UNIT 1 Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson 1.1 Reading Comprehension! REQUISITES OF ENGINEERS IN THE NEXT MILLENNIUM Engineering technology is the profession in which knowledge of mathematics and natural sciences gained by higher education, experience, and practice is devoted primarily to the implementation and extension of existing technology for the benefit of humanity. Engineering technology education focuses primarily on the applied aspects of science and engineering aimed at preparing graduates for practice in that portion of the technological spectrum closest to product improvement, manufacturing, construction, and engineering operational functions. Thus engineering technology is the application of engineering principles and modern technology to help solve or prevent technical problems. The 21st century will be a period of knowledge based business. Engineering is a discipline based on knowledge of not only the latest state-of-the-art technologies, but concurrently, on a solid foundation of classical theories. As engineering graduates, you will undoubtedly be well-versed with both the classical theories and state-of-the-art technologies. However, in order to face the challenges of the coming millennium, this is not enough. In order to be competitive on an individual, organizational and international level, engineers need to be value-adders. Efforts must be made not only to improve ourselves as engineers, but also to increase the accomplishments of engineers as a whole, in adapting technology to local conditions as well as competing internationally. Engineering is the driver of development. Engineers play a vital role in our effort to achieve the type of industrialization in line with Vision 2020. Engineers, by virtue of the scheme of things, are leaders of Page 1

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UNIT 1Nothing great was ever achieved

without enthusiasm. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson

1.1 Reading Comprehension!


Engineering technology is the profession in which knowledge of mathematics and natural sciences gained by higher education, experience, and practice is devoted primarily to the implementation and extension of existing technology for the benefit of humanity.

Engineering technology education focuses primarily on the applied aspects of science and engineering aimed at preparing graduates for practice in that portion of the technological spectrum closest to product improvement, manufacturing, construction, and engineering operational functions. Thus engineering technology is the application of engineering principles and modern technology to help solve or prevent technical problems.

The 21st century will be a period of knowledge based business. Engineering is a discipline based on knowledge of not only the latest state-of-the-art technologies, but concurrently, on a solid foundation of classical theories. As engineering graduates, you will undoubtedly be well-versed with both the classical theories and state-of-the-art technologies. However, in order to face the challenges of the coming millennium, this is not enough. In order to be competitive on an individual, organizational and international level, engineers need to be value-adders. Efforts must be made not only to improve ourselves as engineers, but also to increase the accomplishments of engineers as a whole, in adapting technology to local conditions as well as competing internationally.

Engineering is the driver of development. Engineers play a vital role in our effort to achieve the type of industrialization in line with Vision 2020. Engineers, by virtue of the scheme of things, are leaders of engineering teams. However, engineers also have not only the potential, but the opportunity to be leaders of industries. We have to work with our fellow men and women, to guide, motivate, and if necessary, educate them. Being graduates, we have the responsibility to provide training to our fellow men and women. Therefore, in order to be successful, an engineer must also develop and master interpersonal skills, the ability to project ideas across, and a feel for socio-economic realities.

Engineers need to equip themselves with integrity, creativity and innovative thinking, in order to carry out their roles more effectively. Prepare to be more enthusiastic, assertive and pro-active. Live by a "We can, We will, We must" attitude.

Questions!1. What is engineering technology?2. What does engineering technology primarily focuses on?3. Is the engineering technology a part of social sciences study?4. What should the engineering graduates have?

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5. Why do engineers play a vital role in industrial development?6. Being successful engineers, what should they do?7. What should the engineers equip themselves?8. What does ‘we’ (in the second paragraph line 4) refer to?9. Rewrite some sentences from the reading text (if it is necessary, you may change to the other tenses) into positive statement, negative, and interrogative.

1. 2 SUBJECTS AND VERBSExample: _____________ was ringing continuously for hoursA. LoudlyB. In the morningC. The phoneD. The bells

In this example, you should notice immediately that there is a verb (was ringing), but there is no subject. Answer (C) is the best answer because it is a singular subject that agrees with the singular verb (was ringing). Answer (A) loudly, and answer (B) in the morning, are not the subjects, so they are not correct because (bells) is plural and it does not agree with the singular verb (was ringing).

Exercise 1: Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following

sentences. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C ) or incorrect (I).

1. _______ My best friend always helpful with problems.

2. _______ The bus schedule has changed since last week.

3._________ Accidentally dropped the glass on the floor.

4. ________ The customer paying the clerk for the clothes.

5 _________ The professor handed the syllabus to the students.

6. ________ Each day practiced the piano for hours.

7. ________ The basketball player tossed the ball into the hoop.

8. ________ The new student in the class very talkative and friendly.

9. ________ Walking with the children to school.

10. _______The whales headed south for the winter.

Exercise 2- Choose the best answer.1. __________ was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the

photoelectric effect.A. That Einstein

B. It was Einstein

C. Einstein who

D. Einstein

2. ________ of Willa Catha present an unadorned picture of life on the prairies of the Midwestern United States during the 19th century.

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A. The stories who

B. That the novels

C. The novels which

D. The novels

3. Unlike the climate of the other islands of Hawaii, ________ Kona contains 54 different temperate zones.

A. that of

B. this is

C. these those that

4. With few exceptions, ________ are warm-blooded, have live births, and are suckled with milk from their mother’s body.

A. which mammals

B. mammals

C. mammals that

D. mammals, they

5. Among all the scientists of the 1930s, ________ was so suited to carry out the Manhattan project as J. Robert Oppenheimer.

A. no scientists

B. not who was a scientist

C. none

D. a scientist never he

6. By the time of the appearance of "Paulus", __________ was widely recognized as the most famous living composer.

A. it was Felix Mendelssohn

B. Felix Mendelssohn who

C. Felix Mendelssohn

D. Felix Mendelssohn whom

7. __________ is as widespread in the U.S. as the grey squirrel, an animal actually classified as a rodent.

A. No mammal

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B. Not a mammal which

C. None mammal

D. Not a mammal that

8. In the quiet of the woods, __________ sometimes hears the thrush breaking snail shells.

A. the one

B. one

C. ones

D. those ones

9. __________ is a growing practice in cooperative farming associations to pool and sell the fruit as a common commodity under the brands of the association rather than to sell the fruit of each grower separately.

A. It

B. One

C. Which

D. Why

10. The __________ the forest reached their highest price in the 1980s.

A. products of

B. productions by

C. producers to

D. productibilities with

1.5 Review: Pronouns

Pronouns as SUBJECTS

Pronouns asOBJECTS


Possessive PRONOUNS (subject, object &

complement)I me my Mine

You you your YoursHe him his HisShe her her HersIt It it Its

We Us our OursThey them their Theirs

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences.

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1. I don’t know that man. Do you know ………...?2. We want to see them but ………. don’t want to see ………… .3. She wants to see him but ……….. doesn’t want to see ………… .4. They want to see me but ………. don’t want to see ………… .5. Where is George? She wants to talk to …… 6. My brother has a new job. But …… doesn’t like ……… very much.7. She wants the key. Can you give ……. to …….8. Julia lives with ……… parents.9. I saw Liz and Philip with ……… son, Bill.10.That’s not ….. umbrella. ………….. is black.

Exercise 2. Substitute pronouns Example : This cake is delicious ( It is delicious)1. Where did you get those apples?2. Jim and Betty are going to the play with us.3. My watch needs repairing. 4. Have you met John’s sister?5. The bridge’s face was radiant at the wedding.6. My nephew is in high school.7. The children have gone to bed.8. Did you enjoy Betty’s letter?9. Mrs. Johnson is a good friend of mine.10. Mathematics is easy for me.

1. 3 – What Do You Think?1. People attend college or university for many different reasons (for

example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge).Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specificreasons and examples to support your answer.

2. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Whydo you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons andexamples to support your answer.

3. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Doyou think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specificreasons and details.

4. Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by humanactivity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place tolive. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to supportyour answer.


We change, whether we like it or not ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson

2.1 Reading Comprehension

Education and Training

Electronics engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in

electronic engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually three or four

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years and the completed degree may be designated as a Bachelor of Engineering,

Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Applied Science, or Bachelor of Technology

depending upon the university. Many UK universities also offer Master of

Engineering (MEng) degrees at undergraduate level.

