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  • FlexPod Datacenter with Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 and VMware vSphere 5.1Cisco Validated Design for a 2000-Seat Virtual Desktop Infrastructure Using Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 Built on Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Servers with NetApp FAS3200-Series and the VMware vSphere ESXi 5.1 Hypervisor PlatformLast Updated: March 5, 2014Building Architectures to Solve Business Problems

  • Cisco Validated Design2

  • 4

    About the Authorsn is a Principal Solutions Architect at Citrix, focusing on Desktop and Application Responsibilities include solutions validation, strategic alliances, technical content esting/benchmarking.

    Reference Architect, Infrastructure and Cloud Engineering, NetApp

    a Reference Architect in the NetApp Infrastructure and Cloud Engineering team and is eloping, validating, and supporting cloud infrastructure solutions that include NetApp re his current role, he supported and administered Nortel's worldwide training network structure. John holds a Master's degree in Computer Engineering from Clemson

    r. Reference Architect, End User Computing, NetApp

    a virtualization architect at NetApp. She designs and implements virtualization solutions gration between storage and virtualization platforms. She authors many virtualization best ployment technical papers for NetApp Solutions. Before joining NetApp, she was a

    e engineer for Nortel and HP Canada. Rachel received her Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) University medical school in China and a Master Degree of Computer Science from State University in US.

    x, Technical Alliance Manager, NetApp

    , Senior Product Manager, NetApp

    a, Technical Marketing Engineer, NetApp

    ez, Technical Marketing Engineer, NetApp

    , Platform Integrations Engineering Manager, NetApp

    nior Solution Program Manager, NetAppAbout the AuthorsMike Brennan, Sr. Technical Marketing Engineer, VDI Performance and Solutions Team Lead, Cisco Systems

    Mike Brennan is a Cisco Unified Computing System architect, focusing on Virtual Desktop Infrastructure solutions with extensive experience with EMC VNX, VMware ESX/ESXi, XenDesktop and Provisioning Services. He has expert product knowledge in application and desktop virtualization across all three major hypervisor platforms, both major desktop brokers, Microsoft Windows Active Directory, User Profile Management, DNS, DHCP and Cisco networking technologies.

    Frank Anderson, Principal Solutions Architect, Strategic Alliance at Citrix Systems

    Frank AndersoVirtualization.creation, and t

    John George,

    John George isfocused on devproducts. Befoand VPN infraUniversity.

    Rachel Zhu, S

    Rachel Zhu is and drives intepractice and desenior softwarfrom Jiao TongNorth Carolina

    AcknowledgmentsCedric Courtei

    Abhinav Joshi

    David La Mott

    Chris Rodrigu

    Troy Mangum

    Kim White, Se

  • About the AuthorsAbout Cisco Validated Design (CVD) Program

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  • FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

    Overview

    About this DocumentThis document provides a Cisco Validated Design (CVD) for a 2000-Seat Virtual Desktop Infrastructure using Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 built on Cisco UCS B200-M3 Blade Servers with NetApp FAS3200-series and the VMware vSphere ESXi 5.1 hypervisor platform.

    The landscape of desktop virtualization is changing constantly. New, high performance Cisco UCS Blade Servers and Cisco UCS unified fabric combined with the latest generation storage system NetApp Clustered Data ONTAP 8.2 results in a compact, powerful, reliable and efficient platform.In addition, the advances in the Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 system, which now incorporates both traditional hosted virtual Windows 7 or Windows 8 desktops, hosted applications and hosted shared Server 2008 R2 or Server 2012 R2 server desktops (formerly delivered by Citrix XenApp), provides unparalleled scale and management simplicity while extending the Citrix HDX FlexCast models to additional mobile devices

    This document provides the architecture, design and performance validation of a virtual desktop infrastructure for 2000 mixed use-case (hosted shared desktops and pooled hosted desktops) users. The infrastructure is 100 percent virtualized on VMware ESXi 5.1 with third-generation Cisco UCS B-Series B200 M3 blade servers booting through FCoE from a clustered NetApp FAS3200-series storage array. The virtual desktops are powered using Citrix Provisioning Server 7.1 and Citrix XenDesktop 7.1, with a mix of hosted shared desktops (1450) and pooled hosted virtual Windows 7 desktops (550) to support the user population. Where applicable, this document provides best practice recommendations and sizing guidelines for customer deployments of XenDesktop 7.1 on the Cisco Unified Computing System.Corporate Headquarters:

    Copyright 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserv

    Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA

  • OverviewAudienceThis document describes the architecture and deployment procedures of an infrastructure comprised of Cisco, NetApp, and VMware hypervisor and Citrix desktop virtualization products. The intended audience of this document includes, but is not limited to, sales engineers, field consultants, professional services, IT managers, partner engineering, and customers who want to deploy the solution described in this document.

    Summary of Main FindingsThe combination of technologies from Cisco Systems, Inc., Citrix Systems, Inc., NetApp, and VMware Inc. produced a highly efficient, robust and affordable desktop virtualization solution for a hosted virtual desktop and hosted shared desktop mixed deployment supporting different use cases. Key components of the solution included:

    This solution is Cisco's Desktop Virtualization Converged Design with FlexPod providing our customers with a turnkey physical and virtual infrastructure specifically designed to support 2000 desktop users in a highly available proven design. This architecture is well suited for large departmental and enterprise deployments of virtual desktop infrastructure.

    More power, same size. Cisco UCS B200 M3 half-width blade with dual 12-core 2.7 GHz Intel Ivy Bridge (E5-2680v2) processors and 384GB of memory supports ~25% more virtual desktop workloads than the previously released Sandy Bridge processors on the same hardware. The Intel Xeon E5-2680 v2 10-core processors used in this study provided a balance between increased per-blade capacity and cost.

    Fault-tolerance with high availability built into the design. The 2000-user design is based on using two Cisco Unified Computing System chassis with twelve Cisco UCS B200 M3 blade servers for virtualized desktop workloads and two Cisco UCS B200 M3 blades for virtualized infrastructure workloads. The design provides N+1 Server fault tolerance for hosted virtual desktops, hosted shared desktops and infrastructure services.

    Stress-tested to the limits during aggressive boot scenario. The 2000-user mixed hosted virtual desktop and hosted shared desktop environment booted and registered with the XenDesktop 7.1 Delivery Controllers in under 15 minutes, providing our customers with an extremely fast, reliable cold-start desktop virtualization system.

    Stress-tested to the limits during simulated login storms. All 2000 simulated users logged in and started running workloads up to steady state in 30-minutes without overwhelming the processors, exhausting memory or exhausting the storage subsystems, providing customers with a desktop virtualization system that can easily handle the most demanding login and startup storms.

    Ultra-condensed computing for the datacenter. The rack space required to support the 2000-user system is a single rack of approximately 32 rack units, conserving valuable data center floor space.

    Pure Virtualization: This CVD presents a validated design that is 100% virtualized on VMware ESXi 5.1. All of the virtual desktops, user data, profiles, and supporting infrastructure components, including Active Directory, Provisioning Servers, SQL Servers, XenDesktop Delivery Controllers, and XenDesktop RDS (XenApp) servers were hosted as virtual machines. This allows customers complete flexibility for maintenance and capacity additions because the entire system runs on the FlexPod converged infrastructure with stateless Cisco UCS blade servers, and NetApp unified storage with Clustered Data ONTAP.

    Cisco maintains industry leadership with the new Cisco UCS Manager 2.1.3(a) software that simplifies scaling, guarantees consistency, and eases maintenance. Cisco's ongoing development efforts with Cisco UCS Manager, Cisco UCS Central, and Cisco UCS Director helps ensure that 7FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Overviewcustomer environments are consistent locally, across Cisco UCS Domains and across the globe, our software suite offers increasingly simplified operational and deployment management, and it continues to widen the span of control for customer organizations' subject matter experts in compute, storage and network.

    Our 10G unified fabric story gets additional validation on second generation 6200 Series Fabric Interconnects as Cisco runs more challenging workload testing, while maintaining unsurpassed user response times.

    NetApp FAS with Clustered Data ONTAP provides industry-leading storage solutions that efficiently handle the most demanding IO bursts (for example, login storms), profile management, and user data management, provide VM backup and restores, deliver simple and flexible business continuance, and help reduce storage cost per desktop.

    NetApp FAS provides a simple storage architecture for hosting all user data components (VMs, profiles, user data) on the same storage array.

    NetApp Clustered Data ONTAP system enables seamlessly add, upgrade or remove storage infrastructure to meet the needs of the virtual desktops.

    NetApp Virtual Storage Console for VMware (VSC) has deep integration with VMware vSphere provides easy button automation for key storage tasks like datastore provisioning, storage resize, data deduplication, backup and recovery, etc. directly from within vCenter server.

