Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning: Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference ... Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning: ... 1998, Teaching Thinking)

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<ul><li><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 </p><p>1 </p><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning: Teacher-Led and Student Self-Questioning </p><p>Georgia Adult Education Conference, September 2016 </p><p>Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. </p><p>PPT #2. Objectives </p><p>By the end of this session, participants will be able to </p><p> Identify teacher questions that promote critical thinking; </p><p> Generate effective question-asking sequences; </p><p> Explain the role and the importance of student self-questioning in the learning process; </p><p> Identify strategies to encourage student self-questioning </p><p> Reflect on their own questioning techniques and set one goal to enhance the questioning </p><p>techniques they use in their classrooms. </p><p>PPT #3. Self-Reflection: Think &amp; Take NotesThen Turn &amp; Talk </p><p> Think about a time when your students were truly engaged in a discussion and actively </p><p>responding to your questions about the topic of the current lesson. </p><p> What did you do to promote a discussion that engaged all your students? </p><p> What kinds of questions did you ask to interest and engage your students? </p><p> Did you encourage students also to ask questions about the topic, and, if so, how did you make </p><p>this happen? </p><p>Take 8 minutes to think and talk with a partner, and then be prepared to share some of your </p><p>successful experiences. </p><p>_________________________________________________________________________</p><p>_________________________________________________________________________</p><p>_________________________________________________________________________</p><p>_________________________________________________________________________</p><p>_________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>PPT #4. Why Do Teachers Ask Questions? </p><p>_________________________________________________________________________</p><p>_________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>_________________________________________________________________________</p><p>_________________________________________________________________________</p><p>_________________________________________________________________________ </p></li><li><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 </p><p>2 </p><p>PPT #5. Questioning Enables You to </p><p> Stimulate interest in a topic </p><p> Review and summarize previous lessons </p><p> Focus thinking on key concepts and issues </p><p> Make student thinking visible and provide immediate feedback to you (the teacher) </p><p> Stimulate students recall of existing knowledge and experience (activate prior knowledge) </p><p> Elicit new ideas </p><p> Promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation, and the formulation of hypothesesleading to </p><p>deeper understanding </p><p> Find out what students already know about a topic and probe their comprehension </p><p> Help students think about the way they have learned (metacognitive processes) </p><p>PPTs #6 &amp; 7. The Earmark of a Good Teacher </p><p>A good teacher makes you think, even when you dont want to. (Fisher, 1998, Teaching Thinking) </p><p>Teaching is driven by questions </p><p> Questions define tasks, express problems, and delineate issues. Answers, on the other hand, often signal a full stop in thought. Only when an answer generates additional questions does a thought </p><p>continue its life and go deeper. </p><p>Students who have questions are truly thinking and learning. </p><p>PPT 8#. Teacher Self-ReflectionAsk Yourself </p><p>Take about 3 minutes to reflect on your own teaching </p><p>1. How many questions do I typically ask in a given class period? ____________________ </p><p>2. Do I plan my questions in advance of class? yes____ no ____ </p><p>3. Approximately how many of my questions are recall and comprehension types? ______ </p><p>4. Approximately how many require inference or prediction? ________________________ </p><p>5. What wait time do I usually allow following a question? __________________________ </p><p>6. How do I respond to students answers to questions, particularly when they give an incorrect </p><p>response? ______________________________________________________ </p><p>7. Do I ever encourage students to formulate their own questions? yes____ no ____ </p><p>8. How many different students answer questions? _______________________________ </p><p>9. Are certain students repeatedly invited to answer? yes____ no ____ </p><p>10. Are there some students who never answer? yes____ no ____ </p><p>11. How else do I invite responses, apart from direct questions? _____________________ </p><p>PPT #9. How Many Students Feel About Questions </p><p> In general, students dislike them, which, in turn, hinders learning. When the first response is incorrect, teachers usually ask a 2nd question, which then leads to </p><p>students aversion to the 