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DAFTAR ISI HALAMAN PENGESAHAN ii BERITA ACARA iii iv v ...repository.unissula.ac.id/10334/4/Daftar Isi.pdf · daftar isi halaman a judul ..... i halaman a pengesahan..... ii

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  • DAFTAR ISI

    HALAMANaJUDUL .............................................................................................. i

    HALAMANaPENGESAHAN ............................................................................... ii

    BERITAaACARA ................................................................................................ iii

    MOTTOa ............................................................................................................... iv

    PERSEMBAHANa ................................................................................................. v

    KATAaPENGANTAR ......................................................................................... vii

    ABSTRAKa ........................................................................................................... ix

    DAFTARaISI ....................................................................................................... xi

    DAFTARaGAMBAR ......................................................................................... xiv

    DAFTARaTABEL ............................................................................................ xvii

    DAFTARaNOTASI ............................................................................................ xix

    DAFTARaLAMPIRAN ................................................................................... xxiv

    BABaIaPENDAHULUAN ..................................................................................... 1

    1.1. LataraBelakang ............................................................................................. 1

    1.2. RumusanaMasalah ........................................................................................ 3

    1.3. MaksudadanaTujuan ..................................................................................... 3

    1.4. BatasanaMasalah .......................................................................................... 4

    1.5. SistematikaaPenulisana ................................................................................. 4

    BABaII TINJAUANaPUSTAKA ........................................................................... 6

    2.1. Tinjauan Umum ............................................................................................ 6

    2.2. Sistem Struktur ............................................................................................. 9

    2.3. Beban Perencanaan Struktur ...................................................................... 12

    2.3.1 BebanaMati .............................................................................. 12

    2.3.2 BebanaHidup............................................................................ 15

    2.3.3 BebanaGempa .......................................................................... 19

    2.3.4 Kombinasi Pembebanan .......................................................... 22

  • 2.3.5 Pushover Analisis .................................................................... 23

    2.4. Desain Gempaa ........................................................................................... 24

    2.5. Perencanaan Struktur Bawah (Sub Structure) ............................................ 42

    2.6. Perencanaan Struktur Atas (Upper Structure) ........................................... 43

    BABaIIIaMETODOLOGI .................................................................................... 54

    3.1. Pendahuluana .............................................................................................. 54

    3.2. LangkahaUmum PerencanaanaStruktur ...................................................... 54

    3.2.1. PengumpulanaData ............................................................................ 54

    3.2.2. PemodelanaStruktur ......................................................................... 55

    3.2.3. PerhitunganaPembebanana ............................................................... 55

    3.3. AnalisaaStruktur denganaProgram ETABSa2016 ....................................... 56

    3.3.1. TahapanaPerencanaan Strukturadengan ETABSa2016 .................... 56

    3.3.2. DesainaSkematik .............................................................................. 57

    3.3.3. PerhitunganaBebanaStruktur ............................................................ 57

    3.3.4. AnalisaaStruktur ............................................................................... 58

    3.3.5. DesainaStruktur ................................................................................ 59

    BAB IVaHASIL DANaPEMBAHASAN ............................................................. 62

    4.1. Pemodelana ............................................................................................... 62

    4.1.1. DataaBangunan ................................................................................ 62

    4.1.2. Pemodelanapada ETABSa2016 ........................................................ 66

    4.2. PerhitunganaBeban Gempaa ...................................................................... 67

    4.2.1. FaktoraKeutamaan Gedunga (I) ........................................................ 67

    4.2.2. FaktoraReduksi Gempaa ................................................................... 67

    4.2.3. PenentuanaJenis Tanaha ................................................................... 68

    4.2.4. ResponaSpektrum Desaina ............................................................... 68

    4.2.5. PeriodeaFundamental Pendekatana .................................................. 70

    4.2.6. KoefisienaRespons Seismika ............................................................ 71

    4.3. Pembebanana ............................................................................................ 72

  • 4.3.1. PembebananaPelat Lantaia ............................................................... 72