    NetApp Cluster ONTAP offers a seamless and reliable user experience during the storage node failover test.

    Latest and greatest virtual desktop and application product. Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 follows a new unified product architecture that supports both hosted-shared desktops and applications (RDS) and complete virtual desktops (VDI). This new XenDesktop release simplifies tasks associated with large-scale VDI management. This modular solution supports seamless delivery of Windows apps and desktops as the number of users increase. In addition, HDX enhancements help to optimize performance and improve the user experience across a variety of endpoint device types, from workstations to mobile devices including laptops, tablets, and smartphones.

    Optimized to achieve the best possible performance and scale. For hosted shared desktop sessions, the best performance was achieved when the number of vCPUs assigned to the XenDesktop 7 RDS virtual machines did not exceed the number of hyper-threaded cores available on the server. In other words, maximum performance is obtained when not over committing the CPU resources for the virtual machines running RDS.

    Provisioning desktop machines made easy. Citrix Provisioning Services created hosted virtual desktops as well as hosted shared desktops for this solution using a single method for both, the PVS XenDesktop Setup Wizard.

    Solution Component BenefitsEach of the components of the overall solution materially contributes to the value of functional design contained in this document. 8FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • OverviewBenefits of Cisco Unified Computing SystemCisco Unified Computing System (UCS) is the first converged data center platform that combines industry-standard, x86-architecture servers with networking and storage access into a single converged system. The system is entirely programmable using unified, model-based management to simplify and speed deployment of enterprise-class applications and services running in bare-metal, virtualized, and cloud computing environments.

    Benefits of the Cisco Unified Computing System include:

    Architectural Flexibility Cisco UCS B-Series blade servers for infrastructure and virtual workload hosting

    Cisco UCS C-Series rack-mount servers for infrastructure and virtual workload Hosting

    Cisco UCS 6200 Series second generation fabric interconnects provide unified blade, network and storage connectivity

    Cisco UCS 5108 Blade Chassis provide the perfect environment for multi-server type, multi-purpose workloads in a single containment

    Infrastructure Simplicity Converged, simplified architecture drives increased IT productivity

    Cisco UCS management results in flexible, agile, high performance, self-integrating information technology with faster ROI

    Fabric Extender technology reduces the number of system components to purchase, configure and maintain

    Standards-based, high bandwidth, low latency virtualization-aware unified fabric delivers high density, excellent virtual desktop user-experience

    Business Agility Model-based management means faster deployment of new capacity for rapid and accurate

    scalability

    Scale up to 20 Chassis and up to 160 blades in a single Cisco UCS management domain

    Scale to multiple Cisco UCS Domains with Cisco UCS Central within and across data centers globally

    Leverage Cisco UCS Management Packs for VMware vCenter 5.1 for integrated management

    Benefits of Cisco Nexus Physical SwitchingThe Cisco Nexus product family includes lines of physical unified port layer 2, 10 GB switches, fabric extenders, and virtual distributed switching technologies. In our study, we utilized Cisco Nexus 5548UP physical switches, Cisco Nexus 1000V distributed virtual switches and Cisco VM-FEX technology to deliver amazing end user experience.

    Cisco Nexus 5548UP Unified Port Layer 2 Switches

    The Cisco Nexus 5548UP Switch delivers innovative architectural flexibility, infrastructure simplicity, and business agility, with support for networking standards. For traditional, virtualized, unified, and high-performance computing (HPC) environments, it offers a long list of IT and business advantages, including:9FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • OverviewArchitectural Flexibility Unified ports that support traditional Ethernet, Fiber Channel (FC), and Fiber Channel over Ethernet

    (FCoE)

    Synchronizes system clocks with accuracy of less than one microsecond, based on IEEE 1588

    Offers converged Fabric extensibility, based on emerging standard IEEE 802.1BR, with Fabric Extender (FEX) Technology portfolio, including the Nexus 1000V Virtual Distributed Switch

    Infrastructure Simplicity Common high-density, high-performance, data-center-class, fixed-form-factor platform

    Consolidates LAN and storage

    Supports any transport over an Ethernet-based fabric, including Layer 2 and Layer 3 traffic

    Supports storage traffic, including iSCSI, NAS, FC, RoE, and IBoE

    Reduces management points with FEX Technology

    Business Agility Meets diverse data center deployments on one platform

    Provides rapid migration and transition for traditional and evolving technologies

    Offers performance and scalability to meet growing business needs

    Specifications At-a-Glance A 1 -rack-unit, 1/10 Gigabit Ethernet switch

    32 fixed Unified Ports on base chassis and one expansion slot totaling 48 ports

    The slot can support any of the three modules: Unified Ports, 1/2/4/8 native Fiber Channel, and Ethernet or FCoE

    Throughput of up to 960 Gbps

    Cisco Nexus 1000V Distributed Virtual SwitchGet highly secure, multitenant services by adding virtualization intelligence to your data center network with the Cisco Nexus 1000V Switch for VMware vSphere. This switch does the following:

    Extends the network edge to the hypervisor and virtual machines

    Is built to scale for cloud networks

    Forms the foundation of virtual network overlays for the Cisco Open Network Environment and Software Defined Networking (SDN)

    Important differentiators for the Cisco Nexus 1000V for VMware vSphere include:

    Extensive virtual network services built on Cisco advanced service insertion and routing technology

    Support for vCloud Director and vSphere hypervisor

    Feature and management consistency for easy integration with the physical infrastructure

    Exceptional policy and control features for comprehensive networking functionality

    Policy management and control by the networking team instead of the server virtualization team (separation of duties10FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • OverviewVirtual Networking ServicesThe Cisco Nexus 1000V Switch optimizes the use of Layer 4 - 7 virtual networking services in virtual machine and cloud environments through Cisco vPath architecture services.

    Cisco vPath 2.0 supports service chaining so you can use multiple virtual network services as part of a single traffic flow. For example, you can specify the network policy and vPath 2.0 can direct traffic:

    Through the Cisco ASA1000V Cloud Firewall for tenant edge security

    Through the Cisco Virtual Security Gateway for Nexus 1000V Switch for a zoning firewall

    In addition, Cisco vPath works on VXLAN to support movement between servers in different Layer 2 domains. Together, these features promote highly secure policy, application, and service delivery in the cloud.

    Cisco Virtual Machine Fabric Extender (VM-FEX)Cisco Virtual Machine Fabric Extender (VM-FEX) collapses virtual and physical networking into a single infrastructure. Data center administrators can now provision, configure, manage, monitor, and diagnose virtual machine network traffic and bare metal network traffic within a unified infrastructure.

    The VM-FEX software extends Cisco fabric extender technology to the virtual machine with the following capabilities:

    Each virtual machine includes a dedicated interface on the parent switch

    All virtual machine traffic is sent directly to the dedicated interface on the switch

    The software-based switch in the hypervisor is eliminated

    Benefits of NetApp Clustered Data ONTAP Storage Controllers With the release of NetApp clustered Data ONTAP, NetApp was the first to market with enterprise-ready, unified scale-out storage. Developed from a solid foundation of proven Data ONTAP technology and innovation, clustered Data ONTAP is the basis for virtualized shared storage infrastructures that are architected for nondisruptive operations over the lifetime of the system. For details on how to configure clustered Data ONTAP with VMware vSphere, refer to TR-4068: VMware vSphere 5 on NetApp Data ONTAP 8.x Operating in Cluster-Mode.

    All clustering technologies follow a common set of guiding principles. These principles include the following:

    Nondisruptive operation. The key to efficiency and the basis of clustering is the ability to make sure that the cluster does not fail-ever.

    Virtualized access is the managed entity. Direct interaction with the nodes that make up the cluster is in and of itself a violation of the term cluster. During the initial configuration of the cluster, direct node access is a necessity; however, steady-state operations are abstracted from the nodes as the user interacts with the cluster as a single entity.

    Data mobility and container transparency. The end result of clustering-that is, the nondisruptive collection of independent nodes working together and presented as one holistic solution-is the ability of data to move freely within the boundaries of the cluster.11FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

    http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps12233/index.htmlhttp://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps13095/index.htmlhttp://www.netapp.com/us/system/pdf-reader.aspx?pdfuri=tcm:10-61602-16&m=tr-4068.pdfhttp://www.netapp.com/us/system/pdf-reader.aspx?pdfuri=tcm:10-61602-16&m=tr-4068.pdfhttp://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/vpath-the-secret-sauce-to-enabling-virtual-network-services/

  • Overview Delegated management and ubiquitous access. In large complex clusters, the ability to delegate or segment features and functions into containers that can be acted upon independently of the cluster means the workload can be isolated; it is important to note that the cluster architecture itself must not place these isolations. This should not be confused with security concerns around the content being accessed.

