Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning: Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference ... Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning: ... 1998, Teaching Thinking)

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Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 1 Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning: Teacher-Led and Student Self-Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference, September 2016 Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. PPT #2. Objectives By the end of this session, participants will be able to Identify teacher questions that promote critical thinking; Generate effective question-asking sequences; Explain the role and the importance of student self-questioning in the learning process; Identify strategies to encourage student self-questioning Reflect on their own questioning techniques and set one goal to enhance the questioning techniques they use in their classrooms. PPT #3. Self-Reflection: Think & Take NotesThen Turn & Talk Think about a time when your students were truly engaged in a discussion and actively responding to your questions about the topic of the current lesson. What did you do to promote a discussion that engaged all your students? What kinds of questions did you ask to interest and engage your students? Did you encourage students also to ask questions about the topic, and, if so, how did you make this happen? Take 8 minutes to think and talk with a partner, and then be prepared to share some of your successful experiences. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ PPT #4. Why Do Teachers Ask Questions? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 2 PPT #5. Questioning Enables You to Stimulate interest in a topic Review and summarize previous lessons Focus thinking on key concepts and issues Make student thinking visible and provide immediate feedback to you (the teacher) Stimulate students recall of existing knowledge and experience (activate prior knowledge) Elicit new ideas Promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation, and the formulation of hypothesesleading to deeper understanding Find out what students already know about a topic and probe their comprehension Help students think about the way they have learned (metacognitive processes) PPTs #6 & 7. The Earmark of a Good Teacher A good teacher makes you think, even when you dont want to. (Fisher, 1998, Teaching Thinking) Teaching is driven by questions Questions define tasks, express problems, and delineate issues. Answers, on the other hand, often signal a full stop in thought. Only when an answer generates additional questions does a thought continue its life and go deeper. Students who have questions are truly thinking and learning. PPT 8#. Teacher Self-ReflectionAsk Yourself Take about 3 minutes to reflect on your own teaching 1. How many questions do I typically ask in a given class period? ____________________ 2. Do I plan my questions in advance of class? yes____ no ____ 3. Approximately how many of my questions are recall and comprehension types? ______ 4. Approximately how many require inference or prediction? ________________________ 5. What wait time do I usually allow following a question? __________________________ 6. How do I respond to students answers to questions, particularly when they give an incorrect response? ______________________________________________________ 7. Do I ever encourage students to formulate their own questions? yes____ no ____ 8. How many different students answer questions? _______________________________ 9. Are certain students repeatedly invited to answer? yes____ no ____ 10. Are there some students who never answer? yes____ no ____ 11. How else do I invite responses, apart from direct questions? _____________________ PPT #9. How Many Students Feel About Questions In general, students dislike them, which, in turn, hinders learning. When the first response is incorrect, teachers usually ask a 2nd question, which then leads to students aversion to the 2nd question. If redirection/probing is vague or critical (e.g., Thats not right; try again; Where did you get an idea like that?), students may not continue to respond. As a result, achievement does not improve. Therefore, a teachers response to student answers determines whether or not students continue to answer. Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 3 PPT #10. Research on Questioning Tells Us When instruction includes asking questions, it is more effective in producing student learning gains than instruction that is carried out without questioning. Oral questions posed during instruction are more effective in fostering learning than are written questions. Student discussion increases learning retention as much as 50% (Sousa, 2001). BUT 75% of the time, teachers do the talking; 75% of that teacher talk is directive, with almost no discussion that extends thinking (Flanders). As little as 5% of classroom time is spent on questioning beyond recall. Nearly all questions are teacher-to-student directed; very few are student-to-teacher or student-to-student (Gall, 1970). Because teachers tend to monopolize the right to question, students come to believe that their only role is to listen, rather than to actively participate in learning (Chuska, 2003). Students are talk-deprived (Alvermann et al., 1996). PPT #11. The Question is More Important than the Answer Whats the Research? So On average, teachers ask 80 questions each hour. Most questions are answered in less than a second (Hastings, 2003) The number of questions that students ask in that same time period is TWO! (Kagan,1999) If the classroom climate were to encourage students to ask questions, think how much more students could learn! PPT #12. Shift from the Recitation Model of Instruction to Real Discussion From I-R-E To Discussion and Discovery IInitiate - Educative, Reflective, Structured RRespond - Promoting Critical Thinking EEvaluate - Engaging students in productive social interaction (as described by Mehan, 1979) (as advocated by Cazden, 1988, and Wilen, 1991) Tell me, and I forget. Show me, and I remember. Involve me, and I understand. - Chinese proverb PPT #13. Teaching is the art of asking questions. - Socrates Socrates believed that the best way to teach was through dialectic reasoning, or a question-and-answer process, in which students pursue answers to questions in a disciplined, methodical way. http://www.katekarpo.com/articles.htmlDeeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 4 PPT #14. Effective Questioning Draws connections between previous and new learning Reinforces and promotes the current lessons learning objectives Involves all learners, encouraging them to think for themselves Encourages learners To speculate and hypothesize To ask as well as to receive questions To listen and respond to each other as well as to the teacher Creates an atmosphere of trust where learners opinions and ideas are valued PPT #15. Different Types of Questions Open Questions Closed Question Fat questions, Higher-order cognitive questions Skinny questions, Lower-order cognitive questions Invite interpretation or evaluation, No preconceived response Non-negotiable, Recited answer Recall of factonly one right answer Challenge students and develop thinking Appropriate for recall-type questions PPT #16. Fat and Skinny Questions Skinny Question Starters Fat Question Starters What is Who is When did How Name Where did Is it true that Give 3 reasons why Why do you think Make a prediction What if Explain In what ways might What can you infer from PPT #17. Examples of Fat v. Skinny Questions Closed (Skinny) Questions Open (Fat) Questions Do you understand? Is there anything that you need to perform this task? Who is the author of this story? In what year was the Battle of the Alamo? How do you keep focused on your work? What do you predict will happen to the character at the end of this book? Why do you think this story is unrealistic? If Rosa Parks had given up her bus seat to a white man in 1955, what do you think would have been the impact on the growth of the Civil Rights Movement in the US? Would it have been different and, if so, how? PPT #18. Benefits of Higher Cognitive Fat Questions Using more than 20% higher-order questions produces increase in student learning gains Using 50% or more increases: On-task behavior Length of student responses Number of relevant contributions volunteered by students Number of student-to-student interactions Student use of complete sentences Speculative thinking on the part of students Relevant questions posed by students Teacher expectations about student abilities, especially for students regarded as slow or poor learners Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 5 PPT #19. What Types of Questions Do Teachers Use Most? 60% are lower cognitive (skinny) Qs, and most are answered in less than one second, requiring answers that are either right or wrong 20% are higher cognitive (fat) Qs (Hastings, 2003) 20% are procedural Qs (Hattie, 2012) We need to increase frequency of fat questions, but We should not use fat questions exclusively. Skinny questions have a purposee.g., when helping students commit factual knowledge to memory. The key to successful questioning is in mixing fat and skinny questions PPT #20. Questions to Encourage Deeper Thinking and Learning Questions that Aim for Depth Questions that Aim for Reasoning Questions that Aim for Clarification What other points should be considered? What questions do you need to ask? What are some possible explanations? How do you know? How could you prove this? What have we found out? Do you agree or disagree? Why? When would that happen/not happen? PPTs #21 & 22. Questions to Encourage Students to Think Critically Questions that Ask for Sample Questions Reasons Why do you say that? Evaluation of Reasons What reasons support that idea? Clarification Is that what you meant? Explanations What are some possible causes? Evidence How can we prove this? Definitions What does that mean? Counter Examples What would that not happen? Alternatives What would be a different view? Questions that Sample Questions Probe Assumptions How do you know that? Ask for Consequences and Implications What