The degree generally includes units covering physics, chemistry, mathematics,

project management and specific topics in electrical engineering. Initially such topics

cover most, if not all, of the subfields of electronic engineering. Students then

choose to specialize in one or more subfields towards the end of the degree.

Some electronics engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a

Master of Science (MSc), Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (PhD), or an

Engineering Doctorate (EngD). The Master degree is being introduced in some

European and American Universities as a first degree and the differentiation of an

engineer with graduate and postgraduate studies is often difficult. In these cases,

experience is taken into account. The Master's degree may consist of either research,

coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a

significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.

In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards

certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body. After

completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of

requirements (including work experience requirements) before being certified.

Fundamental to the discipline are the sciences of physics and mathematics as

these help to obtain both a qualitative and quantitative description of how

such systems will work. Today most engineering work involves the use of

computers and it is commonplace to use computer-aided design programs

when designing electronic systems. Although most electronic engineers will

understand basic circuit theory, the theories employed by engineers generally

depend upon the work they do.


1. What is bachelor of engineering?2. How many years do the students of engineering get the certificate of bachelor

degree?3. What are the fundamental disciplines for the students of engineering?4. Nowadays, most engineering work involves the use of computer. Why? 5. Make a summary from the reading text!

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Example: To Mike ________ was a big surprise.A. reallyB. the partyC. funnyD. when

In this example, you should look first for the subject and the verb. You should notice the verb (was) and should also notice that there is no subject. Do not think that (Mike) is the subject; Mike is the object of the preposition (to) and one cannot be both a subject and an object at the same time. Because a subject is needed in this sentence, answer (B) the party is the best answer. Answers (A), (C), and (D) are not correct because they cannot be subjects.

Exercise 1: Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the prepositional

phrases that come before the verb. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C ) or

incorrect (I).

1. _____ During the meeting in the office discussed the schedule.

2. _____ The doctor gave the patient a prescription.

3. _____ The tall evergreen trees along the road.

4. _____ The watch in the jewelry box needs a new battery.

5. _____ Pleasantly greets everyone in all the offices every morning.

6. _____ In the office of the building across the street from the park on the corner.

7. _____ The dishes in the sink really need to be washed as soon as possible.

8. _____ In a moment of worry about the problem with the cash in the account.

9. _____ The plane from New York circling the airport.

10. ____ On a regular basis the plants in the boxes under the window in the kitchen are

watered and fed.

Exercise 2: Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best complete the sentences.

1. Mark Twain ___ the years after the Civil War the ‘Gilded Age’.A. called

B. calling

C. he called

D. his calls

2. Early ___ toes instead of hooves on their feet.

A. horses

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B. had horses

C. horse had

D. horses living

3. ___ grow close to the ground in the short Arctic summer.

A. Above tundra plants

B. Tundra plants

C. Tundra plants are found

D. For tundra plants

4. In 1867,___ Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million.

A. purchased the United States

B. to purchase the United States

C. the United States purchase of

D. the United States purchased

5. Between 1725 and 1750, New England witnessed an increase in the specialization of


A. occupations

B. occupies

C. they occupied

D. it occupied them

6. The large carotid artery ___ to the main parts of the brain.

A. carrying blood

B. blood is carried

C. carries blood

D. blood carries

7.___ radio as the first practical system of wireless telegraphy.

A. Marconi’s development

B. The development by Marconi

C. Developing Marconi

D. Marconi developed

8. In 1975, the first successful space probe to ___ beginning to send information back to


A. Venus

B. Venus the

C. Venus was

D. Venus it was

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9. The two biggest resort ___ Alabama are Hot Springs and Eureka Springs.

A. in

B. towns in

C. towns are

D. towns are in

10. Nasa’s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center ___ control center for the Mercury, Gemini,

and Apollo space flights.

A. it was at the

B. it was the

C. was the

D. the


Present participles can cause confusion because a present participle can be either an adjective or a part of the verb. a present participle is the –ing form of the verb. It is a part of the verb when it is preceded by some form of the verb be.The train is arriving at the station now VerbIn this sentence, arriving is part of the verb because it is accompanied by is.The train arriving at the station now is an hour late. adjectiveIn this sentence, arriving is an adjective and not part of the verb because it is not accompanied by some form of be. The verb in this sentence is is.

Exercise 1: Each of the following sentences contains one or more present participles.

Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the present participles and label

them as adjectives or verbs. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C ) or incorrect


1. ___ The crying baby needs to be picked up.

2. ___ The clothes are lying on the floor should go into the washing machine.

3. ___ The waitress bringing the steaming soup to the waiting dinners.

4. ___ Most of the striking workers are walking the picket line.

5. ___For her birthday, the child is getting a talking doll.

6. ___ The setting sun creating a rainbow of colors in the sky.

7. ___ The ship is sailing to Mexico is leaving tonight.

8. ___ The letters needing immediately answers are on the desk.

9. ___ The boring class just ending a few minutes ago.

10. ___ The fast moving clouds are bringing freezing rain to the area.

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Past participle can cause confusion because a past participle can be either an adjective or a part of the verb. The past participle is the form of the verb that appears with have or be. It often ends in –ed, but there are also many irregular past participles in English.The mailman has left a letter in the mailbox. VerbThe classes were taught by Professor Smith. Verb

A past participle is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of be or have.The letter left in the mailbox was for me. AdjectiveThe classes taught by Professor Smith were very interesting. adjective

Exercise (Skills 3-4): Each of the following sentences contains one or more participles. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

1. ___ Our hosts are serving drinks on the tiled patio.

2. ___ The tired woman taking a much needed nap.

3. ___ The letters were sent on Monday arrived on Wednesday.

4. ___ The winners deserved the big prize.

5. ___ The plants are growing in the garden need a lot of water.

6. ___ The shining stars lit up the darkened sky.

7. ___ The driver rapidly increased the speed of the racing car.

8. ___ The excited children trying to build a snowman in the falling snow.

9. ___ The students are completing the course will graduate in June.

10. ___ The dissatisfied customer is returning the broken toaster to the store.

Exercise 2: Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

1. The first ___ appeared during the last period of the dinosaurs’ reign.A. flowers are plants

B. plants have flowers

C. plants flowers

D. flowering plants

2. The earliest medicines ___ from plants of various sorts.

A. obtaining

B. they obtained

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C. were obtained

D. they were obtained

3. Simple sails were made from canvas ___ over a frame.

A. a stretch

B. stretched

C. was stretched

D. it was stretched

4. Pluto’s moon Charon ___ in a slightly elliptical path around the planet.

A. moving

B. is moving

C. it was moving

D. in its movement

5. Techniques of breath control form an essential part of any ___ program to improve the


A. it trains

B. trains

C. train

D. training

6. Robert E.Lee ___ the Confederate army to General Grants in 1865 at the Appomattox


A. surrendered

B. he surrendered

C. surrendering

D. surrender

7. The pituitary gland, ___ the brain, releases hormones to control other glands.

A. found below

B. it is found below

C. its foundation below

D. finds itself below

8. At around two years of age, many children regularly produce sentences ___ three or

four words.

A. are containing

B. containing

C. contain

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D. contains

9. Multinational companies ___ it increasingly important to employ internationally

acceptable brand names.

A. finding

B. are finding

C. they find

D. they are finding

10. The cornea is located under the conjunctiva, on ___ of the eye.

A. the part is exposed

B. exposed the part

C. the exposed part

D. exposes the part

2.5 Adverbials at the Beginning of a sentence

Hardly does Juan remember the accident that took his sister’s life.(Juan hardly remembers the accident that took his sister’s life.)

Seldom does the man drive the car by himself.(The man seldom drives the car by himself)

Exercise 1- Change each of the following sentences so that the adverbial is at the beginning of a sentence.

1. Jorge rarely forgets to do his homework.2. Henry had hardly started working when he realized that he needed to go to the library.3. We have never heard the negative impacts of mobile phone.4. Maria seldom missed a football game when she was in the United States.5. We rarely watch television during the week.6. He has never played a better game than he has today.7. This professor seldom lets his students leave class early.8. Jennifer had hardly entered the English classroom when she felt the presence of her

ex-boy friend.9. We have rarely seen such an effective actor as he has proven.10. Math class seldom gives an additional assignment.