    Scale-Out

    Data centers require agility. In a data center, each storage controller has CPU, memory, and disk shelves limits. Scale-out means that as the storage environment grows, additional controllers can be added seamlessly to the resource pool residing on a shared storage infrastructure. Host and client connections as well as datastores can be moved seamlessly and non-disruptively anywhere within the resource pool.

    The benefits of scale-out are as follows:

    Nondisruptive operations

    Ability to keep adding thousands of users to virtual desktop environment without downtime

    Offers operational simplicity and flexibility

    NetApp clustered Data ONTAP is the first product offering a complete scale-out solution; an intelligent, adaptable, always-available storage infrastructure, utilizing proven storage efficiency for today's highly virtualized environments.

    Figure 1 Scale-Out

    Multiprotocol Unified Storage

    Multiprotocol unified architecture is the ability to support multiple data access protocols concurrently in the same storage system, over a whole range of different controller and disk storage types. Data ONTAP 7G and 7-Mode have long been capable of this, and now clustered Data ONTAP supports an even wider range of data access protocols. The supported protocols in clustered Data ONTAP 8.2 are:

    The supported protocols are:

    NFS v3, v4, and v4.1 including pNFS

    SMB 1,2,2.1,and 3 including support for nondisruptive failover in Microsoft Hyper-V

    iSCSI

    Fibre Channel

    FCoE

    Multi-Tenancy

    Isolated servers and data storage can result in low utilization, gross inefficiency, and inability to respond to changing business needs. Cloud architecture, delivering IT as a service (ITaaS), can overcome these limitations while reducing future IT expenditure. 12FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • OverviewThe storage virtual machine (SVM), formerly called Vserver, is the primary logical cluster component. Each SVM can create volumes, logical interfaces, and protocol access. With clustered Data ONTAP, each department's virtual desktops and data can be separated to different SVMs. The administrator of each SVM has the rights to provision volumes and other SVM-specific operations. This is particularly advantageous for service providers or any multi-tenanted environments in which workload separation is desired.

    Figure 2 shows the multi-tenancy concept in clustered Data ONTAP

    Figure 2 Multi-tenancy Concept

    NetApp Storage Cluster ComponentsIt is important to address some key terms early in the text to establish a common knowledge baseline for the remainder of this publication.

    Cluster. The information boundary and domain within which information moves. The cluster is where high availability is defined between physical nodes and where SVMs operate.

    Node. A physical entity running Data ONTAP. This physical entity can be a traditional NetApp FAS controller; a supported third-party array front ended by a V-Series controller; or NetApp's virtual storage appliance (VSA), Data ONTAP-V.

    SVM. A secure virtualized storage controller that behaves and appears to the end user to be a physical entity (similar to a VM). It is connected to one or more nodes through internal networking relationships (covered later in this document). It is the highest visible element to an external consumer, abstracting the layer of interaction from the physical nodes. Based on these two statements, it is the entity used to provision cluster resources and can be compartmentalized in a secured fashion to prevent access to other parts of the cluster.

    Clustered Data ONTAP Networking ConceptsThe physical interfaces on a node are referred to as ports. IP addresses are assigned to logical interfaces (LIFs). LIFs are logically connected to a port in much the same way that VM virtual network adapter and VMkernel ports connect to physical adapters, except without the constructs of virtual switches and port groups. Physical ports can be grouped into interface groups. VLANs can be created on top of physical ports or interface groups. LIFs can be associated with a port, interface group, or VLAN.

    Figure 3shows the clustered Data ONTAP network concept.13FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • OverviewFigure 3 Ports and LIFs Example

    Cluster Management

    For complete and consistent management of storage and SAN infrastructure, NetApp recommends using the tools listed in Table 1, unless specified otherwise.

    Table 1 Management Tools

    Benefits of VMware vSphere ESXi 5.1As virtualization is now a critical component to an overall IT strategy, it is important to choose the right vendor. VMware is the leading business virtualization infrastructure provider, offering the most trusted and reliable platform for building private clouds and federating to public clouds.

    The following list describes how only VMware delivers on the core requirements for a business virtualization infrastructure solution.

    1. Is built on a robust, reliable foundation

    2. Delivers a complete virtualization platform from desktop through the datacenter out to the public cloud

    3. Provides the most comprehensive virtualization and cloud management

    4. Integrates with your overall IT infrastructure

    5. Is proven over 350,000 customers

    Best of all, VMware delivers while providing:

    6. Low total-cost-of-ownership (TCO)

    For more information about vSphere 5.1, go to:

    http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/products/vsphere/vmware-what-is-new-vsphere51.pdf

    Task Management ToolsSVM management OnCommand System ManagerSwitch management and zoning switch vendor GUI or CLI interfacesVolume and LUN provisioning and management NetApp Virtual Storage Console for vSphere14FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

    http://www.vmware.com/virtualization/advantages/total-cost/virtual-machine-density.htmlhttp://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/products/vsphere/vmware-what-is-new-vsphere51.pdfhttp://www.vmware.com/virtualization/advantages/robust/robust-foundation.htmldcr://templatedata/content/standard/data/sections/technical-resources/virtual-platform/live-migrationdcr://templatedata/content/standard/data/sections/technical-resources/virtual-platform/live-migrationhttp://www.vmware.com/virtualization/advantages/virtualization-management/virtual-management.htmlhttp://www.vmware.com/virtualization/advantages/infrastructure/integrated-infrastructure.htmlhttp://www.vmware.com/virtualization/advantages/customer/virtualization-customers.html

  • ArchitectureBenefits of Citrix XenDesktop 7There are many reasons to consider a virtual desktop solution. An ever growing and diverse base of users, an expanding number of traditional desktops, an increase in security mandates and government regulations, and the introduction of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiatives are factors that add to the cost and complexity of delivering and managing desktop and application services.

    Citrix XenDesktop 7 transforms the delivery of Microsoft Windows apps and desktops into a secure, centrally managed service that users can access on any device, anywhere. The release focuses on delivering these benefits:

    Mobilizing Microsoft Windows application delivery, bringing thousands of corporate applications to mobile devices with a native-touch experience and high performance

    Reducing costs with simplified and centralized management and automated operations

    Securing data by centralizing information and effectively controlling access

    Citrix XenDesktop 7 promotes mobility, allowing users to search for and subscribe to published resources, enabling a service delivery model that is cloud-ready.

    The release follows a new unified FlexCast 2.0 architecture for provisioning all Windows apps and desktops either on hosted-shared RDS servers or VDI-based virtual machines. The new architecture combines simplified and integrated provisioning with personalization tools. Whether a customer is creating a system to deliver just apps or complete desktops, Citrix XenDesktop 7 leverages common policies and cohesive tools to govern infrastructure resources and access.

    Architecture

    Hardware DeployedThe architecture deployed is highly modular. While each customer's environment might vary in its exact configuration, when the reference architecture contained in this document is built, it can easily be scaled as requirements and demands change. This includes scaling both up (adding additional resources within a Cisco UCS Domain) and out (adding additional Cisco UCS Domains and NetApp FAS Storage arrays).

    The 2000-user XenDesktop 7 solution includes Cisco networking, Cisco Unified Computing System and NetApp FAS storage, which fits into a single data center rack, including the access layer network switches.

    This validated design document details the deployment of the 2000-user configurations for a mixed XenDesktop workload featuring the following software:

    Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 Pooled Hosted Virtual Desktops with PVS write cache on NFS storage

    Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 Shared Hosted Virtual Desktops with PVS write cache on NFS storage

    Citrix Provisioning Server 7.1

    Citrix User Profile Manager

    Citrix StoreFront 2.1

    Cisco Nexus 1000V Distributed Virtual Switch

    Cisco Virtual Machine Fabric Extender (VM-FEX)

    VMware vSphere ESXi 5.1 Hypervisor

    Microsoft Windows Server 2012 and Windows 7 32-bit virtual machine Operating Systems15FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Architecture Microsoft SQL Server 2012 SP1

    Figure 4 Workload Architecture

    The workload contains the following hardware as shown in Figure 4:

    Two Cisco Nexus 5548UP Layer 2 Access Switches

    Two Cisco UCS 6248UP Series Fabric Interconnects

    Two Cisco UCS 5108 Blade Server Chassis with two 2204XP IO Modules per chassis

    Four Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Servers with Intel E5-2680v2 processors, 384GB RAM, and VIC1240 mezzanine cards for the 550 hosted Windows 7 virtual desktop workloads with N+1 server fault tolerance.

    Eight Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Servers with Intel E5-2680v2 processors, 256 GB RAM, and VIC1240 mezzanine cards for the 1450 hosted shared Windows Server 2012 server desktop workloads with N+1 server fault tolerance.