would be consequences be? Ask for Connections Do those two ideas agree? Ask for Distinctions How is that different from what was said? Ask for Questions What questions would be useful to ask? Ask for Summary of the Content What have you found out? Summary of the Process What did we do well? What could we improve? PPT #23. Probing QuestionsDig Deeper Tell me more about. Give me an example. What would happen if What do you mean by .Why do you think this is the case? What would have to change in order for? How did you decide/determine/conclude? What if the opposite were true? Then what? Source: Ornstein. A.C. (February 1988). Questioning: The Essence of Good Teaching, Part II. NASSP Bulletin. https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwi8x4LMvrLOAhVBPiYKHZ0qBnUQjRwIBw&url=http://www.presentermedia.com/index.php?target%3Dcloseup%26maincat%3Dclipart%26id%3D3788&bvm=bv.129389765,d.eWE&psig=AFQjCNEajvZa8Lwlsw15vkzrxefPKK3xqw&ust=1470768617418199Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 6 PPT #24. Please Share. Have you found other questions that work well to encourage deeper thinking, to encourage students to think critically? If so, please share these with the group. PPT #25. Common Mistakes Using Questions in Class Asking too many closed questions, or questions that require a simple yes/no answer Asking too many short-answer, recall-based questionsdont get to higher (deeper) cognitive levels Starting all questions with the same stem Posing more than one question at a time (students arent sure which one to answer, and teacher may have trouble planning follow-up Qs) Not allowing sufficient wait time so that learners can reflect on the question and possible responses Focusing on a small number of learners and not involving all students PPT #26. Four Strategies for Effective Questioning 1. Move from simple to complex questions (Refer to DOK Level Chart) and always advance plan questions at various levels of complexity. 2. Allow ample wait time for students to process questions and formulate answers. 3. Use collaborative learningi.e., set up pairs or groups to answer more difficult questions. 4. Encourage student-generated questions about the topic of the lesson. PPT #27. Step 1. Move from Simple to Complex Simple questions engage student thinking, and activate memory and opinions. Simple questions build a fact base students can build on to argue more complex questions. Correctly answering simple questions builds student confidence and increases the likelihood they will attempt harder questions. Always advance plan questions at various levels of complexity. PPT #28. Depth of Knowledge (DoK) Levels Level of Complexity Action Skill/Concept (Basic Reasoning) Use of Information categorize, classify, estimate, predict, construct, identify patterns, compare, make observations Strategic Thinking/Reasoning (Decision-Making and Justification) formulate, hypothesize, cite evidence, compare, investigate, develop a logical argument Extended Thinking/Reasoing (Research & Investigation) connect, synthesize, critique, analyze, create, prove Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 7 PPT #29. Webbs Depth of Knowledge DOK Level 1Verbs: arrange, calculate, define, draw, identify, list, illustrate, match, memorize, recognize, tellFocus: on specific facts, definitions, details, or proceduresNote: Theres one correct answer, and a combination of Level 1s does not make the question a Level 2DOK Level 2Verbs: categorize, cause/effect, classify, compare, distinguish, estimate, graph, interpret, modify, predict, relate, show, summarize Focus: on applying skills and concepts, explaining how or why Note: Theres one correct answerDOK Level 3Verbs: assess, cite evidence, conclude, construct, critique, develop logical argument, differentiate, formulate, hypothesize, investigate, revise Focus: on reasoning and planning in order to respond; complex and abstract thinking required; defending reasoning or conclusionsNote: Has multiple answers or approaches DOK Level 4Verbs: apply concepts, analyze, connect, create, critique, design, proveFocus: on complex reasoning, planning, and thinking; complex and abstract thinking; make real-world applications to new situations Note: Has multiple answers or approaches; often requires extended time periods with multiple steps Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 8 PPT #30. DoK Wheel Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 9 PPTs #31 & 32. Small Group Activity Form a group of 3 or 4. Select one of the pictures below. What questions can you ask about that picture? Develop at least one question at each of DoK levels 1, 2, and 3. Be prepared to share your questions with the group. PPhoto #: _____ DoK Level 1 Questions:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ DoK Level 2 Questions:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ DoK Level 3 Questions:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 10 PPT #33. Step 2. Allow Adequate Wait Time Research shows that Average wait time teachers allow after posing a question is one second or less, giving students little time to process the questions before