Definition of the existing cooling reference systems ... New generation solar cooling & heating systems

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  • Definition of the existing cooling reference systems

    IEA SHC TASK 53 | New generation solar cooling & heating systems (PV or thermally driven)

  • Definition of the existing cooling reference systems

    IEA SHC Task 53 – Activity A1

    Tim Selke, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH/ Center for Energy, Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Vienna, Austria, +43 (0) 664 825 1008, tim.selke@ait.ac.atDate

    SHC Task 53/Report A1, DOI: 10.18777/ieashc-task53-2019-0001

    The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the viewpoints or policies of the International Energy Agency (IEA) or its member countries, the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Technology Collaboration Programme (SHC TCP) members or the participating researchers.

    mailto:tim.selke@ait.ac.atDate

  • 1 IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme

    The Solar Heating and Cooling Technology Collaboration Programme was founded in 1977 as one of the first multilateral technology initiatives ("Implementing Agreements") of the International Energy Agency. Its mission is “to enhance collective knowledge and application of solar heating and cooling through international collaboration to reach the goal set in the vision of solar thermal energy meeting 50% of low temperature heating and cooling demand by 2050. The members of the IEA SHC collaborate on projects (referred to as “Tasks”) in the field of research, development, demonstration (RD&D), and test methods for solar thermal energy and solar buildings. Research topics and the associated Tasks in parenthesis include:

    • Solar Space Heating and Water Heating (Tasks 14, 19, 26, 44, 54)

    • Solar Cooling (Tasks 25, 38, 48, 53)

    • Solar Heat for Industrial or Agricultural Processes (Tasks 29, 33, 49, 62)

    • Solar District Heating (Tasks 7, 45, 55)

    • Solar Buildings/Architecture/Urban Planning (Tasks 8, 11, 12, 13, 20, 22, 23, 28, 37, 40, 41, 47, 51, 52, 56, 59)

    • Solar Thermal & PV (Tasks 16, 35, 60)

    • Daylighting/Lighting (Tasks 21, 31, 50, 61)

    • Materials/Components for Solar Heating and Cooling (Tasks 2, 3, 6, 10, 18, 27, 39)

    • Standards, Certification, and Test Methods (Tasks 14, 24, 34, 43, 57)

    • Resource Assessment (Tasks 1, 4, 5, 9, 17, 36, 46)

    • Storage of Solar Heat (Tasks 7, 32, 42, 58) In addition to our Task work, other activities of the IEA SHC include our:

    ➢ International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry ➢ Solar Heat Worldwide report – annual statistics publication ➢ Memorandum of Understanding – working agreement with solar thermal trade organizations ➢ Workshops and seminars

    Country Members Australia Austria Belgium Canada China Denmark European Commission

    France Germany Italy Mexico Netherlands Norway Portugal

    Slovakia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom

    Sponsor Members European Copper Institute RCREEE ECREEE International Solar Energy Society For more information on the IEA SHC work, including many free publications, please visit www.iea-shc.org.

  • 2 Contents

    1 IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme ................................................................................................. 3

    2 Contents .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

    3 Scope of Activity A1 ....................................................................................................................................... 5

    4 Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 5

    5 Small scale reference systems ...................................................................................................................... 7

    5.1 Mono-split .................................................................................................................................................. 7

    5.2 Multi-split .................................................................................................................................................... 8

    5.3 VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow) ................................................................................................................ 9

    6 Definition on manufacture declared data for EER and SEER ................................................................... 12

    6.1 European regulation ................................................................................................................................. 12

    6.2 International regulations ........................................................................................................................... 13

    7 Parametric simulation study ........................................................................................................................ 16

    7.1 Definition of parameters to vary (inspire) ................................................................................................. 17

    7.2 Energy Indicators ..................................................................................................................................... 18

    7.3 Simulation result of the parametric study ................................................................................................. 21

    8 Field test measurement of reference systems ........................................................................................... 23

    8.1 Mono-split ................................................................................................................................................ 23

    8.2 VRF .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

    9 Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................. 28

    10 Appendix ................................................................................................................................................ 29

    10.1 Coefficient of performances ................................................................................................................ 29

    10.2 Results of the parametric study ........................................................................................................... 31

  • New generation solar cooling & heating systems (PV or thermally driven) / task53.iea-shc.org

    5

    Subtask A – Activity A1 final report: Definition of the existing cooling reference systems November 2018

    3 Scope of Activity A1

    In this activity of SHC Task 53, a detailed description of typical conventional reference system is delivered. Market dominating small scale system types (< 10 kW) for air-conditioning, cooling and heating for rooms are investigated and identified reference systems apply the mechanical compression method to treat the working fluid.

    The reference system respect different European climate zones and with displaying and discussing the simulation results of a parametric study, the energy performance of the defined reference system is shown as a function of the room type and of the climate condition of the selected European Cities.

    In addition, this system will depend on the range of energy use: cooling, space heating, domestic hot water.

    Therefore, a set of reference systems will be selected and described on their technical performance level. Furthermore, this database permits in the Subtask B to make a comparison with new generation solar cooling and heating systems.

    4 Executive Summary

    The work of Subtask A covers horizontal activities related to subtasks B and C. Activity A1 aims at delivering a useful report on market available reference systems in the range up to around 100 kW of cooling capacity. Three different kinds of reference systems were detected – namely Mono-split, Multi-split and VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow) systems and a brief description introduces their technical functionalities and components. Furthermore, this report displays as well selected laboratory measurement results of investigated reference systems conducted by SHC Task 53 participants. Herewith the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EERc) for cooling and the Coefficient of Performance (COPh) for heating are indicated as key energy performance indicators. Furthermore, European and international regulation are introduced for understanding manufacture declared energy system performance indicators. With the help of a comprehensive parametric study based on results of transient simulation, the SHC Task 53 participants present an overview of the annual energy performance depending on a mix of different application and climate regions. This database permits furthermore in the Subtask B to make a comparison with new generation solar cooling and heating systems. Finally, this report ends with showing up some field test data of operated Mono-split and VRF systems. The SHC Task 53 A1 report is structured by four essential chapters:

    • Chapter 3 - Small scale reference systems, This chapter reports on three market dominating technical solution compressing and evaporating the working fluid for coo