    Two Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Servers with Intel E5-2650 processors, 128 GB RAM, and VIC1240 mezzanine cards for the infrastructure virtualized workloads

    Two node NetApp FAS3240 dual controller storage system running clustered Data ONTAP mode, 4 disk shelves, converged and 10GE ports for FCoE and NFS/CIFS connectivity respectively.

    (Not Shown) One Cisco UCS 5108 Blade Server Chassis with 3 Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Servers with Intel E5-2650 processors, 128 GB RAM, and VIC1240 mezzanine cards for the Login VSI launcher infrastructure

    The NetApp FAS3240 disk shelf configurations are detailed in section Storage Architecture Design later in this document.16FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • ArchitectureLogical ArchitectureThe logical architecture of the validated is designed to support 2000 users within two chassis and fourteen blades, which provides physical redundancy for the chassis and blade servers for each workload. Table 2 outlines all the servers in the configuration.

    Table 2 Infrastructure Architecture

    ServerName Location PurposeINFRA01 PhysicalChassis1 Windows2012DatacenterVMsESXi5.1host

    (InfrastructureGuests)RDS01,03,05,07

    PhysicalChassis1 XenDesktop7.1RDSESXi5.1Hosts

    HVD01,03 PhysicalChassis1 XenDesktop7.1HVDESXi5.1Hosts

    INFRA02 PhysicalChassis2 Windows2012DatacenterVMsESXi5.1host(InfrastructureGuests)

    RDS02,04,06,08

    PhysicalChassis2 XenDesktop7.1RDSESXi5.1Hosts

    HVD01,03 PhysicalChassis2 XenDesktop7.1HVDESXi5.1HostsXenAD VirtualINFRA1 ActiveDirectoryDomainControllerXenDesktop1 VirtualINFRA1 XenDesktop7.1controllerXenPVS1 VirtualINFRA1 ProvisioningServices7.1streamingserverXenVC VirtualINFRA1 vCenter5.1ServerXenStoreFront1 VirtualINFRA1 StoreFrontServicesserverXDSQL1 VirtualINFRA1 SQLServer(clustered)XenVSM_Primary VirtualINFRA1 Nexus1000VVSMHAnodeXenLic VirtualINFRA1 XenDesktop7.1LicenseserverXenAD1 VirtualINFRA2 ActiveDirectoryDomainControllerXenDesktop2 VirtualINFRA2 XenDesktop7.1controllerXenPVS2 VirtualINFRA2 ProvisioningServices7.1streamingserverXenPVS3 VirtualINFRA2 ProvisioningServices7.1streamingserverXenStoreFront2 VirtualINFRA2 StoreFrontServicesserverXDSQL2 VirtualINFRA2 SQLServer(clustered)XenVSC VirtualINFRA2 NetAppVSCserverXenVSM_Primary VirtualINFRA2 Nexus1000VVSMHAnode17FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • ArchitectureSoftware RevisionsThis section includes the software versions of the primary products installed in the environment.

    Table 3 Software Revisions

    Configuration GuidelinesThe 2000 User Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 solution described in this document provides details for configuring a fully redundant, highly-available configuration. Configuration guidelines are provided that refer to which redundant component is being configured with each step, whether that be A or B. For example Nexus A and Nexus B identify the pair of Cisco Nexus switches that are configured. The Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnects are configured similarly.

    This document is intended to allow the reader to configure the Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 customer environment as stand-alone solution.

    VLANThe VLAN configuration recommended for the environment includes a total of six VLANs as outlined in Table 4.

    Table 4 VLAN Configuration

    VMware ClustersFour VMware Clusters were utilized to support the solution and testing environment:

    Vendor Product VersionCisco UCSComponentFirmware 2.1(3a)Cisco UCSManager 2.1(3a)Cisco Nexus1000VforHyperV 4.1(1)SV2(2.1a)Citrix XenDesktop 7.1.0.4033Citrix ProvisioningServices 7.1.0.4022Citrix StoreFrontServices 2.1.0.17VMware vCenter 5.1.0Build860230VMware vSphereESXi5.1 5.1.0Build838463Microsoft HyperVServer2012 6.2.9200Build9200NetApp VirtualStorageConsoleforVMware 4.2.2210.0

    VLANName VLANID UseDefault 6 NativeVLANVMInfra 3048 InfrastructureandVirtualMGMTOOB 3072 OutofBandManagementNetworkMGMTIB 3073 InBandManagementNetworkSTORAGE 3074 IPStorageVLANforNFSandCIFSvMOTION 3075 vMotion18FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure Components Infrastructure Cluster (vCenter, Active Directory, DNS, DHCP, SQL Clusters, XenDesktop Controllers, Provisioning Servers, and Cisco Nexus 1000V Virtual Switch Manager appliances, etc.)

    XenDesktop RDS Clusters (Windows Server 2012 hosted shared desktops)

    XenDesktop Hosted Virtual Desktop Cluster (Windows 7 SP1 32-bit pooled virtual desktops)

    Launcher Cluster (The Login Consultants Login VSI launcher infrastructure was hosted on the same Cisco UCS Domain sharing switching, but running on separate storage.)

    Infrastructure ComponentsThis section describes the infrastructure components used in the solution outlined in this study.

    Cisco Unified Computing SystemCisco Unified Computing System is a set of pre-integrated data center components that comprises blade servers, adapters, fabric interconnects, and extenders that are integrated under a common embedded management system. This approach results in far fewer system components and much better manageability, operational efficiencies, and flexibility than comparable data center platforms.

    Cisco Unified Computing System Components Cisco UCS components are shown in Figure x.

    Figure 5 Cisco Unified Computing System Components19FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsCisco Unified Computing System is designed to be programmable and self-integrating. A server's entire hardware stack, ranging from server firmware and settings to network profiles, is configured through model-based management. With Cisco virtual interface cards, even the number and type of I/O interfaces is programmed dynamically, making every server ready to power any workload at any time.

    With model-based management, administrators manipulate a model of a desired system configuration, associate a model's service profile with hardware resources and the system configures itself to match the model. This automation speeds provisioning and workload migration with accurate and rapid scalability. The result is increased IT staff productivity, improved compliance, and reduced risk of failures due to inconsistent configurations.

    Cisco Fabric Extender technology reduces the number of system components to purchase, configure, manage, and maintain by condensing three network layers into one. It eliminates both blade server and hypervisor-based switches by connecting fabric interconnect ports directly to individual blade servers and virtual machines. Virtual networks are now managed exactly as physical networks are, but with massive scalability. This represents a radical simplification over traditional systems, reducing capital and operating costs while increasing business agility, simplifying and speeding deployment, and improving performance.

    Fabric InterconnectCisco UCS Fabric Interconnects create a unified network fabric throughout Cisco Unified Computing System. They provide uniform access to both networks and storage, eliminating the barriers to deploying a fully virtualized environment based on a flexible, programmable pool of resources.

    Cisco Fabric Interconnects comprise a family of line-rate, low-latency, lossless 10-GE, Cisco Data Center Ethernet, and FCoE interconnect switches. Based on the same switching technology as the Cisco Nexus 5000 Series, Cisco UCS 6000 Series Fabric Interconnects provide the additional features and management capabilities that make them the central nervous system of Cisco Unified Computing System.

    The Cisco UCS Manager software runs inside the Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnects. The Cisco UCS 6000 Series Fabric Interconnects expand the UCS networking portfolio and offer higher capacity, higher port density, and lower power consumption. These interconnects provide the management and communication backbone for the Cisco UCS B-Series Blades and Cisco UCS Blade Server Chassis.

    All chassis and all blades that are attached to the Fabric Interconnects are part of a single, highly available management domain. By supporting unified fabric, the Cisco UCS 6200 Series provides the flexibility to support LAN and SAN connectivity for all blades within its domain right at configuration time. Typically deployed in redundant pairs, the Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect provides uniform access to both networks and storage, facilitating a fully virtualized environment.

    The Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect family is currently comprised of the Cisco 6100 Series and Cisco 6200 Series of Fabric Interconnects.

    Cisco UCS 6248UP 48-Port Fabric InterconnectThe Cisco UCS 6248UP 48-Port Fabric Interconnect is a 1 RU, 10-GE, Cisco Data Center Ethernet, FCoE interconnect providing more than 1Tbps throughput with low latency. It has 32 fixed ports of Fibre Channel, 10-GE, Cisco Data Center Ethernet, and FCoE SFP+ ports.

    One expansion module slot can be up to sixteen additional ports of Fibre Channel, 10-GE, Cisco Data Center Ethernet, and FCoE SFP+.