    4.3.2. KombinasiaPembebanan .................................................................. 74

    4.4. Input Data dan Run Analisis Program ...................................................... 75

    4.5. Hasil Analisis Dinamik ETABS 2016 ...................................................... 75

    4.5.1. PeriodeaGetar AlamiaStruktur .......................................................... 75

    4.5.2. Translasi ........................................................................................... 76

    4.6. HasilaKontrolStrukturaGedung77 .................................................................

    4.6.1. Perbandingan GayaGempaaStatik Ekivalen dengan ResonsaSpektrum

    4.6.2. EvaluasiaBebanaGempa ................................................................... 84

    4.6.3. KontrolaKinerja BatasaLayan StrukturaGedung............................... 84

    4.6.4. KontrolaKinerja BatasaUltimit StrukturaGedung ............................. 85

    4.6.5. KontrolaPartisipasiaMassa ................................................................ 87

    4.7. PerbandinganaDisplacement ..................................................................... 87

    4.8. DesainaKapasitas ....................................................................................... 92

    4.8.1. Perhitungan Kapasitas Desain Balok ............................................... 92

    4.8.1.1 Tulangan Lentur Balok ............................................................ 92

    4.8.1.2 Penulangan Geser .................................................................. 108

    4.8.2. Perhitungan Kapasitas Desain Kolom ............................................ 118

    4.8.2.1 Tulangan Lentur Kolom ........................................................ 118

    4.9. Analisa Pushover .................................................................................... 126

    4.10. Skema Distribusi Sendi Plastis ............................................................ 130

    BAB V PENUTUP ................................................................................................ 86

    5.1 Kesimpulan7- .......................................................................................... 86

    5.2 Saran7- .................................................................................................... 87

    DAFTAR7PUSTAKA .......................................................................................... 88

    LAMPIRAN7- ...................................................................................................... 89

  • DAFTAR9GAMBAR

    Gambar92.1 Beberapa-Konfigurasi Open-Frame .................................................... 10

    Gambar92.2 Konfigurasi-Portal-Dinding .................................................................. 11

    Gambar92.3 Konfigurasi-Perletakan Dinding-Geser............................................... 12

    Gambar92.4 Peta Wilayah Gempa-Indonesia-Menurut SNI-1726-2002 .............. 20

    Gambar92.5 Peta Wilayah Gempa Indonesia Berdasarkan Parameter SS ............. 21

    Gambar92.6 Peta Wilayah Gempa Indonesia Berdasarkan Parameter SS ............ 22

    Gambar92.7 Spektrum-Respons-Desain ............................................................... 29

    Gambar92.8 Pengaturan-Tulangan Pada-Pelat ..................................................... 41

    Gambar92.9 Gaya-lintang rencana-untuk SPRMK .............................................. 42

    Gambar92.10 Penampang-Balok .......................................................................... 50

    Gambar92.11 Diagram-regangan dan-gaya-gaya dalam-Balok ........................... 52

    Gambar93.1 Diagram-Alir Perencanaan Umum-Struktur Gedung- ..................... 61

    Gambar94.1 Bentuk 3D Struktur Gedung MIPA UNS dengan Shear Wall ......... 66

    Gambar94.2 Bentuk 3D Struktur Gedung MIPA UNS tanpa Shear Wall ........... 67

    Gambar94.3 Grafik-Respon spektra-Puskim Semarang- ..................................... 68

    Gambar94.4 Input-Respon Spektra-SNI 03-1726-2012-...................................... 70

    Gambar94.5 Interpolasi-Linier Nilai-k ..................................................................... 77

    Gambar94.6 Perbandingan-Gaya Geser Antar-Lantai Arah-X .............................. 83

    Gambar94.7 Perbandingan-Gaya Geser-Antar Lantai-Arah Y .............................. 83

    Gambar94.8 Displacement Gedung Dengan Shear Wall ........................................ 88

    Gambar94.9 Displacement Gedung Tanpa Shear Wall ........................................... 89

    Gambar94.10 Selisih Perbandingan Displacement (mm) ....................................... 90

    Gambar94.11 Selisih Perbandingan Desplacement (%) .......................................... 91

    Gambar94.12 Portal Balok G1a (40x80) pada As C .............................................. 100

    Gambar94.13 Portal Balok G2a (40x70), G3a (40x50), dan G5a (30x50)

    pada As 3 ............................................................................................. 101

    Gambar94.14 Diagram Gaya Geser ......................................................................... 108

    Gambar94.15 Hasil-Penulangan Balok-G1a (40x80) - ......................................... 116

    Gambar94.16 Hasil Penulangan-Balok G1a-(40x80) - ......................................... 116

    Gambar94.17 Hasil-Penulangan Balok-G1a (40x80) - ......................................... 117

  • Gambar94.18 Hasil-Penulangan Balok-G1a- (40x80) .......................................... 117

