Composition Jim Vennemeyer Mason City Schools. Agenda Crash course in artistic composition and photography Cameras Photo Contest Editing photos with programs

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Composition Jim Vennemeyer Mason City Schools Slide 2 Agenda Crash course in artistic composition and photography Cameras Photo Contest Editing photos with programs we have. (Optional) Slide 3 Composition Composition is the plan, placement or arrangement of the elements of art in a work. The general goal is to select and place appropriate elements within the work in order to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer. It is the primary element in photography and an important concern in many forms of art. Technology student will benefit from a better understanding of composition. The students will learn to select and place appropriate elements within their work in order to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer. Slide 4 Teaching Composition to Your Students Lead by example by utilizing well designed presentations and visual aids. Provide great models, examples of projects, and templates. Display art work and photos in your class room. Provide guidelines and restrictions for student projects. Slide 5 The Rule of Thirds The application of the rule of thirds to photographs is considered by many to make them more aesthetically pleasing and professional-looking Many photographers recommend treating any "rule" of composition as more of a guideline, since pleasing photographs can often be made while ignoring one or more such rules. Slide 6 The Rule of Thirds The rule states that an image can be divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally- spaced vertical lines. The four points formed by the intersections of these lines can be used to align features in the photograph. Proponents of this technique claim that aligning a photograph with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the photo than simply centering the feature would. Slide 7 Rule of Thirds The objective is to keep the subject(s) and areas of interest out of the center of the image, by placing them near one of the lines that would divide the image into three equal columns and rows, ideally near the intersection of those lines. Slide 8 Rule of Thirds The objective is to keep the subject(s) and areas of interest out of the center of the image, by placing them near one of the lines that would divide the image into three equal columns and rows, ideally near the intersection of those lines. Slide 9 Golden Ratio The first calculation of the golden ratio, was described by Euclid in his Elements (greek: ). A line segment sectioned into two, to illustrate the golden ratio. The total length a+b is to the longer segment a as a is to the shorter segment b. Slide 10 Golden Ratio Since the fifteen century, shapes proportioned according to the golden ratio have been considered aesthetically pleasing in Western cultures; the golden ratio is still frequently used in art and design. The golden ratio has attracted a large following for its supposed aesthetic, psychological, historical, mystical, natural, and metaphysical properties, in addition to its mathematical properties. The most common other names used for the golden ratio are golden section (Latin: sectio aurea), golden mean, golden number, and phi (referring to the Greek letter ). Other names include medial section, divine proportion, divine section, golden proportion, golden cut, extreme and mean ratio, and mean of Phidias. Slide 11 Simplification Images with a clutter can distract from the main focus of the picture and make it difficult to identify the subject. By decreasing the extraneous content, the viewer is more likely to focus on the primary message. Clutter can also be reduced through the use of lighting, as the brighter areas of the image tend to draw the eye, as do lines and linear features. Slide 12 Simplification Decrease the extraneous content, the viewer is more likely to focus on the primary message. Slide 13 Simplification Decrease the extraneous content, the viewer is more likely to focus on the primary message. Slide 14 Simplification Decrease the extraneous content, the viewer is more likely to focus on the primary message. Slide 15 Simplification Decrease the extraneous content, the viewer is more likely to focus on the primary message. Slide 16 Simplification Decrease the extraneous content, the viewer is more likely to focus on the primary message. Slide 17 Simplification Frame your subject. Slide 18 Simplification Frame your subject. Slide 19 Simplification Frame your subject. Slide 20 Simplification Frame your subject. Slide 21 Limiting focus One approach to achieving simplification within a photograph is to use a wide aperture when shooting to limit the depth of field. When used properly in the right setting, this technique can place everything that is not the subject of the photograph to be out of focus. Slide 22 Limiting focus Place everything that is not the subject of the photograph to be out of focus. Slide 23 Limiting focus Place everything that is not the subject of the photograph to be out of focus. Slide 24 Limiting focus Place everything that is not the subject of the photograph to be out of focus. Slide 25 Symmetry The "rule of odds" suggests that an odd number of subjects in an image is more interesting than an even number. Thus if you have more than one subject in your picture, the suggestion is to choose an arrangement with at least three subjects. An even number of subjects produces symmetries in the image, which can appear less natural. Related to the