    Note Cisco UCS 6248UP 48-Port Fabric Interconnects were used in this study.20FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsCisco UCS 2200 Series IO ModuleThe Cisco UCS 2100/2200 Series FEX multiplexes and forwards all traffic from blade servers in a chassis to a parent Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect over from 10-Gbps unified fabric links. All traffic, even traffic between blades on the same chassis, or VMs on the same blade, is forwarded to the parent interconnect, where network profiles are managed efficiently and effectively by the Fabric Interconnect. At the core of the Cisco UCS Fabric Extender are ASIC processors developed by Cisco that multiplex all traffic.

    Note Up to two fabric extenders can be placed in a blade chassis.

    Cisco UCS 2104 has eight 10GBASE-KR connections to the blade chassis mid-plane, with one connection per fabric extender for each of the chassis' eight half slots. This gives each half-slot blade server access to each of two 10-Gbps unified fabric-based networks through SFP+ sockets for both throughput and redundancy. It has 4 ports connecting up the fabric interconnect.

    Cisco UCS 2208 has thirty-two 10GBASE-KR connections to the blade chassis midplane, with one connection per fabric extender for each of the chassis' eight half slots. This gives each half-slot blade server access to each of two 4x10-Gbps unified fabric-based networks through SFP+ sockets for both throughput and redundancy. It has 8 ports connecting up the fabric interconnect.

    Note Cisco UCS 2208 fabric extenders were utilized in this study.

    Cisco UCS ChassisThe Cisco UCS 5108 Series Blade Server Chassis is a 6 RU blade chassis that will accept up to eight half-width Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers or up to four full-width Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers, or a combination of the two. The UCS 5108 Series Blade Server Chassis can accept four redundant power supplies with automatic load-sharing and failover and two Cisco UCS (either 2100 or 2200 series ) Fabric Extenders. The chassis is managed by Cisco UCS Chassis Management Controllers, which are mounted in the Cisco UCS Fabric Extenders and work in conjunction with the Cisco UCS Manager to control the chassis and its components.

    A single Cisco UCS managed domain can theoretically scale to up to 40 individual chassis and 320 blade servers. At this time Cisco supports up to 20 individual chassis and 160 blade servers.

    Basing the I/O infrastructure on a 10-Gbps unified network fabric allows the Cisco UCS to have a streamlined chassis with a simple yet comprehensive set of I/O options. The result is a chassis that has only five basic components:

    The physical chassis with passive midplane and active environmental monitoring circuitry

    Four power supply bays with power entry in the rear, and hot-swappable power supply units accessible from the front panel

    Eight hot-swappable fan trays, each with two fans

    Two fabric extender slots accessible from the back panel

    Eight blade server slots accessible from the front panel

    Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade ServerCisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Server is a third generation half-slot, two-socket blade server. The Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Server harnesses the power of the latest Intel Xeon processor E5-2600 v2 product family, with up to 768 GB of RAM (using 32GB DIMMs), two optional SAS/SATA/SSD disk drives, and up to dual 4x 10 Gigabit Ethernet throughput, utilizing our VIC 1240 LAN on motherboard (LOM) design. The Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Server further extends the capabilities of Cisco Unified 21FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsComputing Stystem by delivering new levels of manageability, performance, energy efficiency, reliability, security, and I/O bandwidth for enterprise-class virtualization and other mainstream data center workloads.

    In addition, customers who initially purchased Cisco UCS B200M3 Blade Servers with Intel E5-2600 series processors, can field upgrade their blades to the second generation E5-2600 processors, providing increased processor capacity and providing investment protection

    Figure 6 Cisco UCS B200 M3 Blade Server

    Cisco UCS VIC1240 Converged Network AdapterA Cisco innovation, the Cisco UCS Virtual Interface Card (VIC) 1240 (Figure 1) is a 4-port 10 Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)-capable modular LAN on motherboard (mLOM) designed exclusively for the M3 generation of Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers. When used in combination with an optional Port Expander, the Cisco UCS VIC 1240 capabilities can be expanded to eight ports of 10 Gigabit Ethernet.

    The Cisco UCS VIC 1240 enables a policy-based, stateless, agile server infrastructure that can present up to 256 PCIe standards-compliant interfaces to the host that can be dynamically configured as either network interface cards (NICs) or host bus adapters (HBAs). In addition, the Cisco UCS VIC 1240 supports Cisco Data Center Virtual Machine Fabric Extender (VM-FEX) technology, which extends the Cisco UCS fabric interconnect ports to virtual machines, simplifying server virtualization deployment.

    Figure 7 Cisco UCS VIC 1240 Converged Network Adapter22FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsFigure 8 Cisco UCS VIC1240 Deployed in the Cisco UCS B-Series B200 M3 Blade Servers

    Citrix XenDesktop 7 - CITRIX

    Enhancements in XenDesktop 7Built on the Avalon architecture, Citrix XenDesktop 7 includes significant enhancements to help customers deliver Windows apps and desktops as mobile services while addressing management complexity and associated costs. Enhancements in this release include:

    A new unified product architecture-the latest generation FlexCast architecture-and administrative interfaces designed to deliver both hosted-shared applications (RDS) and complete virtual desktops (VDI). Unlike previous software releases that required separate Citrix XenApp farms and XenDesktop infrastructures, this new release allows administrators to deploy a single infrastructure and employ a consistent set of management tools for mixed desktop and app workloads.

    New and improved management interfaces. XenDesktop 7 includes two new purpose-built management consoles-one for automating workload provisioning and app publishing and the second for real-time monitoring of the infrastructure.

    Enhanced HDX technologies. Since mobile technologies and devices are increasingly pervasive, Citrix has engineered new and improved HDX technologies to improve the user experience for hosted Windows apps and desktops delivered on laptops, tablets, and smartphones.

    Unified App Store. The release includes a self-service Windows app store, implemented through Citrix StoreFront services, that provides a single, simple, and consistent aggregation point for all user services. IT can publish apps, desktops, and data services to the StoreFront, from which users can search and subscribe to services.

    FlexCast TechnologyIn Citrix XenDesktop 7, FlexCast Management Architecture (FMA) is responsible for delivering and managing hosted-shared RDS apps and complete VDI desktops. By using Citrix Receiver with XenDesktop 7, users have a device-native experience on endpoints including Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS, Android, ChromeOS, HTML5, and Blackberry.

    Figure 9 shows an overview of the unified FlexCast architecture and underlying components23FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsFigure 9 Overview of the Unified FlexCasst Architecture

    The FlexCast components are as follows:

    Citrix Receiver. Running on user endpoints, Receiver provides users with self-service access to resources published on XenDesktop servers. Receiver combines ease of deployment and use, supplying fast, secure access to hosted applications, desktops, and data. Receiver also provides on-demand access to Windows, Web, and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) applications.

    Citrix StoreFront. StoreFront authenticates users and manages catalogs of desktops and applications. Users can search StoreFront catalogs and subscribe to published services through Citrix Receiver.

    Citrix Studio. Using the new and improved Studio interface, administrators can easily configure and manage XenDesktop deployments. Studio provides wizards to guide the process of setting up an environment, creating desktops, and assigning desktops to users, automating provisioning and application publishing. It also allows administration tasks to be customized and delegated to match site operational requirements.

    Delivery Controller. The Delivery Controller is responsible for distributing applications and desktops, managing user access, and optimizing connections to applications. Each site has one or more delivery controllers.

    Server OS Machines. These are virtual or physical machines (based on a Windows Server operating system) that deliver RDS applications or hosted shared desktops to users.

    Desktop OS Machines. These are virtual or physical machines (based on a Windows Desktop operating system) that deliver personalized VDI desktops or applications that run on a desktop operating system.

    Remote PC. XenDesktop with Remote PC allows IT to centrally deploy secure remote access to all Windows PCs on the corporate network. It is a comprehensive solution that delivers fast, secure remote access to all the corporate apps and data on an office PC from any device.

    Virtual Delivery Agent. A Virtual Delivery Agent is installed on each virtual or physical machine (within the server or desktop OS) and manages each user connection for application and desktop services. The agent allows OS machines to register with the Delivery Controllers and governs the HDX connection between these machines and Citrix Receiver. 24FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure Components Citrix Director. Citrix Director is a powerful administrative tool that helps administrators quickly troubleshoot and resolve issues. It supports real-time assessment, site health and performance metrics, and end user experience monitoring. Citrix EdgeSight reports are available from within the Director console and provide historical trending and correlation for capacity planning and service level assurance.

    Citrix Provisioning Services 7.1. This new release of Citrix Provisioning Services (PVS) technology is responsible for streaming a shared virtual disk (vDisk) image to the configured Server OS or Desktop OS machines. This streaming capability allows VMs to be provisioned and re-provisioned in real-time from a single image, eliminating the need to patch individual systems and conserving storage. All patching is done in one place and then streamed at boot-up. PVS supports image management for both RDS and VDI-based machines, including support for image snapshots and rollbacks.