    Gambar94.19 Balok-Yang Menumpu-Kolom AS-2’D Pada-Sumbu X-dan-Y . 119

    Gambar94.20 Diagram Interaksi-Kolom Desain- (Hasil Perhitungan-Dengan

    Menggunakan PCA-COL) ................................................................. 121

    Gambar94.21 Output PCA-Colomn ......................................................................... 122

    Gambar94.23 Pengecekan-Kolom-AS2’D’ lt.Dasar-lt.2-Dengan-Diagram

    Interaksi-PCA-C ................................................................................. 124

    Gambar94.24 Load-Case push-X Untuk-Beban Arah X ....................................... 126

    Gambar94.25 Load-Case push-Y Untuk Beban-Arah-Y ....................................... 127

    Gambar94.26 Kurva-Kapasitas Arah-X .................................................................. 127

    Gambar94.27 Kurva-Kapasitas Arah-Y .................................................................. 128

    Gambar94.28 KurvavPlot Sa-Sd-FEMA 440 EquivalentLinearization,Push X 128

    Gambar94.29 Kurva Plot Sa-Sd FEMA 440 EquivalentLinearization, -Push Y 129

    Gambar94.30 Skema-Sendi Pada-Step 1 ................................................................. 131

    Gambar94.31 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step 2 ............................................................... 132

    Gambar94.32 Penentuan-Kinerja Struktur-Pada Step-2 ........................................ 132

    Gambar94.33 Skema9Sendi-Pada9Step-5............................................................... 133

    Gambar94.34 Penentuan9Kinerja Struktur9Pada Step-5 ...................................... 133

    Gambar94.35 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step 7 ............................................................... 134

    Gambar94.36 Penentuan9Kinerja Struktur Pada9Step 7 ...................................... 134

    Gambar94.37 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step-9 ............................................................... 135

    Gambar94.38 Penentuan9Kinerja Struktur9Pada Step 9- ..................................... 135

    Gambar94.39 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step 1 ............................................................... 136

    Gambar94.40 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step-4 ............................................................... 137

    Gambar94.41 Penentuan9Kinerja Struktur9Pada Step-4 ...................................... 138

    Gambar94.42 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step-8 ............................................................... 138

    Gambar94.43 Penentuan9Kinerja Struktur9Pada Step-8 ...................................... 139

    Gambar94.44 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step-10 ............................................................. 139

    Gambar94.45 Penentuan9Kinerja Struktur9Pada Step-10 .................................... 140

    Gambar94.46 Skema9Sendi Pada9Step 10 ............................................................. 140

    Gambar94.47 Penentuan9Kinerja Struktur9Pada Step-11 .................................... 141

  • DAFTAR NOTASI

    As9 =-luas9tulangan9tarik_(mm2); luas9selimut_tiang9 (cm2)

    A’s9 =-luas_tulangan9tekan_(mm2) 9-

    b9 =-lebar9penampang-balok9 (mm) -

    bw9 =-lebar9badan-atau9diameter penampang9lingkaran (mm) -

    Ca9 = 9koefisien_akselerasi9

    Cd9 = 9faktor_pembesaran9deflaksi

    CP =9Collapse9Pervention-

    Cs9 =9koefisien_respons9seismik_kohesi9undrained_(ton/m2) -

    Ct9 =9koefisien_rangka9beton-pemikul9momen-

    Cu9 =9koefisien_untuk9batas atas9pada perioda yang9dihitung

    CV9 =9koefisien_respon9gempa_vertikal

    D9 =9diameter-tiang9 (cm)

    DF9 =9faktor distribusi9momen di bagian9atas dan bawah9kolom

    yang_didesain9

    DL9 =-dead_load9 (beban-mati)

    𝐷𝑡9 =-displesment9total-

    D19 =-displesment9pertama-

    d9 =9tinggi efektif9pelat; jarak9dari_serat tekan9terluar ke_pusat

    tulangan9tarik (mm); - diameter9tiang- (cm)

    E9 =9pengaruh_beban9gempa-

    𝐸𝐶9 =9modulus_elastisitas9beton (Mpa) -

    𝐸𝑔9 =9efisiensi_kelompok9tiang-

  • 𝐸ℎ9 =9pengaruh_beban gempa9horizontal

    𝐸𝑆9 =9modulus_elastisitas9tulangan- (MPa)