answering. When teachers waited 3 to 5 seconds, improvements occurred across 10 variables, including inference and speculation (Rowe). Students whom teachers perceive as slow or poor learners often are given less wait-time than students perceived as more capable. For lower cognitive questions, successful wait time is 3 seconds. For higher cognitive questions, the more wait time teachers give, the more engaged students become and the better they perform. PPTs #34 & 35. What 3 or More Seconds of Wait Time Means For students: Increases Flexibility of teacher responses (Teachers listen more and engage students in more discussions.) Expectations for students usually perceived as slow Number of higher cognitive questions asked Expands the variety of questions asked For teachers: Increases Flexibility of teacher responses (Teachers listen more and engage students in more discussions.) Expectations for students usually perceived as slow Number of higher cognitive questions asked Expands the variety of questions asked PPT #36. Step 3. Use Collaborative Learning Use think-pair-share, or think-write-pair-share, to allow students to respond to questions cooperatively. Ask students, in small groups, to Unpack their thinking by describing to group how they arrived at an answer (promotes metacognition). Summarize individual and class responses to key questions (promotes active listening). Employ prediction strategies and discuss. Use analogies: How is this like..? Analyze points of view. PPT #37. Step 4. Encourage Student-Generated Questions Invite students to make up questions about a topic that has been taught, promoting a sense of inquiry. When a student asks a question, instead of the teacher answering, invite other student(s) to. Assign classwork (or homework) of generating a question about the topic of the current lesson. Give rewards for good questions instead of good answers. Invite individual students to teach parts of a lesson, including appropriate questions. Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 11 PPT #38. The Question Formulation Technique (QFT) 1. Teacher chooses a phrase to set the topic, e.g., Plate tectonics affects geography and communities. 2. Students, in groups, generate as many questions as possible. 3. Students work on refining their questions. 4. Students prioritize their questions, deciding on which are the strongest. 5. Students decide how to use the questions. 6. Students reflect on what they have learned. (- Dan Rothstein & Luz Santana, 2011) PPT #39. Classroom Norms for a Culture of Higher-Order Questioning Provide students with direct instruction, modeling, and guided practice on how to formulate higher-order questions. Increase think time and wait time when asking students to respond to higher-order questions. Talk less, ask more. Ask questions that progress from simple to complex. Provide opportunities for students to rethink and restate responses. Avoid yes or no questions. Avoid having a few students dominate the conversation/ questioning/answering. Good teaching is more a giving of right questions thanright answers. - Josef Albers PPT #40. In Summary, Tips for Asking Better Questions Plan your questions at a variety of levelsPlanning is essential! Sequence questions to move from recall-type or closed-ended questions to higher level and open-ended questions. Move from the known to the unknownstart by asking what students already know. Involve the whole class in answering questions and in generating new questions, based on responses given. Use think-pair-share or think-write-pair-share strategies to allow students to answer questions cooperatively. Provide think time (wait time) after posing a question. Model effective questioning techniques and provide opportunities for practice. PPT #41. Guidelines for Effective Questioning Your Honor, I object! This line of questioning is making my client look really bad. Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 12 PPT #42. Teacher Self-Reflection No. Question Yes No 1 Do I plan in advance and decide on the purposes for my questions? 2 Do I ask questions that Are at an appropriate level for the materials being covered? Reflect the intended learning objectives? Require students to think at different intellectual levels (DoK 1, 2, 3)? 3 Do I allow adequate, appropriate wait time after posing questions in class? 4 Do I encourage students to explain the reasons for their answers? 5 Do I give students feedback that encourages them to reflect on their learning? 6 Do I give all learners opportunities to react with me and with other students? 7 Do I allow time for students to debate issues? 8 What specific problems have I encountered when asking questions or giving feedback? 9 What are the strengths and weaknesses of my techniques for questioning and giving feedback? 