    High-Definition User Experience (Hdx) Technology High-Definition User Experience (HDX) technology in this release is optimized to improve the user

    experience for hosted Windows apps on mobile devices. Specific enhancements include:

    HDX Mobile technology, designed to cope with the variability and packet loss inherent in today's mobile networks. HDX technology supports deep compression and redirection, taking advantage of advanced codec acceleration and an industry-leading H.264-based compression algorithm. The technology enables dramatic improvements in frame rates while requiring significantly less bandwidth. HDX technology offers users a rich multimedia experience and optimized performance for voice and video collaboration.

    HDX Touch technology enables mobile navigation capabilities similar to native apps, without rewrites or porting of existing Windows applications. Optimizations support native menu controls, multi-touch gestures, and intelligent sensing of text-entry fields, providing a native application look and feel.

    HDX 3D Pro uses advanced server-side GPU resources for compression and rendering of the latest OpenGL and DirectX professional graphics apps. GPU support includes both dedicated user and shared user workloads.

    Citrix XenDesktop 7 Desktop and Application ServicesIT departments strive to deliver application services to a broad range of enterprise users that have varying performance, personalization, and mobility requirements. Citrix XenDesktop 7 allows IT to configure and deliver any type of virtual desktop or app; hosted or local, and optimize delivery to meet individual user requirements, while simplifying operations, securing data, and reducing costs.

    Figure 10 Desktop and Application Services25FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsWith previous product releases, administrators had to deploy separate XenApp farms and XenDesktop sites to support both hosted shared RDS and VDI desktops. As shown above, the new XenDesktop 7 release allows administrators to create a single infrastructure that supports multiple modes of service delivery, including:

    Application Virtualization and Hosting (RDS). Applications are installed on or streamed to Windows servers in the data center and remotely displayed to users' desktops and devices.

    Hosted Shared Desktops (RDS). Multiple user sessions share a single, locked-down Windows Server environment running in the datacenter and accessing a core set of apps. This model of service delivery is ideal for task workers using low intensity applications, and enables more desktops per host compared to VDI.

    Pooled VDI Desktops. This approach leverages a single desktop OS image to create multiple thinly provisioned or streamed desktops. Optionally, desktops can be configured with a Personal vDisk to maintain user application, profile and data differences that are not part of the base image. This approach replaces the need for dedicated desktops, and is generally deployed to address the desktop needs of knowledge workers that run more intensive application workloads.

    VM Hosted Apps (16 bit, 32 bit, or 64 bit Windows apps). Applications are hosted on virtual desktops running Windows 7, XP, or Vista and then remotely displayed to users' physical or virtual desktops and devices.

    This CVD focuses on delivering a mixed workload consisting of hosted shared desktops (HSD or RDS) and hosted virtual desktops (HVD or VDI).

    Citrix Provisioning ServicesOne significant advantage to service delivery through RDS and VDI is how these technologies simplify desktop administration and management. Citrix Provisioning Services (PVS) takes the approach of streaming a single shared virtual disk (vDisk) image rather than provisioning and distributing multiple OS image copies across multiple virtual machines. One advantage of this approach is that it constrains the number of disk images that must be managed, even as the number of desktops grows, ensuring image consistency. At the same time, using a single shared image (rather than hundreds or thousands of desktop images) significantly reduces the required storage footprint and dramatically simplifies image management.

    Since there is a single master image, patch management is simple and reliable. All patching is done on the master image, which is then streamed as needed. When an updated image is ready for production, the administrator simply reboots to deploy the new image. Rolling back to a previous image is done in the same manner. Local hard disk drives in user systems can be used for runtime data caching or, in some scenarios, removed entirely, lowering power usage, system failure rates, and security risks.

    After installing and configuring PVS components, a vDisk is created from a device's hard drive by taking a snapshot of the OS and application image, and then storing that image as a vDisk file on the network. vDisks can exist on a Provisioning Server, file share, or in larger deployments (as in this CVD), on a storage system with which the Provisioning Server can communicate (through iSCSI, SAN, NAS, and CIFS). vDisks can be assigned to a single target device in Private Image Mode, or to multiple target devices in Standard Image Mode.

    When a user device boots, the appropriate vDisk is located based on the boot configuration and mounted on the Provisioning Server. The software on that vDisk is then streamed to the target device and appears like a regular hard drive to the system. Instead of pulling all the vDisk contents down to the target device (as is done with some imaging deployment solutions), the data is brought across the network in real time, as needed. This greatly improves the overall user experience since it minimizes desktop startup time.26FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsThis release of PVS extends built-in administrator roles to support delegated administration based on groups that already exist within the network (Windows or Active Directory Groups). All group members share the same administrative privileges within a farm. An administrator may have multiple roles if they belong to more than one group.

    NetApp FAS3200-SeriesThe FAS3200-series delivers leading performance and scale for SAN and NAS workloads in the midrange storage market. The new FAS3200 systems offer up to 80% more performance and 100% more capacity than previous systems, raising the bar for value in the midrange.

    Benefits .Designed for agility, providing intelligent management, immortal operations, and infinite scaling

    .Flash optimized with more choices and flexibility for application acceleration

    .Cluster enabled to offer nondisruptive operations, eliminating planned and unplanned downtime

    .Industry-leading storage efficiency lowers storage costs on day one and over time

    Target Customers and Environment Medium to large enterprises

    Regional data centers, replicated sites, and ?departmental systems

    Midsize businesses that need full-featured and efficient storage with advanced availability and performance

    FAS3200-series is an ideal solution for high-capacity environments, server and desktop virtualization, Windows storage consolidation, data protection, and disaster recovery for midsized businesses and distributed enterprise.

    The FAS3200-series continues the tradition of NetApp price/performance leadership in the midrange family while introducing new features and capabilities needed by enterprises making long-term storage investments with today's budget. Key FAS/V3200 innovations include an I/O expansion module (IOXM) that provides configuration flexibility for enabling HA configurations in either 3U or 6U footprints, with the 6U configuration offering 50% more slot density than that of previous-generation FAS3100 systems. In addition to better performance and slot density, FAS/V3200 also offers reliability, availability, serviceability, and manageability (RASM) with the integrated service processor (SP), the next generation of remote management in the NetApp storage family. Key FAS3200-series features include:

    Higher performance versus that of the FAS/V3100 series

    Two PCIe v2.0 (Gen 2) PCIe slots in the controller

    I/O expansion module (IOXM) that provides 50% more expansion slots than the FAS3100

    Onboard SAS ports for DS2246, DS4243, DS4246, and DS4486 shelves or tape connectivity

    Integrated SP, next-generation RLM and BMC, which increase FAS/V3200 RASM 27FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsNetApp FAS3240 Clustered Data ONTAP Used in Testing

    Table 5 Controller FAS3240 Series Prerequisites

    System Configuration GuidesSystem configuration guides provide supported hardware and software components for the specific Data ONTAP version. These online guides provide configuration information for all NetApp storage appliances currently supported by the Data ONTAP software. They also provide a table of component compatibilities.

    1. Make sure that the hardware and software components are supported with the version of Data ONTAP that you plan to install by checking the System Configuration Guides at the NetApp Support site.

    2. Click the appropriate NetApp storage appliance and then click the component you want to view. Alternatively, to compare components by storage appliance, click a component and then click the NetApp storage appliance you want to view.

    ControllersFollow the physical installation procedures for the controllers in the FAS3200-series documentation at the NetApp Support site.

    Disk Shelves DS2246 Series

    DS2246 Disk ShelvesFollow the procedures in the Disk Shelf Installation and Setup section of the DS2246 Disk Shelf Overview to install a disk shelf for a new storage system.

    Follow the procedures for proper cabling with the controller model as described in the SAS Disk Shelves Universal SAS and ACP Cabling Guide.

    The following information applies to DS2246 disk shelves:

    SAS disk drives use software-based disk ownership. Ownership of a disk drive is assigned to a specific storage system by writing software ownership information on the disk drive rather than by using the topography of the storage system's physical connections.

    Connectivity terms used: shelf-to-shelf (daisy-chain), controller-to-shelf (top connections), and shelf-to controller (bottom connections).

    Requirement Reference CommentsPhysical site where storage system needs to be installed must be ready

    Site Requirements Guide Refer to the Site Preparation section.

    Storage system connectivity requirements

    Site Requirements Guide Refer to the System Connectivity Requirements section.

    Storage system general power requirements

    Site Requirements Guide Refer to the Circuit Breaker, Power Outlet Balancing, System Cabinet Power Cord Plugs, and Console Pinout Requirements section.