    𝐸𝑉9 =9pengaruh_beban9gempa_vertikal-

    F9 =9gaya lateral9ekivalen-

    𝐹𝛼9 =9koefisian_situs9untuk-periode pendek9 (pada-periode 0,2 -

    detik) 9

    𝐹𝑆9 =9faktor_keamanan_=92,5

    𝐹𝑆𝐶99 = local-friction9 (kg/𝑐𝑚2) -

    FV 9 =-koefisien9situs untuk-perioda9panjang_(pada9perioda-1

    detik) 9

    ƒs 9 = tahanan9selimut sepanjang9tiang (kg/cm2) -

    ƒy 9 =-tegangan9leleh profil9baja- (MPa)

    ƒ’c 9 =-kuat9teka-_karakteristik9beton (MPa)

    hc9 99 = lebar9penampang_inti9beton (yang9terkekang) (mm) -

    hx9 = spasi9horisontal maksimum9untuk kaki sengkang9tertutup

    atau9sengkang_ikat9pada_muka9kolom

    I9 =9faktor_keutamaan9struktur-

    IO9 =9Immediate_Occupancy9-

    J9 =9koefisien_lengan9momen-

    k9 =9faktor_panjang9efektif-

    kc9 =9faktor_tahanan9ujung

    LL9 =-live9load (beban9hidup)

    LS9 =9Life_Safety9-

  • ln9 =9panjang_sisi9terpanjang

    lo9 =9panjang_minimum9-

    𝑀𝐶𝐸𝑅9 =9spectrum_respons9gempa-maksimum9yang_dipertimbangkan

    resiko-tertarget9

    𝑀𝑛𝑏9 =9kekuatan lentur9nominal-balok_9termasuk9pelat-bilamana

    tertarik, yang9merangkap ke_dalam9joint

    𝑀𝑛𝑐9 =9kekuatan lentur9nominal kolom_yang9merangka_ke dalam

    joint, 9yang_dihitung untuk gaya9aksial terfaktor,_koefisien

    dengan arah9gaya lateral_yang9ditinjau, yang9menghasilkan

    kuat lentur9terendah

    𝑀𝑛9 =9kuat-momen9nominal pada9penampang9 (KN-m)

    𝑀𝑝𝑟9 =9momen_lentur9dari suatu-komponen9struktur_dengan9atau

    tanpa beban9aksial, yang_ditentukan-menggunakan9sifat-sifat

    komponen-struktur pada_joint9dengan_menganggap9kuat-

    tarik pada tulangan9longitudinal-sebesar_minimum

    𝑀𝑢9 =9momen yang_terjadi pada9penampang

    Mx9 =9momen_arah9x (ton.m)

    My9 =9momen_arah-y9 (ton.m)

    m9 =9jumlah_lapisan9tanah-yang_ada9di atas-tanah dasar;_jumlah

    tiang-dalam_1 kolom

    n9 = jumlah9lantai gedung9

    n9 =-jumlah9tingkat gedung; jumlah9tiang dalam 1_baris;

    banyaknya_tiang pancang9

    nx9 = banyaknya9tiang dalam9satu baris_arah y

    ny9 = banyaknya9tiang dalam_satu baris_arah x

  • p9 =-keliling9tiang (cm)

    P ijin9=9P all =9daya_dukung vertikal-yang9diijinkan untuk_sebuah9tiang

    tunggal_(ton) 9-

    P9maks9 = beban9maksimum yang9diterima 1_tiang (ton) -

    Pn9 =-kuat_nominal9penampang_yang9mengalami-tekan (N)

    P9tiang =9daya_dukung9tiang_pancang9 (ton) -

    Pu9 =9kuat_beban aksial_terfaktor9pada_eksentrisitas9tertentu- (N)

    Q9all =-nilai9daya-dukung9tanah (ton) 9

    QE9 =-pengaruh9gaya seismik9horisontal dari_V

    QP9 =-tahanan9ujung selimut9tiang (kg)

    QS9 =-tahanan9geser-selimut9tiang- (kg)

    Qult9 =-daya9dukung-pondasi9tiang-pancang (ton)

    𝑞𝑐9 =-tahanan9konus-pada ujung9tiang- (kg/𝑐𝑚2)

    𝑞𝑐𝑏9 = conus-resistence rata-rata91,5D di-bawah ujung9tiang

    (N/𝑚𝑚2) -

    𝑞𝑐𝑢9 = conus9resistence rata-rata-1,5D di9atas ujung9tiang (N/𝑚𝑚2)