rule of odds is the observation that triangles are an aesthetically pleasing implied shape within an image. Slide 26 Symmetry The "rule of odds" suggests that an odd number of subjects in an image is more interesting than an even number. Slide 27 Symmetry The "rule of odds" suggests that an odd number of subjects in an image is more interesting than an even number. Slide 28 Symmetry Related to the rule of odds is the observation that triangles are an aesthetically pleasing implied shape within an image. Slide 29 Viewpoint The position of the camera can strongly influence the aesthetics of an image. Not only does it influence the background as described above, but it also influences the viewer's interpretation of the subject. For example, if a boy is photographed from above, for example from the eye level of an adult, he is diminished in stature. A photograph taken at the child's level would treat him as an equal, and one taken from below could result in an impression of dominance. An image can be rendered more dramatic when it fills the frame. People can have a tendency to perceive things as larger than they actually are, and filling the frame fulfills this psychological mechanism. This can be used to eliminate distractions from the background. Slide 30 View Point The position of the camera can strongly influence the aesthetics of an image. Slide 31 View Point The position of the camera can strongly influence the aesthetics of an image. Slide 32 View Point The position of the camera can strongly influence the aesthetics of an image. Slide 33 View Point The position of the camera can strongly influence the aesthetics of an image. Slide 34 View Point The camera angle influences the viewer's interpretation of the subject. Slide 35 View Point The camera angle influences the viewer's interpretation of the subject. Slide 36 Curved Lines Curved lines are generally used to create a sense of flow within a photograph. The eye generally scans these lines with ease and enjoyment as it follows it throughout the image. Compared to straight lines, curves provide a greater dynamic influence in a photograph. When paired with soft-directional lighting curved lines can give gradated shadows which usually results in a very harmonious line structure within the image. Perspective is also important with curved lines, generally speaking the higher the viewpoint the more open the lines tend to be. Slide 37 Lines S Curves : Curved lines are generally used to create a sense of flow within a photograph. Slide 38 Lines S Curves : Curved lines are generally used to create a sense of flow within a photograph. Slide 39 Lines S Curves : Curved lines are generally used to create a sense of flow within a photograph. Slide 40 Straight Lines Horizontal, Vertical, and Angled lines all contribute to creating different moods of a photograph. The angle and the relationship to the size of the frame both work to determine the influence the line has on the image. They are also strongly influenced by tone, color, and repetition in relation to the rest of the photograph. Straight, horizontal lines, commonly found in landscape photography, gives the impression of calm, tranquility, and space. An image filled with strong vertical lines tends to have the impression of height, and grandeur. Tightly angled convergent lines give a dynamic, lively, and active effect to the image. Viewpoint is very important when dealing with lines in photography, because every different perspective elicits a different response to the photograph. Too many lines without a clear subject point suggest chaos in the image and may conflict with the mood the photographer is trying to evoke. Slide 41 Lines Oblique and angular lines give us the sense of dynamic balance and a sense of action. Slide 42 Lines Oblique and angular lines give us the sense of dynamic balance and a sense of action. Slide 43 Lines Oblique and angular lines give us the sense of dynamic balance and a sense of action. Slide 44 Lines Both physical lines and continuous, less obvious lines exist. Slide 45 Lines Both physical lines and continuous, less obvious lines exist. Slide 46 Lines Every photograph contains lines. Both physical lines and continuous, less obvious lines exist. The brain often unconsciously reads near continuous lines between different elements and subjects at varying distances. Strong flowing lines can be created without a photographer even realizing it. Movement is also a source of line, blur can also create a reaction. Subject lines which create an illusion, contribute to both mood and by means of linear perspective give the illusion of depth of field. Oblique and angular lines give us the sense of dynamic balance and a sense of action. Lines can also direct attention towards the main subject of the photograph, or contribute to the photographs organization by dividing it into compartments. Slide 47 Further reading Downer, Marion (1965). Discovering Design. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. Graham, Peter (2004). An Introduction to Painting Still Life. Chartwell Books Inc. ISBN 0-7858-1750-6. Grill, Tom; Scanlon, Mark (1990). Photographic Composition. Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8174-5427-6. Peterson, Bryan (1988). Learning to See Creatively. Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8174-4177-8. Langford, Michael. (1982). The Master Guide to Photography. New York: Dorling Kindersley Limited. Slide 48 References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composition_%28visual_arts%29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_ratio Slide 49 Digital Cameras Cameras