    Storage system model-specific requirements

    Site Requirements Guide Refer to the FAS32xx/V32xx Series Systems section.28FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

    https://now.netapp.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/hardware/filer/210-05224+A0.pdfhttp://support.netapp.com/https://now.netapp.com/NOW/public/knowledge/docs/hardware/NetApp/site/pdf/site.pdfhttps://now.netapp.com/NOW/public/knowledge/docs/hardware/NetApp/site/pdf/site.pdfhttps://now.netapp.com/NOW/public/knowledge/docs/hardware/NetApp/site/pdf/site.pdfhttps://now.netapp.com/NOW/public/knowledge/docs/hardware/NetApp/site/pdf/site.pdfhttps://now.netapp.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/hardware/filer/210-04881+A0.pdfhttps://now.netapp.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/hardware/filer/210-04881+A0.pdfhttps://now.netapp.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/hardware/filer/215-05500_A0.pdfhttps://now.netapp.com/NOW/knowledge/docs/hardware/filer/215-05500_A0.pdf

  • Infrastructure Components Unique disk shelf IDs must be set per storage system (a number from 0 through 98).

    Disk shelf power must be turned on to change the digital display shelf ID. The digital display is on the front of the disk shelf.

    Disk shelves must be power-cycled after the shelf ID is changed for it to take effect.

    Changing the shelf ID on a disk shelf that is part of an existing storage system running Data ONTAP requires that you wait at least 30 seconds before turning the power back on so that Data ONTAP can properly delete the old disk shelf address and update the copy of the new disk shelf address.

    Changing the shelf ID on a disk shelf that is part of a new storage system installation (the disk shelf is not yet running Data ONTAP) requires no wait; you can immediately power-cycle the disk shelf.

    VMware ESXi 5.1VMware vSphere virtualizes and aggregates the underlying physical hardware resources across multiple systems and provides pools of virtual resources to the data center.

    vSphere is a "bare-metal" hypervisor, meaning it installs directly on top of the physical server and partitions it into multiple virtual machines that can run simultaneously, sharing the physical resources of the underlying server. vSphere delivers industry-leading performance and scalability while setting a new bar for reliability, security and hypervisor management efficiency.

    In the vSphere 5.1 release, VMware has added several significant enhancements to ESXi:

    NEW Improved Security - There is no longer a dependency on a shared root account when working from the ESXi Shell. Local users assigned administrative privileges automatically get full shell access. With full shell access local users no longer need to "su" to root in order to run privileged commands.

    NEW Improved Logging and Auditing - In vSphere 5.1 all host activity, from both the Shell and the Direct Console User Interface (DCUI), are now logged under the account of the logged in user. This ensures user accountability, making it easy to monitor and audit activity on the host.

    NEW Enhanced SNMPv3 Support - VSphere 5.1 adds support for SNMP v.3 to include both SNMP authentication and SSL encryption.

    NEW Enhanced vMotion - vSphere 5.1 provide a new level of ease and flexibility for live virtual machine migrations. vSphere 5.1 now allows combining vMotion and Storage vMotion into one operation. The combined migration copies both the virtual machine memory and its disk over the network to the destination host. In smaller environments the ability to simultaneously migrate both memory and storage allows virtual machines to be migrated between hosts that do not have shared storage. In larger environments this capability allows virtual machines to be migrated between clusters that do not have a common set of datastores.

    NEW vShield Endpoint Bundling - Now included in vSphere 5.1, vShield Endpoint offloads antivirus and anti-malware agent processing inside guest virtual machines to a dedicated secure virtual appliance delivered by VMware partners.

    NEW Virtual Hardware - VSphere 5.1 introduces a new generation of virtual hardware with virtual machine hardware version 9, which includes the following new features:

    64-way virtual SMP. vSphere 5.1 supports virtual machines with up to 64 virtual CPUs, which lets you run larger CPU-intensive workloads on the VMware vSphere platform.

    1TB virtual machine RAM. You can assign up to 1TB of RAM to VSphere 5.1 virtual machines.

    Hardware accelerated 3D graphics support for Windows Aero. vSphere 5.1 supports 3D graphics to run Windows Aero and Basic 3D applications in virtual machines.29FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure Components Guest OS Storage Reclamation. With Guest OS Storage Reclamation, when files are removed from inside the guest OS the size of the VMDK file can be reduced and the de-allocated storage space returned to the storage array's free pool. Guest OS Storage Reclamation utilizes a new SE Sparse VMDK format available with Horizon View.

    Improved CPU virtualization. In vSphere 5.1 the vSphere host is better able to virtualize the physical CPU and thus expose more information about the CPU architecture to the virtual machine. vSphere 5.1 also adds the ability to exposes additional low-level CPU counters to the guest OS. Exposing the low-level CPU counter information allows for improved debugging, tuning and troubleshooting of operating systems and applications running inside the virtual machine.

    Modular Virtual Desktop Infrastructure Technical Overview

    Modular ArchitectureToday's IT departments are facing a rapidly-evolving workplace environment. The workforce is becoming increasingly diverse and geographically distributed and includes offshore contractors, distributed call center operations, knowledge and task workers, partners, consultants, and executives connecting from locations around the globe at all times.

    An increasingly mobile workforce wants to use a growing array of client computing and mobile devices that they can choose based on personal preference. These trends are increasing pressure on IT to ensure protection of corporate data and to prevent data leakage or loss through any combination of user, endpoint device, and desktop access scenarios (Figure 10). These challenges are compounded by desktop refresh cycles to accommodate aging PCs and bounded local storage and migration to new operating systems, specifically Microsoft Windows 7 and Windows 8.

    Figure 11 The Evolving Workplace Landscape

    Some of the key drivers for desktop virtualization are increased data security and reduced TCO through increased control and reduced management costs. 30FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsCisco Data Center Infrastructure for Desktop VirtualizationCisco focuses on three key elements to deliver the best desktop virtualization data center infrastructure: simplification, security, and scalability. The software combined with platform modularity provides a simplified, secure, and scalable desktop virtualization platform (Figure 12).

    Figure 12 Citrix XenDesktop on Cisco Unified Computing System

    SimplifiedCisco Unified Computing System provides a radical new approach to industry standard computing and provides the heart of the data center infrastructure for desktop virtualization and the Cisco Virtualization Experience (VXI). Among the many features and benefits of Cisco Unified Computing System are the drastic reductions in the number of servers needed and number of cables per server and the ability to very quickly deploy or re-provision servers through Cisco UCS Service Profiles. With fewer servers and cables to manage and with streamlined server and virtual desktop provisioning, operations are significantly simplified. Thousands of desktops can be provisioned in minutes with Cisco Service Profiles and Cisco storage partners' storage-based cloning. This speeds time to productivity for end users, improves business agility, and allows IT resources to be allocated to other tasks.

    IT tasks are further simplified through reduced management complexity, provided by the highly integrated Cisco UCS Manager, along with fewer servers, interfaces, and cables to manage and maintain. This is possible due to the industry-leading, highest virtual desktop density per blade of Cisco Unified Computing System along with the reduced cabling and port count due to the unified fabric and unified ports of Cisco Unified Computing System and desktop virtualization data center infrastructure.

    Simplification also leads to improved and more rapid success of a desktop virtualization implementation. Cisco and its partners -Citrix (XenDesktop and Provisioning Server) and NetApp - have developed integrated, validated architectures, including available pre-defined, validated infrastructure packages, known as FlexPod.

    SecureWhile virtual desktops are inherently more secure than their physical world predecessors, they introduce new security considerations. Desktop virtualization significantly increases the need for virtual machine-level awareness of policy and security, especially given the dynamic and fluid nature of virtual machine mobility across an extended computing infrastructure. The ease with which new virtual desktops can proliferate magnifies the importance of a virtualization-aware network and security infrastructure. Cisco UCS and Nexus data center infrastructure for desktop virtualization provides 31FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure Componentsstronger data center, network, and desktop security with comprehensive security from the desktop to the hypervisor. Security is enhanced with segmentation of virtual desktops, virtual machine-aware policies and administration, and network security across the LAN and WAN infrastructure.

    ScalableGrowth of a desktop virtualization solution is all but inevitable and it is critical to have a solution that can scale predictably with that growth. The Cisco solution supports more virtual desktops per server and additional servers scale with near linear performance. Cisco data center infrastructure provides a flexible platform for growth and improves business agility. Cisco UCS Service Profiles allow for on-demand desktop provisioning, making it easy to deploy dozens or thousands of additional desktops.

    Each additional Cisco UCS bladevserver provides near linear performance and utilizes Cisco's dense memory servers and unified fabric to avoid desktop virtualization bottlenecks. The high performance, low latency network supports high volumes of virtual desktop traffic, including high resolution video and communications.

    Cisco UCS and Nexus data center infrastructure is an ideal platform for growth, with transparent scaling of server, network, and storage resources to support desktop virtualization.