Exercise 2- Sentence Completion and Error Recognition1. Not until ___________ the gold mining completely finished in California in 1882

a. didb. hadc. wasd. were

2. Very seldom __________ to be a place of interest for the young generations.a. does museum consideredb. museum consideredc. museum is considered

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d. is museum considered3. Never again ____________ some domestic animals in this area neglected to leave

home.a. dob. arec. haved. is

4. Not once before the year 1990 ________ electric lamps come into widespread use and replaced other types of fat, gas or oil for almost every purpose.a. didb. arec. haved. the

5. Only rarely flight 811 for Tokyo is now ready for boarding at the airport.6. Not one file have the journal editor who works in some publication companies

previously handed to me late.7. Never again have the use of pesticides in agriculture been debated primarily in

developed countries.8. Not once before the twentieth century Washington D.C. has a problem with air

pollution during the summer although there is no industry there.9. Very seldom does art critics in western countries consider movies to be a form of

fine art.10. Not until is a company which advertises extensively on TV experience a little bit

increase in revenues.


Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.

~Nelson Mandela (1918- …), former President of South Africa,

anti-apartheid activist, Nobel Peace Prize winner

3.1 Reading ComprehensionEngineering Technicians

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Civil engineering technicians help civil engineers plan and oversee the construction of highways, buildings, bridges, dams, wastewater treatment systems, and other structures. Some estimate construction costs and specify materials to be used, and some may even prepare drawings or perform land-surveying duties. Others may set up and monitor instruments used to study traffic conditions. (Cost estimators; construction and building inspectors; drafters; and surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians

Electrical and electronic engineering technicians help design, develop, test, and manufacture electrical and electronic equipment such as communication equipment, medical monitoring devices, navigational equipment, and computers. They may work in product evaluation and testing, using measuring and diagnostic devices to adjust, test, and repair equipment. (Workers whose jobs primarily involve repairing electrical and electronic equipment are often are referred to as electronics technicians, but they are included with electrical and electronics installers and repairers.

Electro-mechanical engineering technicians combine knowledge of mechanical engineering technology with knowledge of electrical and electronic circuits to design, develop, test, and manufacture electronic and computer-controlled mechanical systems, such as robotic assembly machines. They also operate these machines in factories and other worksites. Their work often overlaps that of both electrical and electronic engineering technicians and mechanical engineering technicians.

Environmental engineering technicians work closely with environmental engineers and scientists in developing methods and devices used in the prevention, control, or remediation of environmental hazards. They inspect and maintain equipment related to air pollution and recycling. Some inspect water and wastewater treatment systems to ensure that pollution control requirements are met.

Industrial engineering technicians study the efficient use of personnel, materials, and machines in factories, stores, repair shops, and offices. Working under the direction of industrial engineers, they prepare layouts of machinery and equipment, plan the flow of work, conduct statistical studies of production time or quality, and analyze production costs.

Mechanical engineering technicians help engineers design, develop, test, and manufacture industrial machinery, consumer products, and other equipment. They may assist in product tests by, for example, setting up instrumentation for auto crash tests. They may make sketches and rough layouts, record and analyze data, make calculations and estimates, and report on their findings. When planning production, mechanical engineering technicians prepare layouts and drawings of the assembly process and of parts to be manufactured. They estimate labor costs, equipment life, and plant space. Some test and inspect machines and equipment or work with engineers to eliminate production problems.

Work environment. Most engineering technicians work 40 hours a week in laboratories, in offices, in manufacturing or industrial plants, or on construction sites. Some may be exposed to hazards from equipment, chemicals, or toxic materials, but incidents are rare as long as proper procedures are followed.

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Questions!1. Who is engineer?2. Who is engineer technician?3. What do civil engineering technicians help?4. What do mechanical engineering technicians help?5. What do electrical and electronic engineering technicians help?6. What does ‘they’ refer to? (In the second paragraph line 3)7. How many hours do the engineering technicians work in a week?8. Underline the subjects with one line and the verbs with two lines in each paragraph!9. Rewrite some sentences from the reading text, and then change into the passive form!

3.2 Grammar Review: The Simple Past and the Present Perfect Tense

The Simple Past


Mary walked downtown yesterday.I slept for eight hours last night.

The simple past is used to talk about activities or situations that began and ended in the past (e.g. yesterday, last night, two days ago, in 1990).



Bob stayed home yesterday morning.Our plane arrived on time.

Most simple past verbs are formed by adding –ed to a verb, as in (a), (c), and (d).


I ate breakfast this morning.Sue took a taxi to the airport.

Some verbs have irregular past forms, as in (b), (e), and (f). *

STATEMENT {I-You-She-He-It-We-


} worked yesterday.ate breakfast.

NEGATIVE* {I-You-She-He-It-We-


} did not (didn’t) work yesterday.did not (didn’t) eat breakfast.




} work yesterday?eat breakfast?





} did.didn’t.

To make a 'wh' question, of course, put the question word at the beginning of the sentence: 'Wh' Questions Where did I go? When did it rain? What did you play? Where did we eat? Why did she listen? How did they travel?

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The Present Perfect Tense

STATEMENT: HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE The basic form of the present perfect: have or has + the past participle. Use have with I, you, we, they, or a plural noun (e.g. students). Use has with she, he, it, or a singular noun (e.g. Jim). With pronouns, have is contracted to apostrophe + ve (‘ve) and has to apostrophe + s (‘s).


I have finished my work.The students have finished Chapter 1.Julie has eaten lunch.


I’ve/You’ve/We’ve/They’ve eaten lunch.She’s/He’s eaten lunch.It’s been cold for the last three days.


have + not = haven’t has + not = hasn’t


I have not (haven’t) finished my work. Ann has not (hasn’t) eaten lunch.


verb (have or has) precedes the subject.


Have you finished your work?Has Jim eaten lunch?How long have you lived here?



A: Have you seen that movie?B: Yes, I have. OR: No, I haven’t.A: Has Nadia eaten lunch?B: Yes, she has. OR: No, she hasn’t.

The helping verb is used in a short answer to a ‘yes/no’ question. The helping verb in the short answer is not contracted with the pronoun.

Exercise 1 – Mixed formsMake the simple past for no. 1-7 and present perfect for no. 8-15. Choose positive, negative or question.1. (I / go / to the library today)2. (it / rain all day?)3. (who / we / forgot to invite?)4. (we / not / hear that song already)5. (she / steal all the chocolate!)6. (I / explain it well?)7. (how / we / finish already?)8. (he / study English)9. (I / know him for three months)10. (where / you / study Arabic?)11. (what countries / they / visit in Europe?)12. (he / hurt his leg)13. (she / leave her phone in a taxi)14. (we / not / lose our tickets)15. (she / call her mother?)

Exercise 2– Past simple, or present perfect?Choose the past simple or the present perfect:

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1. Last night I ______ (lose) my keys – I had to call my flatmate to let me in.2. I ______ (lose) my keys – can you help me look for them?3. I ______ (visit) Jakarta three times.4. Last year I ______ (visit) Jakarta.5. I ______ (know) my great grandmother for a few years - she died when I was eight.6. I ______ (know) Julie for three years – we still meet once a month.7. Last month I ______ (go) to Surabaya.8. I’m sorry, John isn’t here now. He ______ (go) to the shops.9. We ______ (finish) this room last week.10. I ______ (finish) my exams finally – I’m so happy!11. Yesterday, I ______ (go) to the library, the post office and the supermarket.12. I ______ (go) to the supermarket three times this week!13. She ______ (live) in Glenmore since 1994.14. She ______ (live) in Glenmore when she was a child.15. I ______ (drink) three cups of coffee this morning.16. I ______ (drink) seven cups of coffee yesterday.

Murphy, Raymond. 2001. Essential Grammar in Use (2nd Ed.). p. 38Azar, Betty Schrampfer. 1993. Fundamentals of English Grammar: p. 160-162

© 2008 www.perfect-english-grammar.com.Exercise 3- Writing: What have you done so far in improving your English ability? Have you practiced your English intensively? Have you ever taken the English courses/training? (Write down your task in a paragraph at least 10 sentences).



Many sentences in English have more than one clause. (A clause is a group of words

containing a subject and a verb) when you have two clauses in an English sentence, you

must connect the two clauses correctly. One way to connect two clauses is to use and,

but, or, so between the clauses.

The sun was shining, and the sky was blue.

The sky was blue, but it was very cold.