2nd question. If redirection/probing is vague or critical (e.g., Thats not right; try again; Where did you get an </p><p>idea like that?), students may not continue to respond. As a result, achievement does not improve. </p><p>Therefore, a teachers response to student answers determines whether or not students continue to answer. </p></li><li><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 </p><p>3 </p><p>PPT #10. Research on Questioning Tells Us </p><p> When instruction includes asking questions, it is more effective in producing student learning gains than instruction that is carried out without questioning. </p><p> Oral questions posed during instruction are more effective in fostering learning than are written questions. </p><p> Student discussion increases learning retention as much as 50% (Sousa, 2001). </p><p>BUT 75% of the time, teachers do the talking; 75% of that teacher talk is directive, with almost no </p><p>discussion that extends thinking (Flanders). As little as 5% of classroom time is spent on questioning beyond recall. Nearly all questions are teacher-to-student directed; very few are student-to-teacher or student-</p><p>to-student (Gall, 1970). Because teachers tend to monopolize the right to question, students come to believe that their </p><p>only role is to listen, rather than to actively participate in learning (Chuska, 2003). Students are talk-deprived (Alvermann et al., 1996). </p><p>PPT #11. The Question is More Important than the Answer </p><p>Whats the Research? </p><p>So On average, teachers ask 80 questions each hour. Most questions are answered in less than a second </p><p>(Hastings, 2003) The number of questions that students ask in that same </p><p>time period is TWO! (Kagan,1999) </p><p> If the classroom climate were to encourage students to ask questions, think how much more students could learn! </p><p>PPT #12. Shift from the Recitation Model of Instruction to Real Discussion </p><p>From I-R-E To Discussion and Discovery </p><p>IInitiate - Educative, Reflective, Structured </p><p> RRespond - Promoting Critical Thinking EEvaluate - Engaging students in productive social interaction </p><p>(as described by Mehan, 1979) (as advocated by Cazden, 1988, and Wilen, 1991) </p><p>Tell me, and I forget. Show me, and I remember. </p><p>Involve me, and I understand. - Chinese proverb </p><p>PPT #13. Teaching is the art of asking questions. - Socrates </p><p>Socrates believed that the best way to teach was through dialectic reasoning, or a question-and-answer process, in which students pursue answers to questions in a disciplined, methodical way. </p><p></p></li><li><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 </p><p>4 </p><p>PPT #14. Effective Questioning </p><p> Draws connections between previous and new learning Reinforces and promotes the current lessons learning objectives Involves all learners, encouraging them to think for themselves Encourages learners </p><p> To speculate and hypothesize To ask as well as to receive questions To listen and respond to each other as well as to the teacher </p><p> Creates an atmosphere of trust where learners opinions and ideas are valued </p><p>PPT #15. Different Types of Questions </p><p>Open Questions Closed Question Fat questions, Higher-order cognitive questions </p><p>Skinny questions, Lower-order cognitive questions </p><p>Invite interpretation or evaluation, No preconceived response </p><p>Non-negotiable, Recited answer Recall of factonly one right answer </p><p>Challenge students and develop thinking Appropriate for recall-type questions </p><p>PPT #16. Fat and Skinny Questions </p><p>Skinny Question Starters Fat Question Starters What is Who is When did How Name Where did Is it true that </p><p>Give 3 reasons why Why do you think Make a prediction What if Explain In what ways might What can you infer from </p><p>PPT #17. Examples of Fat v. Skinny Questions </p><p>Closed (Skinny) Questions Open (Fat) Questions Do you understand? Is there anything that you need to perform this task? Who is the author of this story? In what year was the Battle of the Alamo? </p><p>How do you keep focused on your work? What do you predict will happen to the character at the end of this book? Why do you think this story is unrealistic? If Rosa Parks had given up her bus seat to a white man in 1955, what do you think would have been the impact on the growth of the Civil Rights Movement in the US? Would it have been different and, if so, how? </p><p>PPT #18. Benefits of Higher Cognitive Fat Questions </p><p> Using more than 20% higher-order questions produces increase in student learning gains </p><p> Using 50% or more increases: </p><p> On-task behavior </p><p> Length of student responses </p><p> Number of relevant contributions volunteered by students </p><p> Number of student-to-student interactions </p><p> Student use of complete sentences </p><p> Speculative thinking on the part of students </p><p> Relevant questions posed by students </p><p> Teacher expectations about student abilities, especially for students regarded as slow or poor learners </p></li><li><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 </p><p>5 </p><p>PPT #19. What Types of Questions Do Teachers