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  • Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016

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    Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning: Teacher-Led and Student Self-Questioning

    Georgia Adult Education Conference, September 2016

    Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D.

    PPT #2. Objectives

    By the end of this session, participants will be able to

    Identify teacher questions that promote critical thinking;

    Generate effective question-asking sequences;

    Explain the role and the importance of student self-questioning in the learning process;

    Identify strategies to encourage student self-questioning

    Reflect on their own questioning techniques and set one goal to enhance the questioning

    techniques they use in their classrooms.

    PPT #3. Self-Reflection: Think & Take NotesThen Turn & Talk

    Think about a time when your students were truly engaged in a discussion and actively

    responding to your questions about the topic of the current lesson.

    What did you do to promote a discussion that engaged all your students?

    What kinds of questions did you ask to interest and engage your students?

    Did you encourage students also to ask questions about the topic, and, if so, how did you make

    this happen?

    Take 8 minutes to think and talk with a partner, and then be prepared to share some of your

    successful experiences.

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    PPT #4. Why Do Teachers Ask Questions?

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  • Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016

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    PPT #5. Questioning Enables You to

    Stimulate interest in a topic

    Review and summarize previous lessons

    Focus thinking on key concepts and issues

    Make student thinking visible and provide immediate feedback to you (the teacher)

    Stimulate students recall of existing knowledge and experience (activate prior knowledge)

    Elicit new ideas

    Promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation, and the formulation of hypothesesleading to

    deeper understanding

    Find out what students already know about a topic and probe their comprehension

    Help students think about the way they have learned (metacognitive processes)

    PPTs #6 & 7. The Earmark of a Good Teacher

    A good teacher makes you think, even when you dont want to. (Fisher, 1998, Teaching Thinking)

    Teaching is driven by questions

    Questions define tasks, express problems, and delineate issues. Answers, on the other hand, often signal a full stop in thought. Only when an answer generates additional questions does a thought

    continue its life and go deeper.

    Students who have questions are truly thinking and learning.

    PPT 8#. Teacher Self-ReflectionAsk Yourself

    Take about 3 minutes to reflect on your own teaching

    1. How many questions do I typically ask in a given class period? ____________________

    2. Do I plan my questions in advance of class? yes____ no ____

    3. Approximately how many of my questions are recall and comprehension types? ______

    4. Approximately how many require inference or prediction? ________________________

    5. What wait time do I usually allow following a question? __________________________

    6. How do I respond to students answers to questions, particularly when they give an incorrect

    response? ______________________________________________________

    7. Do I ever encourage students to formulate their own questions? yes____ no ____

    8. How many different students answer questions? _______________________________

    9. Are certain students repeatedly invited to answer? yes____ no ____

    10. Are there some students who never answer? yes____ no ____

    11. How else do I invite responses, apart from direct questions? _____________________

    PPT #9. How Many Students Feel About Questions

    In general, students dislike them, which, in turn, hinders learning. When the first response is incorrect, teachers usually ask a 2nd question, which then leads to

    students aversion to the 2nd question. If redirection/probing is vague or critical (e.g., Thats not right; try again; Where did you get an

    idea like that?), students may not continue to respond. As a result, achievement does not improve.

    Therefore, a teachers response to student answers determines whether or not students continue to answer.

  • Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016

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    PPT #10. Research on Questioning Tells Us

    When instruction includes asking questions, it is more effective in producing student learning gains than instruction that is carried out without questioning.

    Oral questions posed during instruction are more effective in fostering learning than are written questions.

    Student discussion increases learning retention as much as 50% (Sousa, 2001).

    BUT 75% of the time, teachers do the talking; 75% of that teacher talk is directive, with almost no

    discussion that extends thinking (Flanders). As little as 5% of classroom time is spent on questioning beyond recall. Nearly all questions are teacher-to-student directed; very few are student-to-teacher or student-

    to-student (Gall, 1970). Because teachers tend to monopolize the right to question, students come to believe that their

    only role is to listen, rather than to actively participate in learning (Chuska, 2003). Students are talk-deprived (Alvermann et al., 1996).

    PPT #11. The Question is More Important than the Answer

    Whats the Research?

    So On average, teachers ask 80 questions each hour. Most questions are answered in less than a second

    (Hastings, 2003) The number of questions that students ask in that same

    time period is TWO! (Kagan,1999)

    If the classroom climate were to encourage students to ask questions, think how much more students could learn!

    PPT #12. Shift from the Recitation Model of Instruction to Real Discussion

    From I-R-E To Discussion and Discovery

    IInitiate - Educative, Reflective, Structured

    RRespond - Promoting Critical Thinking EEvaluate - Engaging students in productive social interaction

    (as described by Mehan, 1979) (as advocated by Cazden, 1988, and Wilen, 1991)

    Tell me, and I forget. Show me, and I remember.

    Involve me, and I understand. - Chinese proverb

    PPT #13. Teaching is the art of asking questions. - Socrates

    Socrates believed that the best way to teach was through dialectic reasoning, or a question-and-answer process, in which students pursue answers to questions in a disciplined, methodical way.

    http://www.katekarpo.com/articles.html

  • Deeper Learning through Effective Questioning Georgia Adult Education Conference Mary Ann Corley, Ph.D. September 2016

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    PPT #14. Effective Questioning

    Draws connections between previous and new learning Reinforces and promotes the current lessons learning objectives Involves all learners, encouraging them to think for themselves Encourages learners

    To speculate and hypothesize To ask as well as to receive questions To listen and respond to each other as well as to the teacher

    Creates an atmosphere of trust where learners opinions and ideas are valued

    PPT #15. Different Types of Questions

    Open Questions Closed Question Fat questions, Higher-order cognitive questions

    Skinny questions, Lower-order cognitive questions

    Invite interpretation or evaluation, No preconceived response

    Non-negotiable, Recited answer Recall of factonly one right answer

    Challenge students and develop thinking Appropriate for recall-type questions

    PPT #16. Fat and Skinny Questions

    Skinny Question Starters Fat Question Starters What is Who is When did How Name Where did Is it true that

    Give 3 reasons why Why do you think Make a prediction What if Explain In what ways might What can you infer from

    PPT #17. Examples of Fat v. Skinny Questions

    Closed (Skinny) Questions Open (Fat) Questions Do you understand? Is there anything that you need to perform this task? Who is the author of this story? In what year was the Battle of the Alamo?

    How do you keep focused on your work? What do you predict will happen to the character at the end of this book? Why do you think this story is unrealistic? If Rosa Parks had given up her bus seat to a white man in 1955, what do you think would have been the impact on the growth of the Civil Rights Movement in the US? Would it have been different and, if so, how?

    PPT #18. Benefits of Higher Cognitive Fa