It may rain tonight, or it may be clear.

It was raining outside, so I took my umbrella.

Exercise 1: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline

the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then, indicate if the

sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

1. ___ The lawn needs water every day, or it will turn brown.

2. ___The book was not long, but it difficult to read.

3. ___ It was raining, so decided to go camping.

4. ___ The materials has been cut, and the pieces have been sewn together.

5. ___ The patient took all the medicine, he did not feel much better.

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6. ___ The bill must be paid immediately, or the electricity will be turned off.

7. ___ The furnace broke so the house got quite cold.

8. ___ The dress did no cost too much, but the quality it seemed excellent.

9. ___ The leaves kept falling off the trees, and the boys kept raking them up, but the

yard was still covered.

10. ___ The postman has already delivered the mail, so the letter is not going to arrive

today, it probably will arrive tomorrow.


Sentences with adverb clauses have two basic patterns in English. Study the clauses and

connectors in the following sentences.

He is tired because he has been working so hard.

Because he has been working so hard, he is tired.

The following chart lists common adverb connectors.








Even though



Exercise 1: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline

the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then, indicate if the

sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

1. ___ After the plane circled the airport, it landed on the main runway.

2. ___ The registration process took many hours since the lines so long.

3. ___ This type of medicine can be helpful, it can also have some bad side effects.

4. ___ The waves were amazingly high when the storm hit the coastal town.

5. ___ We need to get a new car whether is on sale or not.

6. ___ Just as the bread came out of the oven, while a wonderful aroma filled the kitchen.

7. ___ Everyone has spent time unpacking boxes since the family moved into the new


8 ___ Although the area is a desert many plants bloom there in the springtime.

9. ___ The drivers on the freeway drove slowly and carefully while the rain was falling

heavily because they did not want to have an accident.

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10. If you plan carefully before you take a trip, will have a much better time because the

small details will not cause problems.

Exercise 2: Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the


1. A spacecraft is freed from friction ___ launched into space.

A. it

B. it is

C. after is

D. after it is

2. ___ with their surroundings, or they hide in crevices for protection.

A. Lobsters

B. Lobsters blend

C. Lobsters blending

D. Because lobsters blend

3. ___ a ball-and-socket joint, the elbow is a simple hinge joint.

A. While the shoulder

B. While the shoulder is

C. The shoulder is

D. The shoulder

4. A car has several sections with moving parts, ___ of those parts is essential.

A. good lubrication

B. well lubricated

C. and good lubrication

D. and well lubricated

5. Bears cannot see well ____ small eyes.

A. bears have

B. because having

C. because they have

D. because of bears

6. ___ at the Isthmus of Panama, so animals were able to migrate between North and

South America.

A. A land bridge existed

B. When a land bridge existed

C. A land bridge

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D. With a land bridge

7. ___ mostly made of granite, it also contains some human-made materials.

A. The Empire State Building

B. The Empire State Building is

C. Although the Empire State Building is

D. Although the Empire State Building is built.

8. Pressure differences make the eardrum vibrate ___ the ear.

A. enters the sound waves

B. as sound waves

C. sound waves enter

D. as sound waves enter

9. An optical microscope magnifies as much a 2,000 times, but an electron microscope

___ as much as a million times.

A. magnifying

B. it magnifies

C. can magnify

D. magnify it

10. If scientific estimates are accurate, ___ with the Earth about 20,000 years ago.

A. the Canon Diablo meteorite collided

B. the collision of the Canon Diablo meteorite

C. the Canon Diablo meteorite colliding

D. colliding the Canon Diablo meteorite


A noun clause is a clause that functions as a noun; because the noun clause functions as a

noun, it is used in a sentence as an object of a verb (if it follows a verb) or an object of a

preposition (if it follows a preposition). Study the clauses and connectors in the

following sentences.

I don’t know why he said such things.

Noun clause as object of verb

I am thinking about why he said such things.

Noun clause as object of preposition

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The following chart lists the noun clause connectors and the sentence patterns used with


What, when, where, why, how

Whether, if


Sally explained why she did it

Exercise 1: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline

the subjects once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then, indicate if the

sentences are correct (C) or Incorrect (I).

1. ___ It doubtful whether he will pass the test or not.

2. ___ The group discussed who he should receive the prize.

3. ___ It is not certain why the class was cancelled.

4. ___ I will do what does it need to be done.

5. ___ We forgot when did the movie start.

6. ___ I would like to ask if you could come over for dinner this weekend.

7. ___ The children knew which the best game to play.

8. ___ The advisor informed her that needed to add another class.

9. ___ He saw who took the money.

10. ___It is unclear how the window got broken.


An adjective clause describes a noun. Because the clause is an adjective, it is positioned

directly after the noun that it describes.

This is the house that I want to buy.

adjective clause

The house that I want to buy is quite expensive.

adjective clause

The following chart lists the adjective clause connectors and the sentence patterns used

with them.

Whom (for people) Which (for things) That (for people or things)

I like the dress that you are wearing.

The dress that you are wearing is beautiful.

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Exercise 1: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline

the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then, indicate if the

sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

1. ___ My sisters prefer to eat food that have cooked themselves.

2. ___ The boat that hit the underwater rock sank.

3. ___ The car which he was driving could not possible be his.

4. ___ The children built a house in the tree that in the backyard.

5. ___ The cost of the trip which we wanted to take.

6. ___ The children are playing with the toys which their mother told them to put away.

7. ___ The guests who were seated around the dinner table.

8. ___ The students have to read all the chapters which are n the test.

9. ___ I really do not like the artists which you like.

10. ___ The stones that they were set in the ring were quite valuable.

3.4 Passive Voice

Sentences are passive when the subject does not perform the action. Instead, the subject receives an action or is the result of an action. The person or thing that performed the action may be unimportant or unknown in a passive sentence.

The passive voice is formed with a form of be and the past participle of the main verb. For example:Dinner is served from 5:00 to 8:00.many people were injured by the tornado last night.The letter was mailed by Nick.

Passive sentences focus on the noun that is the receiver or result of an action rather than the noun that is performing the action (the agent). In fact passive sentence very often do not mention the agent at all. For example:Super computers were developed in order to solve complex problems. The mail is delivered at noon.

Passive sentences are used to make sentence sound more impersonal. For example:Passengers are requested to remain seated.An errors was made in this month’s payroll.


Tense or Model Passive Sentence

Simple Present The TOEFL exam is given every six months

Simple past The TOEFL exam was given last month

Simple Future The TOEFL exam will be given every year

Present The TOEFL exam is being given every year

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Present perfect The TOEFL exam has been given every year since 1950

Past perfectThe TOEFL exam had been given before the Vietnam War occurred

Simple Modal The TOEFL exam should be given to every Foreign student

Past ModalThe TOEFL exam should have been given to all entering US colleges.

Exercise 1-Write down passive forms of the sentences.1. The fire has caused considerable damage. 2. Somebody calls the president every day. 3. Martha was delivering the documents to the departments. 4. Brian will meet you at the airport. 5. The delegates had received the information before the recess. 6. Amanda upset me by what she said. 7. Bob is going to inform Brian later. 8. The Lawrence police arrested 12 students last night.

Exercise 2- Write down passive forms of the sentences! Some sentences have no passive forms.1. The president canceled the meeting.2. Mother has served the coffee to the guests.3. The teacher announces the final exam.4. Someone is building a new house in this village.5. Reza was repairing my computer.6. All the students must do the assignment.7. They have seen the accident.8. The train was twenty minutes late.9. The boy should send the flowers soon.10. Dicks walks to his office.

Exercise 3- Rewrite the following sentences into active or passive voice.1. Engineers learn natural science and engineering.2. The technician solved the technical problems.3. Civil engineering has constructed the buildings and bridges.4. Electronics repairers are testing the communication equipments and computers.5. Many workers will be needed by the company.6. They inspect the air pollution and recycling.7. The mechanical engineer should develop the consumer products. 8. Engineers need integrity, creativity, and innovative thinking.9. The professor gave him a final project.10. The buildings have been painted by the painter.

3.5 Parallel Structure

When a structure consists of two or more parts, those parts should be parallel (similar in form).

Example: I like skiing and skating.

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In the above example, the two objects of the verb like are skiing and skating. Notice how they are parallel (or similar) in form.