10 How can I improve my questioning and feedback techniques? PPTs #43 & 44. Student Self-Questioning Leads to Deeper Learning What is Self-Questioning? The internal dialogue of a learner made verbal The process of encouraging students to formulate and internalize their own questions based on the content they are learning. The process of generating questions before, during, and after performance of a learning task, such as reading, to make meaning of text. Why Encourage Student Self-questioning? To build students metacognition and give them a better understanding of the material they are attempting to learn. Good questions can guide the search for information, lead students to consider new ideas, and prompt new insights. For skilled readers, questioning is automaticthey may not even realize they are doing it. PPT #45. Students who Ask Questions as They Read Improve their comprehension Remember what they read Are active readers Become better readers Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 13 PPT #46. Self-Questioning as Part of Self-Regulated Learning For adult basic education students to achieve deeper learning, they must become self-regulated learners. SRL = the processes by which individual learners attempt to monitor and control their own learning We can teach students to take control of their learning by using procedures/strategies such as self-instructions goal setting self-monitoring all part of self-regulated learning. self-reinforcement self-questioning PPT #47. Self-Regulated Learning PPTs #48. Self-Questioning as a Cognitive Strategy K What do I know about the topic of the text? Ask Before Reading W What do I want to learn from the text? OR What do I think I will learn from the text? Ask Before Reading L What did I learn from the text? Ask After Reading PPT #49. Metacognition: Thinking about Ones Own Thinking Monitor own understanding Determine the strategy/ strategies to improve ones understanding Implement the strategy/strategies Continually evaluate ones understanding PPT #50. Self-Questioning as a Metacognitive Strategy PlanningHow to Approach a Task What is the nature of the task/ What is my goal? What kind of information and strategies do I need? How much time and resources do I need? Monitoring Ones Own Progress Do I have a clear understanding of what I am doing? Does the task make sense to me? Am I reaching my goals? Do I need to make changes? Evaluating a Completed Task Have I reached my goal? What worked? What didnt work? Would I do things differently the next time? CognitionMetacog-nitionMotivationDeeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 14 PPT #51. Self-Questioning in Solving a Math Problem PPT #52. Self-Questioning In Reading PPT #53. Self-Questioning In Writing What kind of math problem am I solving?Have I ever done this before?Is there more than one problem to solve in this sentence?PlanningAm I using the proper strategy to solve this problem? (addition, subtraction, etc.)Am I leaving out anything important in this task?Am I making any mistakes?MonitoringHow do I know that this answer is correct?Did I check my answer?Why should I feel that my answer is correct?EvaluatingWhen to Use Sample Questions Before Reading From the title, headings, illustrations, etc., what does this reading selection seem to be about? What do I already know about the topic? Is the text literacy or informational? During Reading Who or what is this reading about? Whats the main idea of this reading or the problem of the story? What is happening to the who or what? What is the problem? What are attempts to solve the problem? What do I think will happen next? Are there words or concepts that are unfamiliar to me? If so, what context clues can I use to help me figure out the meanings of unknown vocabulary and concepts? After Reading Do I understand what this says? If not, what can I do to make it clearer? Can I summarize what I have read? What do I think about it? How does it relate to my life? When to Use Sample Questions Before Writing (Planning, Pre-Writing) Who is the audience for this? What is the purpose of this writing? What is the big idea or thesis of the piece? What do I want to convey to my readers? What smaller ideas/points do I want to make to help my readers understand my big idea? During Writing (Drafting) What examples can I use to help my readers understand each point? What evidence do I have that each point is true/valid? How many examples should I use? Are there words or concepts that are unfamiliar to me? If so, what context clues can I use to help me figure out the meanings of unknown vocabulary and concepts? After Writing (Revising) What do I think of the piece so far? How well do my first paragraph and my last paragraph tie together to make a coherent piece? Will my readers understand what my paper is about? How can I improve the piece? Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 15 PPT #54. Benefits of Self-Questioning Can foster rich class discussion. Can improve performance on a task, e.g., comprehension can be enhanced through more active reading and thinking. Can teach students to monitor their own performance and comprehension. PPT #55. Promote Independence by Gradually Releasing Responsibility PPT #56. Set One Goal to Enhance Your Own Professional Growth 1. What strategy do you want to try to refine your questioning techniques or to encourage student self-questioning? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________. 2. How will you do it? How often will you use it? