection, solvent grouping, and solvent extraction methods.
03/00468 Study of the structure of coals by a swelling method Astakhov, A. V. et al. Khimiya Tverdogo Topliva, 2002, (2), 3-10. (In Russian) Swelling characteristics of coals were studied from the viewpoint of the Flory-Rener theory through scaling approach. Changes in the molecular weight of chains between crosslinks during coalification were considered. The relation between parameters describing inter- action of coals with solvents and molecular structure of coals was analysed.
03/00469 The sudden release of oil and bitumen from Bakken shale on heating in water Larsen, J. W. and Kidena, K. Energy & Fuels, 2002, 16, (4), 1004-1005.
68 Fuel and Energy Abstracts March 2003