It would sound very awkward to say I like skiing and to skate or I like to ski and skating. These structures sound awkward because they are not parallel.

It is common for students to make errors in parallel structure with items in a series.


(a) Gerry and his wife have lived in France, Italy, and in Switzerland.

This series is not parallel. There are two ways to correct the error:

Gerry and his wife have lived in France, Italy, and Switzerland.

(A series of three nouns sharing the preposition in)

Gerry and his wife have lived in France, in Italy, and in Switzerland.

(A series of three prepositional phrases)

(b) I love to dance, to read, and watch movies.

Again, the series is not parallel; there are two ways to correct the error:

I love to dance, read, and watch movies.

(A series of three verbs sharing the word to)

I love to dance, to read, and to watch movies.

(A series of three infinitives)

(c) Sue has trouble doing algebra, physics, and understanding grammar.

Again, there are two ways to correct this non-parallel structure:

Sue has trouble doing algebra, learning physics, and understanding grammar.

(A series of ing word groups)

Sue has trouble with algebra, physics, and grammar.

(A series of nouns sharing the preposition with)

It is important also to use parallel structure with correlative conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions are two-part conjunctions:

both . . . and . . .

either . . . or . . .

neither . . . nor . . .

not only . . . but also

whether . . . or


I like both skiing and skating.

            (Two ing words)

We will travel either by car or by bus.

            (Two prepositional phrases)

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Many people in the world can neither read nor write.

            (Two main verbs sharing the helper can)

The boys have not only cut the grass but also weeded the garden.

            (Two main verbs sharing the helper have)

I can’t decide whether to read a book or to watch television.

            (Two infinitive word groups)

Exercise 1- Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences.

1. Peter is rich, handsome, and may people like him.

2. Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and he teaches.

3. The soldiers approached the enemy camp slowly and silent.

4. She likes to fish, swim, and surfing.

5. When teenagers finish high school, they have several choices: going to college, getting a job, or the army.

6. Enrique entered the room, sat down, and is opening his book.

7. Although we enjoyed the article on Seven Years in Tibet, we have neither seen the movie nor read the book.

8. Matt is either studying in the library, or he is working in the computer lab.

Exercise 2- Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences.

1. The puppy stood slowly, wagged its tail, blinking its eyes, and barked.

2. Ecologists are trying to preserve our environment for future generations by protecting the ozone layer, purifying the air, and have replanted the trees that have been cut down.

3. The chief of police demanded from his assistants an orderly investigation, a well-written report, and that they work hard.

4. Marcia is a scholar, an athlete, and artistic.

5. Slowly and with care, the museum director removed the Ming vase from the shelf and placed it on the display pedestal.

6. The farmer plows the fields, plants the seeds, and will harvest the crop.

7. Abraham Lincoln was a good president and was self-educated, hard working, and always told the truth.

8. Children love playing in the mud, running through puddles, and they get very dirty.

9. Collecting stamps, playing chess, and to mount beautiful butterflies are Derrick’s hobbies.

10. Despite America’s affluence, many people are without jobs, on welfare, and have a lot of debts.

3.6 Speaking Practices

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The following are the Possible Questions from the Interviewer of the IELTS Speaking Test:

1. We are becoming increasingly dependent on computers. They are used in businesses, hospitals, crime detection and even to fly planes. What things will they be used for in future? Is this dependence on computers a good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits?

2. In what ways has information technology changed work and working practices in the past 10 years?

3. Technology is making communication easier in today's world, but at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to work at home in front of a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than face-to-face contact for its main means of communication?

4. Some businesses now say that no one can smoke cigarettes in any of their offices. Some governments have banned smoking in all public places. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons.

5. Should the same laws which prohibit the sale and consumption of heroin be applied to tobacco?

6. To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable? 7. Human beings do not need to eat meat in order to maintain good health because

they can get all their food needs from meatless products and meatless substances. A vegetarian diet is as healthy as a diet containing meat. Argue for or against the opinion above.

8. Forests are the lungs of the earth. Destruction of the world's forests amounts to death of the world we currently know. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

9. Are our zoos cruel to wild animals? Discuss. 10. Zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural

environment. Discuss some of the arguments for and/or against keeping animals in zoos.

11. To what extent should economic planning be influenced by the need of environmental conservation?

12. Damage of the environment is an inevitable consequence of worldwide improvements in the standard of living. Discuss.

13. The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more. Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.

14. Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country. Do you agree?

15. What are factors which are related to academic success in high-school students? 16. Do the benefits of study abroad justify the difficulties? What advice would you

offer to a prospective student? 17. The idea of going overseas for university study is an exciting prospect for many

people. But while it may offer some advantages, it is probably better to stay home because of the difficulties a student inevitably encounters living and studying in a different culture. To what extent do you agree or disagree this statement? Give reasons for your answer.

18. What kind of listening challenges do overseas students face in tertiary education? What recommendations would you offer?

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19. Write a report to your sponsoring agency describing the accommodation problems faced by foreign students in Britain/US/Australia, etc. Make any necessary recommendations.

20. Education is recognized as vital to the future of any society in today's world. Governments throughout the world should make education compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 15. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

21. Foreign language instruction should begin in kindergarten. Discuss. 22. Children should never be educated at home by their parents. Do you agree or

disagree? 23. Children learn best by observing behavior of adults and copying it. To what

extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? 24. To what extent should universities function as training grounds for employment? 25. To what extent should university courses be geared to the economic needs of

society? 26. Should wealthy nations be required to share their wealth among poorer nations

by providing such things as food and education? Or is it a responsibility of the governments of poorer nations to look after their citizens themselves?

27. To what extent will migration from the developing world to the developed world become a social and political issue in the 21st century?

28. The dominance of black people in US sport is due to sociological rather than physiological factors. Discuss.

29. In Britain, when someone gets old, they often go to live in a home with other old people where there are nurses to look after them. Sometimes the government has to pay for this care. Who should be responsible for our old people? Give reasons.

30. In some countries the average worker is obliged to retire at the age of 50, while in others people can work until they are 65 or 70. Until what age do you think people should be encouraged to remain in paid employment? Give reasons for your answer.

31. In your opinion should government intervene in the rights of the individual with regard to family planning?

32. To what extent has the traditional male role changed in the last 20 years? 33. Many people believe that women make better parents than men and that this is

why they have the greater role in raising children in most societies. Others claim that men are just as good as women at parenting Write an essay expressing your point of view. Give reasons for your answer.

34. The first car appeared on British roads in 1888. By the year 2000 there may be as many as 29 million vehicles on British roads. Alternative forms of transport should be encouraged and international laws introduced to control car ownership and use. What do you think?

35. The best way to reduce the number of traffic accidents is to make all young drivers complete a safe driving education course before being licensed to drive.

36.  The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.

37. News editors decide what to broadcast on TV and what to print in newspapers. What factors do you think influence their decisions?

38. Do we become used to bad news? Would it be better if more good news was reported?

39. TV: could you be without it? Discuss.

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40. The mass media, including TV, radio and newspapers, have great influence in shaping people's ideas. To what extent do you agree or disagree this statement? Give reasons for your answer.

41. Tourism is becoming increasingly important as a source of revenue to many countries but its disadvantages should not be overlooked. What are some of the problems of tourism?

42. Are women better parents than men? 43. Should children should be taught sex education in schools?  44. Should rich countries forgive all debts for poor countries? 45. Will the Internet bring people of the world closer together? 46. Does foreign aid helps donor countries more than the recipients? 47. Are zoos necessary for education? 48. Is animal testing necessary? 49. Should rich countries pay more for environmental damage? 50. Should retirement be compulsory at 65 years of age? 51. Most high level jobs are done by men. Should the government encourage a

certain percentage of these jobs to be reserved for women? 52. Are famous people treated unfairly by the media? Should they be given more

privacy, or is the price of their fame an invasion into their private lives? 53. Should developing countries concentrate on improving industrial skills or should

they promote education first? 54. Safety standards are important when building people's homes. Who should be

responsible for enforcing strict building codes - the government or the people who build the homes?