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________. 3. How will you monitor your progress and your students progressi.e., how will you know whether your new strategy is having an effect on student learning? _____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 16 PPT #57. Additional Resources 1. Instruction that Sticks: The Right Question, by San Rothstein and Luz Santana, Educational Leadership, October 2014, Vol. 92, No. 2 http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/oct14/vol72/num02/The-Right-Questions.aspx 2. Questioning Strategies, Center for Innovation on Teaching and Learning, http://citl.illinois.edu/teaching-resources/teaching-strategies/questioning-strategies 3. Teaching after Reading Self-Questioning Strategies, University of Kansas http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/?q=instruction/reading_comprehension/teacher_tools/teaching_after_reading_self_questioning_strategies 4. TEAL Fact Sheet No. 3, Self-Regulated Learning, https://teal.ed.gov/sites/default/files/Fact-Sheets/3_TEAL_Self%20Reg%20Learning.pdf 5. TEAL Fact Sheet No. 4, Metacognitive Processes, https://teal.ed.gov/sites/default/files/Fact-Sheets/12_TEAL_Deeper_Learning_Qs_complete_5_1_0.pdf 6. TEAL Fact Sheet No. 12, Deeper Learning Through Questioning, https://teal.ed.gov/sites/default/files/Fact-Sheets/12_TEAL_Deeper_Learning_Qs_complete_5_1_0.pdf 7. Tips from Teachers: Improving on the Questioning Indicator, Tennessee Department of Education, http://team-tn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Tips-for-Teachers1.pdf 8. How will you monitor your progress and your students progressi.e., how will you know whether your new strategy is having an effect on student learning? PPTs #5860. In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. The important thing is not to stop questioning. - Albert Einstein Comments?/Questions? Thank you for your interest and support! Best wishes as you try out some of these questioning strategies! Supplementary Self-Assessment Materials on Next Two Pages. Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 17 ANALYZING YOUR OWN PRACTICE OF USING QUESTIONS Red Amber Green 1 Do your questions reinforce/ revisit the learning objectives? 2 Does your questioning engage students in thinking for themselves? 3 Do you involve all pupils? 4 Do you use the individual, work as a pair, share as a group, present to the class method to its best effect? 5 Do you model for students the sort of questions they might want/ need to ask? 6 Do your questions show connections between previous and new learning? 7 Do your questions motivate? 8 Do you ask students to explain their thinking? 9 What do you do when you ask What makes you think that? and get the answer I dont know? Do you provide other, extending questions: What other alternatives did you consider?, Why did you reject them?, What makes this choice the best? 10 Do you reflect back? So, if Im right what youre saying is. 11 Do you ask students to listen accurately? Summarize? Speculate? 12 Do students listen and respond to each other as well as to you? 13 Do you promote justification and reasoning? 14 What about speculation and hypothesis? 15 Can you encourage upsidedown thinking by asking for the opposite point of view, or an outrageous alternative? 16 Do you encourage thinking about thinking through your use of questions? 17 Do you provide opportunities for students to explain the processes they chose, as well as to describe the outcome? 18 Do you foster an atmosphere of trust where students' opinions and ideas are valued? 19 Do you stage or sequence questions with increasing levels of challenge? 20 Do questions feature in your medium term and short term plans? Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016 18 Activity for Improving Your Questioning Try this exercise to check your current questioning techniques, and then see whether your practice improves. Tape-record a 5-minute question-and-answer session. Fill in the grid when you play the tape back. Then try the same activity again, after planning to include a wider range of questioning activities. Adapted from Training Materials for the Foundation Subjects, Module 4 Questioning (Crown. 2002). Did your questioning improve as you became more conscious of the techniques you were using? Were the questions used to drive the learning objectives forward? Did your questions have increasing levels of challenge? Were the questions helping to develop thinking at various DOK levels? Questioning Activity Number of Occurrences in 5-minute session (first sample) Number of Occurrences in 5-minute session (second sample) Number of Occurrences in 5-minute session (third sample) Closed factual information and comprehension Open prompting more than one answer Time for reflection before answer required Further prompts to elicit extended answer Opportunities for students to explain why they offered that response Opportunities for students to confer before answering Teacher initiates, students respond, teacher provides feedback Students initiate their own questions

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