    𝑅9 =-faktor9reduksi-gempa;_ragius9girrasi-

    𝑅𝑋9 =-resultan9gaya arah9x

    𝑅𝑌9 = resultan9gaya arah9y

    𝑆𝛼9 =-spectrum-respons9percepatan-disain

    𝑆𝐷𝑠9 = percepatan9respons spektral-percepatan9disain-pada9periode

    pendek

  • 𝑆𝐷19 = percepatan9respons spektral9percepatan disain pada9periode 1

    detik

    𝑆𝑀𝑠9 = percepatan9sectrum respons9spektral percepatan9disain pada

    periode-pendek

    𝑆𝑀19 =-percepatan9sectrum-respons9spektral percepatan-disain pada

    periode-1-detik-

    Ss9 = percepatan9batuan dasar-pad9-periode-pendek

    sx9 = spasi9longitudinal tulangan9transvesal-dalam panjang9l0

    S19 = percepatan-batuan dasar-pada-perioda-1 detik-

    s9 =-jarak-antar-tiang-(cm)

    Ta9 =-periode_getar fundamental-struktur

    T9eff =-waktu getar-gedung efektif- (dt)

    ti9 =-tebal-lapisan-tanah-ke – i

    V9 =-gaya-lateral- (kg)

    Vt9 =-beban-gempa-dasar-nominal-

    Ve9 = gaya-geser-rencana-

    Vn9 = kuat-geser nominal-penampang (N) -

    Vs9 =-kecepatan-rambat-gelombang-geser melalui-lapisan tanah-ke-

    i; kuat-geser nominal-yang disumbangkan-oleh tulangan-geser-

    (N)

    𝑉𝑠𝑤𝑎𝑦9 =-gaya-geser rencana-berdasarkan momen-kapasitas-pada-balok

    𝑉𝑢9 =-gaya-geser terfaktor-penampang (N) -

    𝑉𝑥9 =-beban-gempa arah-x

    𝑉𝑦9 =-beban-gempa-arah-y

  • 𝑊9 =9berat-lantai9-

    𝑊𝑡9 =9berat-total9struktur-

    x9 =9absis-tiang ke9pusat-koordinat9penampang-(m) -

    y9 =-ordinat-tiang9ke-pusat-koordinat9penampang-(m) -

    α9 (alpha) =-faktor-adhesi9antara-tanah dan9tiang-

    Beff9 = indeks-kepercayaan-efektif9

    β19 = 0,85-untuk f’c ≤ 30 Mpa9

    βc9 = sisi-panjang-kolom /9sisi-pendek-kolom

    δe9 (delta e) =-deformasi-elastis9

    δp9 =-deformasi9plastis-

    δm9 =-simpangan9maksimum-

    δxe9 = defleksi-pada9lokasi yang--disyaratkan dan-ditentukan sesuai

    dengan analis9elastis-

    δy9 =-pelelehan9pertama-

    ρ9 (rho) =-rasio-tulangan, 9faktor-redundasi_untuk desain-seismik

    ρb9 = rasio-tulangan yang-memberikan-kondisi-regangan-seimbang

    ρg9 = rasio-penulangan total-terhadap luas penampang-kolom

    ρ9min =-rasio penulangan-minimum-

    ρ9maks =-rasio penulangan-maksimum-

    σb9 (sigma b) = tegangan-ijin-beton (MPa) -

    σ9pons = tegangan-geser-pons pada pile-cap (kg/cm2)

    Ø9 (phi) =-faktor reduksi-lentur-

  • λ9 =-angka-kelangsingan-

    ψ9 (psi) =-koefisien-pengali dari-percepatan-puncak muka-tanah9

    (termasuk-faktor9keutamaannya) -untuk-mendapatkan9faktor

    respons-gempa vertikal, bergantung-pada Wilayah-Gempa.

    ∑Mc9 =-jumlah9Mn kolom-yang9bertemu-di joint-balok-kolom.

    ∑Mg9 =-jumlah9Mn balok-yang9bertemu-di joint9balok-kolom.

    ∑Pv9 =-jumlah9beban vertikal-9 (ton)

    ∑x29 =-jumlah9kuadrat jarak9arah x (ordinat-ordinat) 9tiang (m)

    ∑y29 =-jumlah9kuadrat-jarak9arah y- (absis-absis) 9tiang (m)

    Δ19 =-interval9lapisan- (m)

  • DAFTAR-LAMIRAN

    LAMPIRAN6A-=6SURAT6–6SURAT

    LAMPIRAN6B-= HASIL OUTPUT ETABS

    LAMPIRAN C = GAMBAR STRUKTU