Use Most? </p><p> 60% are lower cognitive (skinny) Qs, and most are answered in less than one second, requiring answers that </p><p>are either right or wrong </p><p> 20% are higher cognitive (fat) Qs (Hastings, 2003) </p><p> 20% are procedural Qs (Hattie, 2012) </p><p> We need to increase frequency of fat questions, but We should not use fat questions exclusively. </p><p> Skinny questions have a purposee.g., when helping students commit factual knowledge to memory. </p><p> The key to successful questioning is in mixing fat and skinny questions </p><p>PPT #20. Questions to Encourage Deeper Thinking and Learning </p><p>Questions that Aim for Depth </p><p>Questions that Aim for Reasoning </p><p>Questions that Aim for Clarification </p><p> What other points should be considered? </p><p> What questions do you </p><p>need to ask? </p><p> What are some possible explanations? </p><p> How do you know? How could you prove this? </p><p> What have we found out? Do you agree or disagree? </p><p>Why? When would that happen/not </p><p>happen? </p><p>PPTs #21 &amp; 22. Questions to Encourage Students to Think Critically </p><p>Questions that Ask for Sample Questions Reasons Why do you say that? </p><p>Evaluation of Reasons What reasons support that idea? </p><p>Clarification Is that what you meant? </p><p>Explanations What are some possible causes? </p><p>Evidence How can we prove this? </p><p>Definitions What does that mean? </p><p>Counter Examples What would that not happen? </p><p>Alternatives What would be a different view? </p><p>Questions that Sample Questions Probe Assumptions How do you know that? </p><p>Ask for Consequences and Implications What would be consequences be? </p><p>Ask for Connections Do those two ideas agree? </p><p>Ask for Distinctions How is that different from what was said? </p><p>Ask for Questions What questions would be useful to ask? </p><p>Ask for Summary of the Content What have you found out? </p><p>Summary of the Process What did we do well? What could we improve? </p><p>PPT #23. Probing QuestionsDig Deeper </p><p> Tell me more about. Give me an example. What would happen if What do you mean by .Why do you think this is the case? What would have to change in order for? How did you decide/determine/conclude? What if the opposite were true? Then what? </p><p>Source: Ornstein. A.C. (February 1988). Questioning: The Essence of Good Teaching, Part II. NASSP Bulletin. </p><p>;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=images&amp;cd=&amp;ved=0ahUKEwi8x4LMvrLOAhVBPiYKHZ0qBnUQjRwIBw&amp;url=;bvm=bv.129389765,d.eWE&amp;psig=AFQjCNEajvZa8Lwlsw15vkzrxefPKK3xqw&amp;ust=1470768617418199</p></li><li><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 </p><p>6 </p><p>PPT #24. Please Share. </p><p> Have you found other questions that work well to encourage deeper thinking, to encourage students to think critically? </p><p> If so, please share these with the group. </p><p>PPT #25. Common Mistakes Using Questions in Class </p><p> Asking too many closed questions, or questions that require a simple yes/no answer Asking too many short-answer, recall-based questionsdont get to higher (deeper) cognitive </p><p>levels Starting all questions with the same stem Posing more than one question at a time (students arent sure which one to answer, and teacher </p><p>may have trouble planning follow-up Qs) Not allowing sufficient wait time so that learners can reflect on the question and possible </p><p>responses Focusing on a small number of learners and not involving all students </p><p>PPT #26. Four Strategies for Effective Questioning </p><p>1. Move from simple to complex questions (Refer to DOK Level Chart) and always advance plan questions at various levels of complexity. </p><p>2. Allow ample wait time for students to process questions and formulate answers. </p><p>3. Use collaborative learningi.e., set up pairs or groups to answer more difficult questions. </p><p>4. Encourage student-generated questions about the topic of the lesson. </p><p>PPT #27. Step 1. Move from Simple to Complex </p><p> Simple questions engage student thinking, and activate memory and opinions. </p><p> Simple questions build a fact base students can build on to argue more complex questions. </p><p> Correctly answering simple questions builds student confidence and increases the likelihood they </p><p>will attempt harder questions. </p><p> Always advance plan questions at various levels of complexity. </p><p>PPT #28. Depth of Knowledge (DoK) Levels </p><p>Level of Complexity Action </p><p>Skill/Concept (Basic Reasoning) </p><p>Use of Information categorize, classify, estimate, predict, construct, identify patterns, compare, make observations </p><p>Strategic Thinking/Reasoning (Decision-Making and Justification) </p><p>formulate, hypothesize, cite evidence, compare, investigate, develop a logical argument </p><p>Extended Thinking/Reasoing (Research &amp; Investigation) </p><p>connect, synthesize, critique, analyze, create, prove </p></li><li><p>Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 </p><p>7 </p><p>PPT #29. Webbs Depth of Knowledge </p><p>DOK Level 1</p><p>Verbs: arrange, calculate, define, draw, identify, list, illustrate, match,...</p></li></ul>