COMPARISON AND CONTRASTS BETWEEN FISHERIES REFUGIA AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

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REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG. COMPARISON AND CONTRASTS BETWEEN FISHERIES REFUGIA AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. UNEP/GEF RWG-Fisheries. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of COMPARISON AND CONTRASTS BETWEEN FISHERIES REFUGIA AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

  • COMPARISON AND CONTRASTS BETWEEN FISHERIES REFUGIA AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGUNEP/GEFRWG-Fisheries

  • Fisheries of the South China Sea The riparian countries of the SCS are amongst the worlds top 20 fish producing countries Fisheries statistics rarely reflect production from the small- scale sector Most economically important species fully-fished or over- exploited evidence of fishing down the marine food chain Trends suggest that production from capture fisheries will decline in the future unless total fishing effort is reduced Problem in reducing effort is that sector is overcapitalised and characterised by high coastal community dependence on fish for food and incomeREVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

  • Role of Fisheries Habitats in Sustaining Fisheries

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGRegional consensus that SCS habitats play a critical role in sustaining fish stocks, food supply, and incomesHabitats act as refuges for fish during critical stages of their life-cycles - e.g., as larvae, when spawning, and feeding

  • Loss of Fisheries Habitats of the South China Sea

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGContinued decline in the total area of habitats has raised serious concerns for sustainability of fisheriesEstimated Decadal Rates of Habitat Loss: Seagrass 30% Mangroves 16% Coral Reefs 16%

    Fishing identified as a key factor in the continued loss of marine habitats and biodiversity in the South China Sea

  • Fishing and the Loss of Marine Habitats and Biodiversity

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGKey characteristics of marine fisheries in Southeast Asia contributing to habitat loss:Over-capitalisation and over-fishing, particularly in the small-scale sectorExcessively high fishing effort in most inshore areasHigh level community dependence on fish for food and incomeUse of destructive fishing gear and practices

  • Need for Development of a Mechanism Aimed at Improving the Management of Fish Stock and Habitat Linkages

    Limited knowledge of fish life-cycle and critical habitat linkages;Low level community acceptance of protected area-based approaches; andLimited practical experience in the integration of fisheries and environment considerations.

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGBarriers to Effective Action Identified by the RWG-Fisheries:

  • Developing a Mechanism Aimed at Improving the Management of Fish Stock and Habitat Linkages

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGThe RWG-F recommended that any mechanism developed should:Focus on maximising the benefit-cost ratio of management interventions for fishing communities;Promote sustainable use rather than prohibition of fishing;Focus on fish life-cycle and critical habitat linkages; and beRelevant at the fishery level, i.e., should be easily understood by fishing communities, local government officials, and provincial level fisheries managers

  • Development of the Fisheries Refugia Concept

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGFisheries Refugia:Specific areas of significance to the life-cycle of particular speciesShould be defined in space and timeShould NOT be no-take zonesServe to safeguard spawning aggregations, nursery grounds, and migration routesFisheries Refugia are Spatially and geographically defined, marine or coastal areas in which specific management measures are applied to sustain important species [fisheries resources] during critical phases of their life-cycle, for their sustainable use.

  • REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGStakeholder Consultations on Refugia ConceptReview of Fish Egg and Larvae Data for Refugia Identification Technical Workshops on Mapping Known RefugiaConduct of Regional Training Events on Refugia Science and ManagementIntergovernmental Guidelines on RefugiaDevelopment of a Fisheries Refugia Information Portal

  • Identification of Fisheries Refugia Sites

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG 14 sites for inclusion in initial system of refugia (green) 9 sites accorded high priority for action once initial set established (blue) Additional 29 spawning and nursery areas for which further information are required (red)Sites Identified

  • Do Marine Protected Areas Qualify as Fisheries Refugia and Vice Versa?

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGMarine Protected AreasFisheries RefugiaSimilarities and Differences?Requires consideration of:Strategic objectivesCriteria for site selectionAcceptability to and impacts on communitiesScientific basis of purported fisheries benefitsUse Status

  • Definitions of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Fisheries RefugiaREVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGMarine Protected AreaFisheries Refugia any area of the inter-tidal or sub-tidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Spatially and geographically defined, marine or coastal areas in which specific management measures are applied to sustain important species [fisheries resources] during critical phases of their life-cycle, for their sustainable use.

  • REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG

    Marine Protected AreasFisheries RefugiaObjectives Protect biodiversity Tourism Increased fish production Improved management of fish stock and habitat links Increased resilience of stocksPurported Fisheries Benefits Enhanced stock in MPA leads to bigger catches outside Safeguarding fish in places and at times critical to their life-cycle will reduce growth and recruitment over-fishingSite Selection Criteria Species diversity/richness Uniqueness of the site Sites representativeness Importance to the life-cycle of economically important spp. Likelihood to improve stocksUse Status Strict protection-multiple use (typically no-take fisheries zones in SCS) Based on sustainable use rather than prohibition of fishingAcceptability to Communities Concern that costs outweigh benefits Enforcement is costly Objectives and scientific basis well accepted by fishing communities and local officials

  • Scientific Basis for Purported Fisheries Benefits of MPAs of Concern to the RWG-Fisheries

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGConsiderable amount of perceived truth that marine protected areas can simultaneously achieve improvements to biodiversity conservation and enhance catches outside the protected areaCritical that any spatial management sold to fishing communities in terms if improving the state of fisheries achieves just thatScientific evidence that MPAs do result in improvements to the state of fisheries is marginal at best

  • Scientific Basis for Purported Fisheries Benefits of MPAs of Concern to the RWG-Fisheries

    Little evidence regarding magnitude and extent of the contribution of larvae produced within reserves to recruitment outside reserves Some studies indicate that catch and CPUE may increase in areas immediately adjacent to MPAs but none have looked at effects of displaced fishing effort across the fishery

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGInsufficient peer review of studies of MPAs efficacy e.g., widely cited paper in Science (Roberts et al. 2001) purported to demonstrate how MPAs increase yields outside MPAs study showed increase within one year of the establishment of the MPAImpossible? Shouldnt this require building of abundance over a generation?

  • Concern with the criteria used for selection of MPA sites

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGSelection of MPA sites focuses on biodiversity conservation rather than fisheriesMPA sites sold to communities in terms of fisheries benefits such benefits are unlikely if role of site in fish life-cycle not key site selection criteriaCriteria for MPA site selection typically relate to concepts such ecological uniqueness, representativeness and comprehensiveness

  • Focus on No-Take in the Establishment and Management of MPAs

    REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORGRegional experience indicates that prohibition of fishing is a difficult if not futile task Due to high community dependence on fish, prohibition of fishing typically leads to displacement of fishing effort to adjacent areas localised depletions?MPAs widely understood by key stakeholders (fishing communities, provincial fisheries officers, local government officials) to be no-take areas in which fishing is prohibited

  • Refugia Concept Appears to be a Successful Approach to Addressing Barriers in Fish Stock and Habitat Management

    Objectives focused on links between fi