55. Does modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when technology was simpler?

56. In your opinion what factors contribute to a good movie? 57. Does modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when

technology was simpler? 58. Does travel help to promote understanding and communication between

countries? 59. If children behave badly, should their parents accept responsibility and also be

punished? 60. What should a government do for a country to become successful? 61. Should sports classes be sacrificed in High School so students can concentrate

on Academic subjects? 62. Nowadays doctors can become very rich. Maybe they should not focus on

profitable activities such as plastic surgery or looking after rich patients and concentrate more on patient’s health, no matter how rich they are?

63. Will modern technology, such as the internet ever replace the book or the written word as the main source of information?

64. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of giving international Aid to poor countries.

65. Computers can translate all kinds of languages well. Do our children need to learn more languages in the future?

3.7 Idioms in Daily ConversationsInstruction: Make your own words based on the following idioms!

1. catch a cold ( to become ill with a cold)2. cheer up (make someone feel happier)3. bring up (mention, raise an issue or

16. point out (mention, explain)17. run out of (exhaust the supply of)18. take part in (participate)

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question)4. all along ( from the beginning, all the

time)5. call on (visit, ask to participate)6. call off (cancel)7. drop off ( leave)8. drop out (stop going to school)9. figure out (understand)10. do over (do again)11. find out (discover)12. get rid of (eliminate, discard)13. get through (finish)14. get over ( recover, overcome)15. drop by/in (visit informally)

19. turn up ( increase volume/intensity)20. take off (remove)21. put on (get dressed in)22. pick out (select, choose)23. turn down (decrease volume)24. take place ( happen, occur)25. time off ( period of vacation)26. think of (have an opinion about

something)27. take it easy (relax, don’t worry)28. show up (appear)29. put off (delay, postpone)30. so far (until now)

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Energy and persistence conquer all things.

~ Benjamin Franklin

4.1 Technology in Use

Before you begin …Hold a short introductory discussion to kick off the course as a whole. Use thefollowing questions to cue the discussion. In larger groups, students could work inpairs, or in groups of three or four.

l. What field of engineering are you in / would you like to go into? Branches of engineering include: mechanical, electrical, civil, structural, process/ manufacturing, automotive, aeronautical, highway, coastal.2. How would you describe your branch of engineering to a non-specialist?3. What kind of work do you do / would you like to do within your field? Possibilities include: design, technical management/supervision/project management, product/process development, research, investigation/analysis/ trouble-shooting.

4. In what kinds of situation do you / other people in your field need to use English at work?

Read the text!

The branches of engineering. The three main branches are:

mechanical engineering related with the design and production of machines, for

example engines, pumps, vehicle chassis, automated production lines

electrical engineering related with the design and assembly of electrical circuits

and components, for example power supply networks, electrical controls for

automated machines, electrical systems in vehicles

civil/structural engineering related with the design and construction of large

structures, for example skyscrapers, bridges, dams, tunnels.

There are also many more specialized branches of engineering, for instance,

manufacturing/process engineering (production lines / manufacturing plants),

automotive engineering (vehicles), aeronautical engineering (aircraft).

The specialized disciplines of engineering, and specific engineering projects,

often draw on two or more of the main branches. For example, cars and planes

contain both mechanical and electrical systems requiring mechanical and

electrical engineers to collaborate closely. Similarly, the design and construction

of new power stations requires intricate coordination between mechanical

installations, for example turbines, electrical equipment, for example generators

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and the civil engineering structures that support and house them.

The fact that there is so much interfacing between engineering specializations

means that, beyond the highly specific terminology of their own field, all

engineers need to speak the same general technical language, and possess the

language skills commonly used in technical conversations.

4.2 Conditional Sentences

Conditional sentences are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if)

can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are 3

types conditional type 1, 2, and 3.

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses.

Conditional Sentences Type 1 refer to the future.

An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time.

We don't know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the

conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.

Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.

I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite

sure, however, that I will find it.

Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves

Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a


Conditional Sentences Type 2 refer to situations in the present.

An action could happen if the present situation were different.

We don't really expect the situation to change, however. We just imagine “ what would

happen if . . .”

Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her

address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find

her address.

Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.

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I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he

loves Ferrari. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very

unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.

Conditional Sentences Type 3 refer to situations in the past.

An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled.

Things were different then, however. We just imagine, “ what would have happened if

the situation had been fulfilled.”

Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)

Example : If I had found her address, I would have sent her an


Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her

address, however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.

Example : If he had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved

Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.

Exercise 1-Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses for each of the following sentences.

1. If they had left the house earlier, they ________ (be; negative) so late getting to the airport that they could not check their baggage.

2. If I finish the dress before Saturday, I ________ (give) it to my sister for her birthday.3. If I had seen the movie, I _________ (tell) you about it last night.4. He would give you the money if he _________ (have) it.5. She would call you immediately if she ________ (need) help.6. If you have enough time, please ________ (paint) the chair before you leave.7. We could go for a drive if today __________(be) Saturday.8. If he had left already, he _________ (call) us.9. He would understand it if you _______ (explain) it to him more slowly.10. I could understand the French and Malagasy teachers if they ________(speak) more


Exercise 2– Sentence Completion and Error Recognition1. If Jane _____________ with us, she would have had a good time.

a. would haveb. had comec. would have comed. came

2. __________ two waves pass a given point simultaneously, they will have no effect on each other’s subsequent

a. So thatb. They arec. Thatd. If

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3. If the customer ___________ not satisfied, please have call the manager.a. amb. isc. ared. be

4. If the waiter cannot handle your request, the captain _____ assist you.a. willb. hasc. didd. is

5.___________ a reservation, it will be impossible to get a hotel room this weekend because of the jazz festival.a. without you haveb. If you havec. Unless you haved. Unless having

6. She will have to go as soon as possible if she wanted to catch the last flight.7. If potatoes are cultivated in every state, Idaho produced the largest crop of all.8. If the Democratic party would reorganize on a more moderate platform, it could win

the next election.9. The proposal would be submitted last week, if the resignation of the director had not

made necessary to revise the entire set of options.10. If the company appreciated Jane’s success in increasing the market share, he would

not have thought of leaving the company.

4.3 Kinds of SentencesExperienced writers use a variety of sentences to make their writing interesting and lively. Too many simple sentences, for example, will sound choppy and immature while too many long sentences will be difficult to read and hard to understand.   


A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow, and verbs are in green.  

A. Some students like to study in the mornings.B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.

The three examples above are all simple sentences.  Note that sentence B contains a compound subject, and sentence C contains a compound verb.  Simple sentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought, but they can also contain a compound subjects or verbs. 


A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators

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are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red. 

A.  I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.  B.  Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping.  C.  Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.

The above three sentences are compound sentences.  Each sentence contains two independent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it.  Note how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses.  Sentences B and C, for example, are identical except for the coordinators.  In sentence B, which action occurred first?  Obviously, "Alejandro played football" first, and as a consequence, "Maria went shopping.  In sentence C, "Maria went shopping" first.  In sentence C, "Alejandro played football" because, possibly, he didn't have anything else to do, for or because "Maria went shopping."  How can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses?  What implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on the meaning of the sentence?


A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.

 A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.  B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.

When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.

Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma.  The comma after the dependent clause in sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there.  In sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence. 

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Finally, sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause.  The subjects, verbs, and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences, and in these sentences, the independent clauses are also underlined. 

 A. The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics .B. The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf .C. The house which AbrahAM  Lincoln was born in is still standing .D. The town where I grew up is in the United States .

Adjective Clauses are studied in this site separately, but for now it is important to know that sentences containing adjective clauses are complex.

Exercise- Write down 10 simple sentences, 10 compound sentences, as well as 10 complex sentences.

4.4 Active Writing: Transitional wordsTransitional devices or words are like bridges between parts of your paper. They are cues that help the reader to interpret ideas a paper develops. Transitional devices are words or phrases that help carry a thought from one sentence to another, from one idea to another, or from one paragraph to another. And finally, transitional devices link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Here is a list of some common transitional devices that can be used to cue readers in a given way. Each section will include example(s) of how the words can be used.



ADDITION- These words are used

to add information to other ideas, concepts and items on a list.

additionally, again, also, and then, as well, by the way, besides, equally important, finally, first (second, etc), furthermore, in addition, lastly, moreover, next, what is more

I have a degree in Early Childhood Education; furthermore, I have six years' experience working with young children; or,

In addition to my degree in Early Childhood Education, I have six years experience working with young children.