    Savings and SuccessAs demonstrated above, the simplified, secure, scalable Cisco data center infrastructure solution for desktop virtualization will save time and cost. There will be faster payback, better ROI, and lower TCO with the industry's highest virtual desktop density per server, meaning there will be fewer servers needed, reducing both capital expenditures (CapEx) and operating expenditures (OpEx). There will also be much lower network infrastructure costs, with fewer cables per server and fewer ports required, through the Cisco UCS architecture and unified fabric.

    The simplified deployment of Cisco Unified Computing System for desktop virtualization speeds up time to productivity and enhances business agility. IT staff and end users are more productive more quickly and the business can react to new opportunities by simply deploying virtual desktops whenever and wherever they are needed. The high performance Cisco systems and network deliver a near-native end-user experience, allowing users to be productive anytime, anywhere.

    Cisco ServicesCisco offers assistance for customers in the analysis, planning, implementation, and support phases of the VDI lifecycle. These services are provided by the Cisco Advanced Services group. Some examples of Cisco services include:

    Cisco VXI Unified Solution Support

    Cisco VXI Desktop Virtualization Strategy Service

    Cisco VXI Desktop Virtualization Planning and Design Service

    The Solution: A Unified, Pre-Tested and Validated InfrastructureTo meet the challenges of designing and implementing a modular desktop infrastructure, Cisco, Citrix, NetApp and Microsoft have collaborated to create the data center solution for virtual desktops outlined in this document.

    Key elements of the solution include:

    A shared infrastructure that can scale easily

    A shared infrastructure that can accommodate a variety of virtual desktop workloads32FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Infrastructure ComponentsCisco Networking InfrastructureThis section describes the Cisco networking infrastructure components used in the configuration.

    Cisco Nexus 5548 SwitchThe Cisco Nexus 5548 Switch is a 1RU, 10 Gigabit Ethernet, FCoE access-layer switch built to provide more than 500 Gbps throughput with very low latency. It has 20 fixed 10 Gigabit Ethernet and FCoE ports that accept modules and cables meeting the Small Form-Factor Pluggable Plus (SFP+) form factor. One expansion module slot can be configured to support up to six additional 10 Gigabit Ethernet and FCoE ports, up to eight FC ports, or a combination of both. The switch has a single serial console port and a single out-of-band 10/100/1000-Mbps Ethernet management port. Two N+1 redundant, hot-pluggable power supplies and five N+1 redundant, hot-pluggable fan modules provide highly reliable front-to-back cooling.

    Figure 13 Cisco Nexus 5548UP Unified Port Switch

    Cisco Nexus 5500 Series Feature HighlightsThe switch family's rich feature set makes the series ideal for rack-level, access-layer applications. It protects investments in data center racks with standards-based Ethernet and FCoE features that allow IT departments to consolidate networks based on their own requirements and timing.

    The combination of high port density, wire-speed performance, and extremely low latency makes the switch an ideal product to meet the growing demand for 10 Gigabit Ethernet at the rack level. The switch family has sufficient port density to support single or multiple racks fully populated with blade and rack-mount servers.

    Built for today's data centers, the switches are designed just like the servers they support. Ports and power connections are at the rear, closer to server ports, helping keep cable lengths as short and efficient as possible. Hot-swappable power and cooling modules can be accessed from the front panel, where status lights offer an at-a-glance view of switch operation. Front-to-back cooling is consistent with server designs, supporting efficient data center hot-aisle and cold-aisle designs. Serviceability is enhanced with all customer replaceable units accessible from the front panel. The use of SFP+ ports offers increased flexibility to use a range of interconnect solutions, including copper for short runs and fibre for long runs.

    FCoE and IEEE data center bridging features support I/O consolidation, ease management of multiple traffic flows, and optimize performance. Although implementing SAN consolidation requires only the lossless fabric provided by the Ethernet pause mechanism, the Cisco Nexus 5500 Series switches provide additional features that create an even more easily managed, high-performance, unified network fabric.

    Features and BenefitsSpecific features and benefits provided by the Cisco Nexus 5500 Series follow.

    10GB Ethernet, FCoE, and Unified Fabric Features33FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Architecture and Design of XenDesktop 7.1 on Cisco Unified Computing System and NetApp FAS StorageThe Cisco Nexus 5500 Series is first and foremost a family of outstanding access switches for 10 Gigabit Ethernet connectivity. Most of the features on the switches are designed for high performance with 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The Cisco Nexus 5500 Series also supports FCoE on each 10 Gigabit Ethernet port that can be used to implement a unified data center fabric, consolidating LAN, SAN, and server clustering traffic.

    Low LatencyThe cut-through switching technology used in the Cisco Nexus 5500 Series ASICs enables the product to offer a low latency of 3.2 microseconds, which remains constant regardless of the size of the packet being switched. This latency was measured on fully configured interfaces, with access control lists (ACLs), QoS, and all other data path features turned on. The low latency on the Cisco Nexus 5500 Series enables application-to-application latency on the order of 10 microseconds (depending on the NIC). These numbers, together with the congestion management features described in the next section, make the Cisco Nexus 5500 Series a great choice for latency-sensitive environments.

    Other features include: Nonblocking Line-Rate Performance, Single-Stage Fabric, Congestion Management, Virtual Output Queues, Lossless Ethernet (Priority Flow Control), Delayed Drop FC over Ethernet, Hardware-Level I/O Consolidation, and End-Port Virtualization.

    Architecture and Design of XenDesktop 7.1 on Cisco Unified Computing System and NetApp FAS Storage

    Design FundamentalsThere are many reasons to consider a virtual desktop solution such as an ever growing and diverse base of user devices, complexity in management of traditional desktops, security, and even Bring Your Own Computer (BYOC) to work programs. The first step in designing a virtual desktop solution is to understand the user community and the type of tasks that are required to successfully execute their role. The following user classifications are provided:

    Knowledge Workers today do not just work in their offices all day - they attend meetings, visit branch offices, work from home, and even coffee shops. These anywhere workers expect access to all of their same applications and data wherever they are.

    External Contractors are increasingly part of your everyday business. They need access to certain portions of your applications and data, yet administrators still have little control over the devices they use and the locations they work from. Consequently, IT is stuck making trade-offs on the cost of providing these workers a device vs. the security risk of allowing them access from their own devices.

    Task Workers perform a set of well-defined tasks. These workers access a small set of applications and have limited requirements from their PCs. However, since these workers are interacting with your customers, partners, and employees, they have access to your most critical data.

    Mobile Workers need access to their virtual desktop from everywhere, regardless of their ability to connect to a network. In addition, these workers expect the ability to personalize their PCs, by installing their own applications and storing their own data, such as photos and music, on these devices.34FlexPod Datacenter for 2000 Seats of Citrix XenDesktop 7.1 on VMware vSphere 5.1

  • Architecture and Design of XenDesktop 7.1 on Cisco Unified Computing System and NetApp FAS Storage Shared Workstation users are often found in state-of-the-art university and business computer labs, conference rooms or training centers. Shared workstation environments have the constant requirement to re-provision desktops with the latest operating systems and applications as the needs of the organization change, tops the list.

    After the user classifications have been identified and the business requirements for each user classification have been defined, it becomes essential to evaluate the types of virtual desktops that are needed based on user requirements. There are essentially five potential desktops environments for each user:

    Traditional PC: A traditional PC is what ?typically? constituted a desktop environment: physical device with a locally installed operating system.

    Hosted Shared Desktop: A hosted, server-based desktop is a desktop where the user interacts through a delivery protocol. With hosted, server-based desktops, a single installed instance of a server operating system, such as Microsoft Windows Server 2012, is shared by multiple users simultaneously. Each user receives a desktop "session" and works in an isolated memory space. Changes made by one user could impact the other users.

    Hosted Virtual Desktop: A hosted virtual desktop is a virtual desktop running either on virtualization layer (ESX) or on bare metal hardware. The user does not work with and sit in front of the desktop, but instead the user interacts through a delivery protocol.

    Published Applications: Published applications run entirely on the XenApp RDS server and the user interacts through a delivery protocol. With published applications, a single installed instance of an application, such as Microsoft Office 2012, is shared by multiple users simultaneously. Each user receives an application "session" and works in an isolated memory space.

    Streamed Applications: Streamed desktops and applications run entirely on the user's local client device and are sent from a server on demand. The user interacts with the application or desktop directly but the resources may only available while they are connected to the network.

    Local Virtual Desktop: A local virtual desktop is a desktop running entirely on the user's local device and continues to operate when disconnected from the network. In this case, the user's local device is used as a type 1 hypervisor and is synced with the data center when the device is connected to the network.

    For the purposes of the validation represented in this document both XenDesktop 7.1 hosted virtual desktops and hosted shared server desktops were validated. Each of the sections provides some fundamental design decisions for this environment.

    Understanding Applications and DataWhen the desktop user groups and sub-groups have been identified, the next task is to catalog group