CONTRAST- These words are used

to introduce contrasting or opposing ideas, concepts or theories.

although, but, by contrast, conversely, despite, even, however, in contrast, in reality, in spite of this, instead, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, though, unfortunately, whereas, yet

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) may be used to treat depression. However, there are many difficulties with this method.

There are benefits of ECT in severe cases, although more research is required.

SIMILARITIES- These words are used

to introduce ideas, theories and concepts that are similar to

also, comparably, in like manner, in the same way, likewise, similarly

Stress levels can be reduced by relaxation techniques, which operate on the principle that one cannot be tense and relaxed at the same time. In the same way,

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each other. exercise has a similar effect on stress levels.

LOGICAL REASONING - These words are used

to indicate where your ideas are going and the logical relationship between concepts, theories and facts.

accordingly, as a consequence, as a result, because of this, consequently, hence, so, subsequently, therefore, thus

Stress can lead to an increase in muscular tension. Therefore, stress reduction involves opposing this state of tension; namely by using relaxation techniques.

CAUSE AND EFFECT- These words are used

to indicate the relationship between and action and the result of that action.

accordingly, after all, as a result, consequently, for this reason, hence, in this way, then, therefore, thus, with this in mind

Stress can cause an increase in muscular tension, especially in the muscles around the shoulders and neck. As a result, an individual may experience headaches.

TIME- These words indicate

an association between ideas, theories or concepts that are time dependent.

again, already, at first, at that time, during this time, earlier, finally, firstly (secondly, etc), formerly, gradually, immediately, in future, in the meantime, in the past, lately, meanwhile, next, never, once, presently, recently, shortly, simultaneously, so far, sometimes, soon, suddenly, then, until then, until now

They will write their exams from 4-6:00 p.m., and immediately afterward, they will proceed to the banquet.

Biological research led to a greater understanding of how cells grow into a variety of other cells. At the same time, medical research into transplant therapy examined the viability of neutral cell transplants.

SUMMARY- These words

summarize ideas, concepts or theories.

altogether, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in summary, to summarize, to conclude

To summarize, this essay has shown that treatment of depression should involve a combination of therapies.

EXAMPLES- These words are used

to introduce examples and illustrations in your writing.

by way of illustration, for example, for instance, namely, specifically, such as, that is, to illustrate, to demonstrate, thus

Newfoundland offers many amenities unavailable in most of North America; for example, we have very little air pollution.

ORDER OF IMPORTANCE- These words are used

to rate information in an importance hierarchy

Least, least important, more importantly, most important

While there are many ways to relieve stress, most importantly, it must be sustainable by the patient.

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/574/02; Transition%20words%2 0and%20phrases.pdfwww.massey.ac.nz/.../Brochures/Assignment%20Writing/ Paragraphs%20-%20

Example:In the following paragraph, we can see how reference words are used not only to tie sentences and paragraphs together, but also to emphasize the main idea.

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Writing a paper is often difficult and many times rewarding. First, I don't always know what to write about, so I often need to research, talk to people, and think about what I know before I come up with a strong topic. In addition, writing a paper takes time and energy. Time is needed to select and narrow a topic, to generate information and structure ideas, to knock out draft after draft, and to edit for my usual typos and mechanical errors. Besides the time involved, energy (and lots of food to produce it) is needed so I can produce my best work. Although writing a paper is sometimes difficult, it can be very rewarding. I enjoy seeing words which say exactly what I want them to. I also feel proud when everything "clicks." Finally, knowing that I've done my best work and earned a good grade too are strong personal rewards.


Exercise 3.4 – Sentence completion Use the transitions at the right in the sentences at the left. In each group, use a transition only once. Read each sentence carefully so that you can choose an appropriate transition.

1. I would like to see you tomorrow, ______ let’s have lunch together.

2. My sister loves to eat, ______ I don’t care much about food. 3. When you begin an exercise program, you must be careful not

to overdo it. My father, ______ hurt his back by exercising too hard without warming up first.

4. She had looked everywhere for a job; ______ she was called for beyond an interview.

for example finally

but so

still beyond

to the left

5. She had been studying for hours. ______ she hoped to do third well on the test.

6. First, Mary went to the store. ______, she went to visit her mother.

7. I would like to read many books; ______, I don’t seem to have as a result enough time to read.

8. John ate and ate; ______, he never gained weight. 9. Joe ate too fast. ______ he had indigestion.

similarly third

nevertheless however

as a resultthen

for instance therefore

10. He stayed up too late last night; ______, he slept until noon.11. I want you to buy milk, eggs, and fruit juice; ______, I want

you to be sure to get cereal and ice cream. 12. I was concentrating on my homework. ______, the soup boiled

over. 13. ______, I will boil the water. Second, I will brew the tea, and

______, I will serve it. 14. Joe, ______, happens to be my best friend. 15. Jane studies all the time; ______, Billy never studies.

meanwhile furthermore

first third

in fact until then

consequently in contrast

Exercise 3.5 – Sentence building Make one sentence from the two below, using the word(s) in brackets.Example:- It was raining. We played football. (even though) => Even though it was raining, we

played football.

1. He wanted to ask her name. He was too shy. (but)2. She wasn't very rich. She gave money to the beggar. (although)

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3. He was taking a shower. She was in the kitchen cooking. (meanwhile)4. We left early. We wanted to arrive on time. (so that)5. The weather was bad. They enjoyed the trip. (even though)6. I'm not tired at all. I'm feeling full of energy. (on the contrary)7. He didn’t have his watch on. He couldn’t tell her what time it was. (therefore)7. They work fast. They finish early. (consequently)8. He needed an education. His parents decided to send him to school. (because)9. The school doesn't have money for books. The building is old. (furthermore)10. He worked seven days a week, twenty hours a day. He got sick. (as a result)11. I am too busy to help you. I think you can do it by yourself. (moreover)12. He loved her very much. She didn't ask her to marry him. (however)13. He had dinner and did his homework. He watched TV for a while. (afterwards)14. She was very hungry. She didn’t touch anything on his plate. (nevertheless)

http://www.learn-english-today.com/free-english-lessons/; free-english-lesson_contents/linking-words-x.htmhttp://eslprof.com/handouts/; eslprof.com/handouts/Comp/RelatingIdeas.doc

4.5 Writing Part 1- Writing Paragraphs

Writing a paragraph is not a natural skill, but learned skill. Anyone can learn! Simply follow the structure below.

WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH?A paragraph usually contains a general idea in one sentence, and 4 - 5 supporting sentences which expand this idea by giving explanation, details and/or examples to support the main idea. Length can vary. On the page, the paragraph is a solid block of writing (like this!) To start a new paragraph, you should leave a whole line and start at the beginning of the line after. You can indent - if handwriting (start about 2 cm from the left), but this is not necessary if you have left a line.

 WHY USE PARAGRAPHS?Paragraphs are used to separate main ideas. A new paragraph signals to the reader that a new idea is about to be discussed. The break between paragraphs gives the reader time to take in each idea.

 HOW IS A PARAGRAPH STRUCTURED?There is no one correct structure. However, a useful structure is:

1. Topic Sentence

     This is the first sentence and it expresses the main idea.

2. Supporting Sentences

  Details that expand your main idea.

3. Concluding Sentence

 a rounding off, possibly by summarizing what has been said or drawing a logical conclusion from it.

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(Note that in a piece of writing which is longer than one paragraphed you should leave your conclusion to the very end!)

HOW DO YOU WRITE A PARAGRAPH?Planning is essential. Even in situations where time is limited, you should plan by briefly noting your points.A plan can look like this:

When you are planning, Jot down just enough to remind you of your points.Number your points so that when you write you know what order you are going to write them in. WRITING...

Sample of the finished paragraph:

There are three levels of government in Australia. The Commonwealth looks after areas of national importance such as postal services, foreign affairs, and collecting and distributing taxes. It also supervises the armed forces. The State Governments' responsibilities include hospitals, schools and the state police forces. Local concerns, such as suburban streets and garbage services, are looked after by Local Government. So, in general, the responsibilities of each level of government are appropriate to the geographical area it serves.

HOW DO YOU MAKE YOUR PARAGRAPHS FLOW?Sometimes writing sounds jerky when read. You can make your paragraph more flowing by:

1. Using linking words and phrases such as: also, as well as, firstly, next, then, finally, so thus, as a result, because, therefore, for example, for instance, in contrast, on the other hand.

2. Using pronouns: Once mentioned, Jack Smith can become he, Dr. Susan Brown can be she, and the community can be called it, - as long as the meaning is clear.

3.  Starting sentences in different ways. For example:

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Draft sentence:"In Australia, there are three levels of government"

 Instead, you could write... "Government in Australia is on three different levels"

 or..."There are three different levels of government in Australia."

Topic Sentence and Controlling Ideas

1. The Topic SentenceA topic sentence tells what a paragraph is going to be about. It introduces a topic or subject of a paragraph. As a sentence, it is a complete sentence of at least a subject and a verb; generally it also has a complement. A topic sentence is not only a statement simply telling a fact, but it gives a kind of judgment or evaluation of a writer’s attitude, feeling or idea upon the fact that is stated as a controlling idea.2. Controlling Idea (s)Controlling idea (s) control the information that is going to be written in a paragraph; a controlling idea needs further explanation. In consequence, there are two important elements of a good topic sentence; a subject and a controlling idea. These are the examples of good topic sentences; 1. Bali is well known for its many tourist attractions.

a topic/subject the controlling idea Moreover, a controlling idea determines or controls the information that will be discussed in all supporting sentences; it leads the direction of the discussion. Therefore, those supporting sentences of the paragraph relate one to others and explain the controlling idea as a focus. To emphasize, controlling idea should be clear and focus on a particular aspect.

Exercise 1 Rewrite and underline the Topic/Subject and Controlling Idea (CI) for the topic sentences below.

1. Gold is prized for two important characteristics.2. Although wealthy, she is not an arrogant girl.3. Spectacular beaches make Puerto Rico as a tourist paradise.4. Participation in class discussion in English is a problem for foreign students5. Educating the public can slow the spread of AIDS.

Exercise 2 Select among these topic sentences for writing a good paragraph.1. Sports are great to watch as well as to play.2. Many things make learning English difficult.3. The Honda Jazz is an excellent automobile.4. Malang is an ideal place to live.

Exercise 3 Descriptive Writing. Read the examples of descriptive writing below, and then make your own paragraph to describe your favorite place or favorite public figure.

Example 1Our airport is an interesting and busy place. It located several miles from the city. You approach it by a curving high way from the city, and the first thing you see is

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the passenger building. On top of it is the control tower. It dominates the skyline. Alongside the passenger building are several low buildings used for storage and repair of airplanes. Beyond these buildings, is the airfield itself, a maze of cementing runways. On these runways, resting like giant birds, are the airplanes. Everywhere there is a rush of people, buses and airplanes.

Example 2Abraham Lincoln was a strong man, both physically and mentally. He was 1.90 meters tall. He was thin, but weighed 81 kilos. He was physically powerful, and he could lift over 180 kilos easily. His mind and body worked steadily, and he never seemed to tire mentally or physically. He was not handsome by any means nor was he ugly. He was very pain looking and plain acting. Although his physical appearances and dress made him common looking, his actions and decisions were anything but common.

Part 2- Writing Essays

1. HOW DO I INTERPRET THE TOPIC?To write an effective essay you must follow the directions you find in the assignment. A perfectly written essay that doesn't answer the question/ task will lose marks. Essays show how well you understand a topic and allow you to share your thought and opinions (supported by experts).Think clearly about your task.What information do I need?Information on the main topic and the specific areas of the topic.

What do I do with that information? The essay topic is directed by an action word. The action word tells you what must be done with the topic in the essay. Do you know your action words?


discuss analyse compare

contrast evaluate argue

review, interpret, examine,critically evaluate or analyse

2. HOW DO I PLAN THE ESSAY AND ORGANISE MY IDEAS?You have gathered your information and begun to organize it during your note taking. Now you need to sort the material again - brainstorm, make connections between ideas by mind mapping, or by a list of headings. Next, you order the material into a logical sequence for how you want to present the ideas.First: What is your answer to the question?What is the answer to your question?

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What points do you need to make to support or give evidence to prove your answer? What is the best order to arrange these points? Are they relevant to the topic? These points become your paragraphs in the body of your essay. Remember you are arguing your point of view, showing you are aware of their views, but maintaining your stance. These questions can be answered by using:

Mind Map

Imagine that you are in the kitchen debating your assignment with one or more people. What stand do you take and what points do you make to support it? Role play other points of view. Challenge your own! Tape your debate if you wish!

3. How to Write an EssayThere are many ways to write an essay. However, the standard essay form follows the same basic patterns as discussed in this 'how to'. Here's How:

1. Select the topic of your essay. 2. Choose the central idea, or thesis, of your essay. For example: Information

technology has revolutionized the way we work. 3. Outline your essay into introductory, body and summary paragraphs.4. The introductory paragraph begins with an interesting sentence. For example:

Home workers have grown from 150,000 to over 12 million in the past 5 years thanks to the wonders of the computer.

5. After this first sentence, add your thesis statement from above. 6. Use one sentence to introduce every body paragraph to follow. For example: The

Internet has made this possible by extending the office into the home.

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7. Finish the introductory paragraph with a short summary or goal statement. For example: Technological innovation has thus made the traditional workplace obsolete.

8. In each of the body paragraphs (usually two or three) the ideas first presented in the introductory paragraph are developed.

9. Develop your body paragraphs by giving detailed information and examples. For example: When the Internet was first introduced it was used primarily by scientists, now it is common in every classroom.

10. Body paragraphs should develop the central idea and finish with a summary of that idea. There should be at least two examples or facts in each body paragraph to support the central idea.

11. The summary paragraph summarizes your essay and is often a reverse of the introductory paragraph.

12. Begin the summary paragraph by quickly restating the principal ideas of your body paragraphs. For example: The Internet in the home, benefits and ease of use of modern computer systems...

13. The penultimate sentence should restate your basic thesis of the essay. For example: We have now passed from the industrial revolution to the information revolution.

14. Your final statement can be a future prediction based on what you have shown in the essay. For example: The next step: The complete disappearance of the workplace.

Tips:1. Use strong verbs and avoid modals to state your opinion. It is better to write: The

workplace has evolved than The workplace seems to have evolved2. Do not apologize for what you are saying. An essay is about your opinion.3. Do not translate from your mother tongue. It will quickly get you into trouble!

What You Need: Computer or Typewriter Dictionary

4. Use this Sample Basic Essay as a Model

The essay below demonstrates the principles of writing a basic essay. The different parts of the essay have been labeled. The thesis statement is in bold, the topic sentences are in italics, and each main point is underlined. When you write your own essay, of course, you will not need to mark these parts of the essay unless your teacher has asked you to do so. They are marked here just so that you can more easily identify them.

"A dog is man's best friend." That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend whose companionship people enjoy. For many people, a cat is their best friend. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets as they are good companions, they are civilized members of the household, and they are easy to care for.In the first place, people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are affectionate. They will snuggle up and ask to be petted, or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they're not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful. They love to chase balls and feathers, or just about anything dangling from a string. They especially enjoy playing when their owners are participating in the game. Contrary to popular opinion, cats can be

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trained. Using rewards and punishments, just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Cats will even fetch!In the second place, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. Most cats don't even meow very often. They generally lead a quiet existence. Cats also don't often have "accidents." Mother cats train their kittens to use the litter box, and most cats will use it without fail from that time on. Even stray cats usually understand the concept when shown the box and will use it regularly. Cats do have claws, and owners must make provision for this. A tall scratching post in a favorite cat area of the house will often keep the cat content to leave the furniture alone. As a last resort, of course, cats can be declawed.Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as house pets is their ease of care. Cats do not have to be walked. They get plenty of exercise in the house as they play, and they do their business in the litter box. Cleaning a litter box is a quick, painless procedure. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances cats clean themselves. Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than people are. In addition, cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike some pets, most cats will not destroy the furnishings when left alone. They are content to go about their usual activities until their owners return.Cats are low maintenance, civilized companions. People who have small living quarters or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of space and time still opt to have a cat because they love the cat personality. In many ways, cats are the ideal house pet.

Exercise: Choose one of the topics from IELTS speaking test on page 25 to write down your essay writing.

Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.

~Winston Churchill (1874-1965), former Prime Minister of the UK (1940-1945, 1951- 1955), and a Nobel Prize-winning writer

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